UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME by 7MeY67O

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									UNITED                                                                     EP
NATIONS



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            United Nations
                                                       UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG. 22/INF.4
            Environment                                29 April 2002
            Programme
                                                       Original: English


Tenth Intergovernmental Meeting on the Action Plan
for the Caribbean Environment Programme and the
Seventh Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the
Convention for the Protection and Development of the
Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region

Montego Bay, Jamaica, May 7-11 2002




                 THE CARIBBEAN ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME
                                1981-2001
                                                               UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG. 22/INF.4
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                                   Table of Contents

List of Tables                                                                 i
Foreword                                                                       ii
List of Acronyms                                                               iii
Executive Summary                                                              iv

1.     BACKGROUND TO THE CARIBBEAN ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME                       1

2.     PROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT                                                   2

       2.1     Institutional Arrangements                                      2
       2.2     Legal Instruments and Mechanisms                                3
       2.3     Programmes Components and Subprogrammes                         4

3.     MAIN ACHIEVEMENTS AND OUTPUTS                                           5

       3.1     Institutional Development                                       5
       3.2     National Implementation of CEP                                  7
       3.3     Capacity Building                                               7
       3.4     Outputs, Impacts and Benefits                                   8

4.     STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS                                                  9

5.     CHALLENGES                                                            10

       5.1     Political Commitment                                          10
       5.2     Regional Institutional Framework                              10
       5.3     Financial Constraints and Commitments                         11
       5.4     CEP and Multilateral Environmental Agreements                 11

Literature Cited                                                             14

APPENDICES
Appendix 1: Objectives of the Action Plan for CEP
Appendix 2: CEP Collaborating Institutions
Appendix 3: Status of Legal Instruments
Appendix 4: Main Outputs


                                      List of Tables

Table 1: Milestone Events in the Development of CEP                            6
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                                        Foreword

The Action Plan for the Caribbean Environment Programme was adopted at the First
Intergovernmental Meeting for the Programme in April 1981. The meeting also established a
Monitoring Committee to provide operational and policy guidance to the Secretariat of the
Programme during the period between Intergovernmental Meetings.

The Tenth Intergovernmental Meeting on the Action Plan for the Caribbean Environment
Programme and Seventh Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention for the Protection
and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (10th IGM)
coincides with the 20th anniversary of the Caribbean Action Plan and, as such, provides an
opportunity to review the development and accomplishments of the Caribbean Environment
Programme.

The report is based on a review of the outputs from the Caribbean Environment Programme,
primarily the meeting reports and other related reports and files.

This report is not an evaluation of the Caribbean Environment Programme, but, as the name
suggests, an overview of the Programme since its adoption in 1981.
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                             List of Acronyms

ACS            Association of Caribbean States
AMEP           Assessment and Management of Environmental Pollution
CaMPAM         Caribbean Marine Protected Area Managers Network
CBD            Convention on Biological Diversity
CCAD           Central American Commission for Environment and Development
CEN            Caribbean Environment Network (Project)
CEP            Caribbean Environment Programme
CEPNET         Information Systems for the Management of Marine and Coastal
               Resources
CHA-CAST       Caribbean Hotel Association/Caribbean Action for Sustainable
               Tourism
CITES          Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
CMS            Convention on Migratory Species
CTF            Caribbean Trust Fund
CTO            Caribbean Tourism Organization
ECLAC          Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ETA            Education, Training and Awareness
GCRMN          Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network
GPA            Global Programme of Action on Land-based Activities
ICRI           International Coral Reef Initiative
IGM            Intergovernmental Meeting
IMO            International Maritime Organization
ISTAC          Interim Scientific, Technical and Advisory Committee
MEA            Multilateral Environmental Agreement
NGO            Non-governmental Organization
OECS-NRMU      Organization of Eastern Caribbean States/Natural Resources
               Management Unit
OPRC           Oil Pollution, Prevention and Response Convention
RAC            Regional Activity Centre
RCU            Regional Coordinating Unit
REMPEITC       Regional Marine Pollution Emergency, Information, and Training Centre
ROLAC          (UNEP’s) Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean
SIDS-POA       Small Island Developing States/Programme of Action
SPAW           Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife
STAC           Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee
UN             United Nations
UNEP           United Nations Environment Programme
UNEP-CAR/RCU   UNEP Caribbean Environment Programme, Regional Coordinating
               Unit
UNESCO-IOC     UNESCO’s International Oceanographic Commission
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                                   Executive Summary
This report to the Tenth Intergovernmental Meeting on the Action Plan for the Caribbean
Environment Programme and Seventh Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention for
the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region
provides an overview of the development and accomplishments of the Caribbean Environment
Programme since its inception in 1981.

The existing organizational arrangements, inclusive of the Monitoring Committee and the
Regional Coordinating Unit, were established at the First Intergovernmental Meeting, held in
Montego Bay, 6-8 April 1981.

The adoption of the Action Plan for the Caribbean Environment Programme in 1981 was
followed rather rapidly by the adoption of the legal framework, the Cartagena Convention, in
1983. The development of the Programme slowed somewhat thereafter, with the regional
Coordinating Unit not being established until 1986.

The Caribbean Environment Programme has since grown to its current form, comprised of the
Cartagena Convention, three Protocols, two governing structures, various subsidiary bodies, the
Regional Coordinating Unit, two Regional Activity Centres (with two more being discussed),
four main programmatic areas, and networks of collaborating institutions and professionals.

This growth in the Caribbean Environment Programme has been made possible because of the
support given to the Programme by a wide range of national, regional, and international
governmental and non-governmental organizations. That support needs to be transformed into
very specific actions, particularly with regard to increased and sustained financing to the
Caribbean Trust Fund, as well as the development of strategic alliances, such as the closer
realignment among regional programmes and between the requirements of the Cartagena
Convention and the requirements of other international environmental agreements.

Past evaluations of the Programme have noted its many successes and achievements, particularly
in the areas of technical publications, integrated coastal area management plans, species
management plans and guidelines, environmental assessments, public information, information
systems management, sustainable coastal tourism initiatives, and training and capacity building.

The underlying principle on which the Caribbean Environment Programme was founded; that is,
to be a framework for regional cooperation, has been maintained throughout its development,
resulting in the Caribbean Environment Programme becoming a stable institutional space for
regional environmental decision making that involves a wide range of government and non-
governmental organizations, all the language groups present in the Caribbean, and a wide range
of social and developmental cultures.

This openness and flexibility has allowed the Caribbean Environment Programme to actively
engage a wide range of collaborating institutions in Programme implementation. This approach
has also generated a significant level of support and products, and has resulted in the Caribbean
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Environment Programme becoming the regional focal point for a number of international
environmental initiatives.

With all the growth and achievements over the 20 years of the Caribbean Environment
Programme, there are still challenges to be addressed. Primary among these are:

     The need for increased levels of financing;
     The need for increased political support from, and more active participation by, more
      Caribbean Governments, including through the ratification of the Cartagena Convention
      and Protocols;
     The need for improved coordination among regional programmes; and
     The need for increased harmonization with international environmental agreements.
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     1.     BACKGROUND TO THE CARIBBEAN ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME


1.   In 1976, a number of Caribbean Governments requested the assistance of the United Nations
     Environment Programme (UNEP) in the assessment and development of environmental criteria
     in the regional development process. In response to this request, and following preparatory
     activities, UNEP and the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLAC)
     agreed in 1977 to coordinate a project to develop an environmental action plan for the Wider
     Caribbean Region.

2.   The assessment for the preparation of the Action Plan was conducted with the collaboration of a
     number of United Nations (UN) organizations, international organizations, Caribbean
     governments, and regional organizations. The relationship between the environment and
     development was determined by focusing on energy production and consumption, agriculture
     and fisheries, human health, human settlements, coastal development and natural disasters, and
     marine pollution (UNEP 1984). The results of the assessment were reviewed by a panel of
     experts from the Wider Caribbean, which subsequently worked with UNEP and ECLAC in the
     preparation of the first draft of the action plan for a Caribbean Environment Programme (CEP).

3.   The draft action plan was revised during two meetings of government-nominated experts
     (Caracas, January 28 to February 1, 1980, and Managua, February 23-27, 1981), and was
     formally adopted by the First Intergovernmental Meeting (IGM), Montego Bay, Jamaica, April
     6-8, 1981.

4.   In addition to adopting the Action Plan for the Caribbean Environment Programme, the
     representatives of the 22 governments participating in the first IGM also (a) designated UNEP as
     the coordinating institution for CEP, (b) established a nine-member Monitoring Committee from
     the participating governments, (c) agreed to establish a Caribbean Trust Fund to cover the
     (common) costs of programme implementation, (d) agreed to develop regional legal agreements
     to provide a legal framework for the Action Plan, and (e) requested that UNEP establish a
     Regional Coordinating Unit (RCU) to coordinate the Programme.

5.   The “…principal objectives of the Action Plan are to assist the Governments of the region in
     minimizing environmental problems in the Wider Caribbean through assessment of the state of
     the environment and development activities in environmental management.” (UNEP 1983, page
     1, para. 4 [Appendix 1]). At adoption, the major components of the Action Plan were: (a)
     Environmental Assessment and Management, (b) Education, Training and Development of
     Human Resources, and (c) Supporting Measures (including institutional and financial
     arrangements). Since that time, the components and subprogrammes of CEP have evolved to
     meet the changing needs of the Member Governments.

6.   The regional legal framework, the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine
     Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (the Cartagena Convention), was adopted in 1983;
     while the Regional Coordinating Unit was established in 1986. The CEP has evolved since its
     beginning in 1981, both in structure and programming.
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     2.     PROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT

7.   The governments of the Caribbean requested UNEP to act as the Secretariat for the Action Plan,
     with responsibility for its coordination. The Monitoring Committee provides oversight to the
     implementation of the CEP -- acting on behalf of the Intergovernmental Meeting, while the
     Contracting Parties to the Convention also established the Bureau of Contracting Parties as its
     supervisory policy body.

8.   The development and implementation of the CEP is therefore governed by the joint bodies of
     Member Governments through Intergovernmental Meetings and the Contracting Parties.


     2.1    Institutional Arrangements

9.   The operational structure of the CEP includes:
           a. Two programmatic instruments: 1) the Action Plan for the Caribbean Environment
                Programme and 2) the Cartagena Convention including its three Protocols;
           b. Two governing structures (that meet jointly): 1) the Intergovernmental Meeting
                (IGM) on the Action Plan and 2) the Meeting of the Contracting Parties of the
                Cartagena Convention (with their respective subsidiary bodies);
           c. The Regional Coordinating Unit as Secretariat;
           d. Two regional activity centres (RACs); and
           e. An informal network of collaborating governmental and non-governmental
                institutions (Section 4, Appendix 2).

10. The IGM forms the primary mechanism for providing policy guidance, providing overall
    oversight to CEP implementation, designing institutional arrangements, defining common
    interests and issues, approving the biennial workplan and budgets, and Programme evaluation.

11. The IGM is held every two years jointly with the Conference of Parties to the Cartagena
    Convention. This joint forum provides the highest decision-making body of the CEP.

12. Meetings of the two CEP monitoring bodies -- the Monitoring Committee to the Action Plan and
    the Bureau of Contracting Parties to the Convention, are also held jointly and biennially on the
    alternate years of the IGM. Recommendations from the meetings of the Monitoring Committee
    and Bureau Meeting are submitted to the IGM for approval.

13. Scientific and technical matters form an increasingly large part of the work of the CEP. The
    IGM convenes Meetings of Experts to the Action Plan to provide scientific advice on selected
    matters as necessary and requested by the IGM. Scientific and technical meetings are required
    by the provisions of the Protocols to the Convention on Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife
    (SPAW) and by the Protocol Concerning Pollution from Land-based Sources and Activities
    (LBS). The SPAW Protocol has established its Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee
    (STAC), while the LBS Protocol has established an Interim Scientific, Technical and Advisory
    Committee (ISTAC) until that protocol enters into force. These provide relevant advice to the
    Conference of Parties to the respective Protocol as directed.
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14. The organization of the meetings, the implementation of the Programme, and the support to
    member governments is coordinated by the UNEP-Caribbean Environment Programme’s
    Regional Coordinating Unit (UNEP-CAR/RCU), which functions as the Secretariat to the
    Programme. The RCU, based in Kingston, is assisted in Programme implementation by two
    Regional Activity Centres (RACs). The RAC for the Regional Programme on Specially
    Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW) is located in Guadeloupe, and was formally established in
    January 2000. The RAC for the Oil Spill Protocol, the Regional Marine Pollution Emergency,
    Information and Training Centre (REMPEITC), is located in Curacao, and was informally
    established in June 1995 and then formally in June 2001 following a decision of the Ninth IGM.

15. Implementation of the Caribbean Environment Programme is assisted by Member governments,
    through designated National and Technical Focal Points, and a large number of regional and
    international intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations (Appendix 2). The
    collaborating institutions not only participate in meetings and may undertake activities on behalf
    of the RCU, they also undertake activities and provide a range of inputs in support of CEP using
    resources that do not necessarily originate through the Programme.


    2.2     Legal Instruments

16. The legal framework for the CEP is provided by the Convention for the Protection and
    Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena
    Convention) and its three Protocols. The Convention was adopted on March 24, 1983 by fifteen
    Governments of the Wider Caribbean Region, and entered into force on October 11, 1986. At
    present, twenty one States have acceded to the Convention (Appendix 3) for which the
    Government of Colombia is the Depositary.

17. The Protocol Concerning Cooperation in Combating Oil Spills in the Wider Caribbean Region
    (Oil Spills Protocol) was adopted in 1983, at the same time as the Cartagena Convention. As
    with the Convention, the Protocol entered into force on October 11, 1986.

18. The Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife in the Wider Caribbean Region
    (SPAW Protocol) was adopted on January 18, 1990 by thirteen Governments. It entered into
    force on June 18, 2000 when the ninth government deposited its instrument of ratification.

19. The Protocol Concerning Pollution from Land-Based Sources and Activities in the Wider
    Caribbean Region (LBS Protocol) was adopted on October 6, 1999 by 16 Governments. Since
    that date six Governments have signed, though the protocol has not yet entered into force.

20. The mechanisms through which these instruments operate in relation to the CEP are the
    Intergovernmental Meeting and Meeting of Contracting Parties as the decision making bodies
    and the Monitoring Committee and Meeting of Bureau of Contracting Parties as supervisory
    bodies. The Scientific and Technical Advisory Committees provide advice as requested by the
    Contracting Parties (Section 2.1).
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    2.3    Programme Components and Subprogrammes

21. The first Intergovernmental Meeting (1981) approved three programme components for the CEP.
    These were:
            a. Environmental Assessment and Management;
            b. Education, Training and Development of Human Resources; and
            c. Programme Coordination.

22. The composition of CEP has since evolved, going through three structural changes. The first
    change in the Programme was approved by the Fourth IGM and First Meeting of the Contracting
    Parties to the Convention(Guadeloupe 1987), based on the recommendations of the Fifth
    Meeting of the Monitoring Committee. The (1988-1989) workplan approved by the 4th IGM
    contained four sub-programmes for CEP, namely:
           a. Coordination of the Action Plan;
           b. Environmental Management of Coastal Areas and Terrestrial Ecosystems;
           c. Assessment and Control of Marine Pollution;
           d. Environmental Training, Education and Public Awareness

23. The second major change in programme alignment was adopted by the Fifth IGM and Second
    Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention (Kingston 1990), based on the
    recommendations of the Eighth Meeting of the Monitoring Committee (Kingston 1990). The
    changes resulted in the emergence of five distinct sub-programmes (not including the ongoing
    coordination role of the RCU), which formed the 1990-1991 workplan. The new sub-
    programmes were:
           a. Integrated Planning and Institutional Development for the Management of Marine
               and Coastal Resources (IPID);
           b. Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW);
           c. Information Systems for the Management of Marine and Coastal Resources
               (CEPNET);
           d. Assessment and Control of Marine Pollution (CEPPOL); and
           e. Environmental Training, Education and Public Awareness for the Management of
               Marine and Coastal Resources (ETA).

24. The third restructuring of CEP was adopted by the Eight IGM (Kingston 1996), and was done
    “…in order to focus activities primarily on the direct implementation of the Cartagena
    Convention and its Protocols.” (UNEP 1996). This fourth change produced the programme
    composition in its current form, that is:
           a. Assessment and Management of Environmental Pollution (AMEP);
           b. Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW);
           c. Information Systems for the Management of Marine and Coastal Resources
               (CEPNET); and
           d. Education, Training and Awareness (ETA).

25. In addition to the structural changes noted above, the Caribbean Environment Programme has
    grown in scale. The 1st IGM in 1982 approved eight projects for implementation within that
    biennium, as opposed to the 50 projects and activities approved for the 2000-2001 biennium
    (UNEP 2001a).
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26. The evolution of the CEP also included changes in the institutional arrangements associated with
    programme implementation. During the period April 1981 to September 1989, projects were
    primarily implemented by Member Governments. The RCU became operational on September
    1, 1986, and thereafter became the main organ responsible for project coordination. Since 1990,
    in addition to the RCU and governments, other regional and subregional organizations, including
    non-governmental and academic and research institutions, have also implemented CEP projects
    and activities.

27. Projects related to the Oil Spill Protocol were coordinated primarily through cooperation with the
    International Maritime Organization (IMO) prior to the establishment of the REMPEITC in
    1995. This relationship is further solidified through the joint IMO and UNEP-CAR/RCU
    management of the RAC-REMPEITC. The SPAW RAC was established in 2000, but has not
    yet assumed project implementation responsibilities. Additionally, implementation of projects
    continues to involve a range of regional institutional partners.



    3.      MAIN ACHIEVEMENTS AND OUTPUTS

28. The achievements of the Caribbean Environment Programme can be clearly identified in both its
    institutional development and the impact on the awareness and capacity of the Wider Caribbean
    Region as it concerns environmental management.


    3.1     Institutional Development

29. Major milestones marking the development of the CEP are shown as Table 1. Milestones of
    special mention include:
          Adoption of the Action Plan for the Caribbean Environment Programme, and
            establishment of the Caribbean Trust Fund and Monitoring Committee.              First
            Intergovernmental Meeting, Montego Bay, April 6-8, 1981.
          Adoption of the Cartagena Convention and the Oil Spill Protocol. Conference of
            Plenipotentiaries, Cartagena, March 21-24, 1983.
          The Caribbean Trust Fund (CTF) becomes operational. September 1983.
          The Regional Coordinating Unit becomes operational. September 1, 1986.
          Adoption of the Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife in 1990 and
            entry into force in 2000.
          Adoption of the Protocol Concerning Pollution from Land-based Sources and Activities
            in 1999
          Marking twenty years of CEP in 2001.
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Table 1: Milestone Events in the Development of CEP

   Date                                  Milestone Events
              Caribbean Governments urged UNEP to develop a regional programme
   1976       for the Wider Caribbean Region as part of its Regional Seas Programme.
              UNEP launches preparatory activities.
              Draft Action Plan for the Caribbean Environment Programme was
   1979       prepared under the direction of ECLAC, and reviewed by regional
              experts.
              The Caribbean Action Plan was adopted by the First Intergovernmental
   1981       Meeting. The Meeting also established the Monitoring Committee and
              set the programme priorities for the Caribbean Environment Programme.
              The First Meeting of the Monitoring Committee was held, and projects
   1981
              were approved for implementation.
              Adoption of the Cartagena Convention and Oil Spill Protocol during the
   1983
              Second Intergovernmental Meeting.
   1982       The first projects of the CEP were initiated.
   1983       The Caribbean Trust Fund became operational.
   1986       The Cartagena Convention and Oil Spill Protocol entered into force.
   1986       The Regional Coordinating Unit was established.
   1987       The Regional Coordinating Unit was formally inaugurated.
              The First Meeting of Contracting Parties took place in Guadeloupe. This
   1987
              was the first meeting held jointly with the Intergovernmental Meeting.
              The First Meeting of Experts to the Convention was held in Mexico. The
   1988
              meeting was used to revise the Action Plan.
              The first volume of the CEP quarterly newsletter, CEPNews, was
   1987
              produced and disseminated.
   1990       The SPAW Protocol was adopted.
              Designation of the Wider Caribbean by the IMO as a “Special Area”
   1990
              under Annex V of MARPOL 73/78.
   1995       The Oil Spills Centre (REMPEITC) was established in Curacao.
              Establishment of an Internet-based coastal and marine environmental
   1996
              information network in six CEP countries.
   1997       Establishment of the CaMPAM Network.
              First major collaborative project with the private sector though the
   1998
              Caribbean Environmental Network for Sustainable Tourism
   1999       The LBS Protocol was adopted.
   1999       Training of Trainers for Marine Protected Areas established
   2000       The SPAW Regional Activity Centre was established in Guadeloupe.
              Establishment        of     an     Internet      listserve   for     CEP
   2000       (cepnews_rcu@yahoogroups.com), and distribution of CEPNews by
              electronic means.
   2000       The SPAW Protocol entered into force.
   2001       Established the International Coral Reef Action Network Project
   2001       CEP completes twenty years of operation
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     3.2    National Implementation of CEP

30. It is difficult to determine the extent to which Governments of the Wider Caribbean Region have
    implemented elements of CEP. Nonetheless, there are a number of indicators that confirm that
    national implementation of CEP has increased as a result of the efforts of the Secretariat and the
    Governments. These include:
            Reports from States at the different meetings of CEP indicating the changes being made
             to national legislation prior to ratification of either the Cartagena Convention or one of its
             Protocols. This is underscored by the number of ratifications of the SPAW Protocol in
             the period 1998-2000.
            The large number of national turtle recovery plans.
            The relatively rapid pace with which the LBS Protocol was negotiated and adopted.
            The interest shown by Caribbean Governments to host Regional Activity Centres.
            The establishment of inter-agency mechanisms for the purpose of conducting country
             assessments, species recovery/management plans, development of environmental
             policies, and project implementation.

31. Among the areas of national support to CEP that require additional attention are the contributions
    to the CTF; ratification and national implementaion of the Cartagena Convention and the three
    protocols; and the designation of official Focal Points and experts for the different protocols.


     3.3    Capacity Building

32. One of the most significant areas of achievement for the CEP is the area of capacity building.
    The CEP has promoted and facilitated scientific and technical exchange between governments,
    institutions, and individuals in the Region. This exchange has included materials, training, and
    ongoing programmatic activities, such as pilot projects and coastal assessments. One of the most
    noted examples is the area of regional oil spills response and contingency planning.

33. Collaboration among Caribbean professionals and institutions has resulted in the production and
    adoption of common methodologies for things such as environmental impact assessment,
    protected area planning and development, and pollution monitoring.

34. The promotion of public education, production of educational materials, and preparation of case
    studies has improved the regional and national public awareness of environment and
    development issues.

35. Training is an area in which CEP has excelled. The available information shows that
    approximately 600 scientific and technical personnel were trained in environmental monitoring
    and problem solving during the period 1981-1987 (UNEP 1989). The record in recent years has
    been equally impressive. For example, approximately 100 professionals from the Dutch,
    English, French, and Spanish speaking Caribbean were trained in coastal zone management and
    tourism under the Caribbean Environment Network (CEN) project, which was implemented by
    the RCU during the period December 1995 to December 1998. Almost 100 regional
    professionals were trained in innovative treatment methods for wastewater treatment. Similarly,
    the Training of Trainers in Marine Protected Area Management initiative trained 24 individuals
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    from the English, Dutch, and Spanish speaking Caribbean during the period November 1999 and
    June 2000 through regional courses. These 24 trainers subsequently trained more than 100
    people involved with marine protected areas.


    3.4     Outputs, Impacts and Benefits

36. The RCU and CEP collaborating institutions have produced an impressive list of publications
    (Appendix 4). These have included baseline studies, methodologies (environmental impact
    assessment, coastal area planning, etc.), environmental policy and planning papers and
    guidelines, environmental education, and a range of other topics. These publications have
    contributed in a major way to the improvement in policy deliberation, management capacity, and
    the design and implementation of management interventions throughout the Wider Caribbean
    Region.

37. Previous evaluations (UNEP 1989, UNEP 1993, UNEP 2001b) have noted how difficult it is to
    assess the direct impact of CEP on the state of the environment. Despite this difficulty, said
    evaluations have indicated that the apparent impact is significant, particularly in terms of
    environmental policies and practices.

38. The impacts of CEP on national environmental policy and decision-making processes, and the
    capacity of regional professionals and institutions have been noted above (Sections 3.2 and 3.3).

39. Previous evaluations have noted that the institutional framework for CEP decision making and
    implementation has grown to be fairly broad, encompassing almost all countries in the region.
    Similarly, the participation of regional governmental and non-governmental organizations
    (NGOs) has grown significantly, and participation by NGOs continues to broaden. The active
    participation of these countries and regional institutions has resulted in a fairly high level of
    support for CEP, as well as success in Programme implementation. The Programme has an
    enviable track record of being able to work successfully with professionals and institutions
    across the various language groups and cultures that characterize the Wider Caribbean Region.

40. The various meetings of the Caribbean Action Plan, the Contracting Parties to the Cartagena
    Convention, and their subsidiary bodies have grown to become a well-established institutional
    structure for regional environmental decision-making.

41. The support shown by the international community is another indicator of the success of CEP.
    This support is seen not only in technical and financial support from the various specialized
    United Nations organizations, but also from a number of bilateral and multilateral institutions.
    Increasingly, CEP is used to implement pilot projects within the UNEP framework, as well as
    within global initiatives such as the International Coral Reef Initiative and Global Programme of
    Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities.
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    4.      STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS

42. The Caribbean Environment Programme operates on the basis of cooperative arrangements,
    notwithstanding the legal requirements of the Cartagena Conventions and its attendant Protocols.
    The tremendous scope of the CEP is greater than a single entity can implement, especially one
    with the limited resources of the RCU. Development and implementation of the CEP is therefore
    based on the establishment of strategic partnerships.

43. The evolution of the meetings of experts and scientific and technical advisory committees has
    been such that the non-member countries and regional non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
    have participated fully. NGOs are also allowed to participate in Intergovernmental Meetings.
    This has created a situation wherein regional and international institutions actively collaborate on
    a range of projects and initiatives. These collaborating institutions bring to the process a
    substantial pool of specialized skill and experiences. Additionally, many are able to access
    financial and other resources in support of the CEP process.

44. Strategic alliances are also formed through coordination with other regional secretariats and
    coordinating mechanisms, such as the United Nations Environment Programme’s Regional
    Office for Latin America and the Caribbean (ROLAC), the Organization of Eastern Caribbean
    States/Natural Resources Management Unit (OECS-NRMU), the Association of Caribbean
    States (ACS), the Caribbean Tourism Organization (CTO), Caribbean Hotel
    Association/Caribbean Action for Sustainable Tourism (CHA-CAST), the Caribbean
    Community (CARICOM), the Caribbean Conservation Association (CCA), and the Central
    American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD) among others.

45. The linkages between CEP and other regional and international programmes were deemed to be
    inadequate during the early years (1981-1987) of the Programme (UNEP 1989). This situation
    has improved significantly, and the existing linkages with, and participation in, a number of
    regional and international programmes provide opportunities for synergies beneficial to CEP.
    Such programmes include the Small Island Developing States/Programme of Action (SIDS-
    POA), the Caribbean Regional Environmental Programme (CREP), the International Coral Reef
    Initiative (ICRI), the International Coral Reef Action Network (ICRAN), the Marine Mammal
    Action Plan of UNEP, the Meso-American Barrier Reef Initiative, Global Programme of Action
    on Land-based Activities (GPA), and the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN).

46. The RCU routinely interfaces with the secretariats of a number of international conventions and
    programmes, including the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the London Convention
    on ocean dumping, the Basel Convention, the new Stockholm and Rotterdam Conventions on
    chemicals, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), the
    Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar
    Convention), and the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS).

47. The RCU, as Secretariat to the Cartagena Convention and its Protocols has signed Memoranda of
    Cooperation with two Secretariats of international conventions. These are the CBD (signed on 3
    March 1997), Ramsar (signed May 1, 2000), and with UNESCO-IOC (signed on February 25,
    2002). Additionally, there are ongoing efforts to reach a similar agreement with CITES and the
    Basel Convention.
    UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG. 22/INF.4
    Page 10


    5.      CHALLENGES

48. Previous challenges affecting the implementation of CEP were identified (UNEP 1993) as:
          Political commitment of the countries participating in the Programme;
          Adequate financial support;
          Organizational and coordination needs (including staffing) for CEP;
          Environmental awareness and the level of policy makers and the general populace; and
          Institutional capacity and expertise at the national level.

49. Though there has been improvement in a number of the areas, particularly in programme
    coordination, these challenges continue to affect the Programme. Furthermore, there are a
    number of internal and external factors that pose additional challenges for the future growth of
    the CEP.


    5.1     Political Commitment

50. Participating Governments in CEP continue to express support for the Programme and the efforts
    of the Secretariat. However, the tangible indicators of strong political support and commitment
    are much less pronounced.

51. Of the 28 UN Member States that have the authority to ratify the Cartagena Convention, 21 have
    ratified the Convention and the Oil Spill Protocol, 10 have ratified the SPAW Protocol, and only
    6 have signed the LBS Protocol, without any ratifications. Despite the global and regional
    significance of biodiversity and the fact that pollution from land-based sources is said to be the
    greatest threat to the marine environment and given the economic dependence of Caribbean
    countries on the marine environment in the Caribbean, ratification of the Cartagena Convention
    and its protocols is slow. This suggests the need for continuing awareness at the policy level or
    that there are major legal and institutional hurdles to overcome at the national level.

52. The level of preparedness, adequate representation, and turnover rate in many delegates for
    meetings of CEP suggest the need for greater commitment from member states to the continuity
    of the CEP. A related issue concerns the designation of National Focal Points, a process that is
    still incomplete.

53. Governments have expressed a concern that the reporting requirements of the many multilateral
    environmental agreements (MEAs) have become onerous. As such, Contractin Parties have been
    encouraged to use their participation in those MEAs to establish more linkages and coordination
    between CEP and the other MEAs. Simultaneously, the Secretariat has been engaged in
    activities to streamline and consolidate reporting requirements across MEAs.


    5.2     Regional Institutional Framework

54. The Secretariat facilitates the regional intergovernmental process and maintains linkages with
    other regional and global programmes. Nonetheless, active participation of Secretariat staff in
    all projects, activities and meetings is time and resource intensive. As such, there is a need to
                                                                   UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG. 22/INF.4
                                                                                      Page 11


    improve upon the participation of the CEP subsidiary bodies to make more structured and
    efficient use of Chairs and other positions in these bodies.

55. Institutional capacity to design and successfully implement regional projects in the Caribbean
    needs to be improved. The need to train and retain personnel with the requisite experience is
    clearly a challenge and one that can be helped by ensuring that regional programmes become
    more complementary, building on the outputs and management systems/implementation
    mechanisms of each other.


    5.3    Financial Commitments and Constraints

56. Inadequate financing has been a major constraint for CEP from the very beginning of the
    Programme. Government pledges to the CTF have never been fully paid. During the period
    1982-1987, approximately 80% of the funds pledged were actually received by the CTF (UNEP
    1989). That increased slightly during the period 1988-1992, making the receipts to the CTF of
    the period 1982-1992 approximately 86% of pledges (UNEP 1993).

57. However, that level of pledge formed only 40% of expenditures for the Programme during the
    period 1988-1991 (UNEP 1993). While Government contribution also forms a part of the
    counterpart support, the impact on Programme implementation from these two sources are
    significantly different. CTF fund availability obviously allows for more rational, timely and
    continous project implementation.

58. The continued pledges by the Governments are an indication of support for the Programme.
    However, that is counterbalanced by the more than $1.5 million unpaid at the end of 2001
    (UNEP 2001a). Recent downturns in the economies that contribute to CEP suggest that the
    possibility of receiving increased financial resources in the near future is unlikely. The twin
    challenges of increasing financial support and rationalizing implementation activities will
    continue into the foreseeable future.


    5.4    CEP and Multilateral Environmental Agreements

59. The Cartagena Convention and Oil Spill Protocol were adopted in 1983, and the SPAW protocol
    in 1990. Since that time, other MEAs (such as OPRC and CITES) and implementation
    mechanism have been established. This has created a problem for CEP in that the legal
    instruments need to be updated.

60. The existence of a multiplicity of MEAs increases the competition for funds, a problem which is
    likely to worsen if the proposed World Trade Organization rules for environmental management
    systems become routine requirements in trade agreements.

61. The existence of a large number of MEAs may result in additional burden for Parties where
    reporting requirements are in place. Though UNEP is trying to address the issue of
    harmonization of the reporting requirements and formats for MEAs, that process will continue to
    be a challenge for Parties to the various instruments of CEP for the near future.
    UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG. 22/INF.4
    Page 12


62. The Caribbean Environment Programme (CEP) has remained true to its core mission, to provide
    a framework for regional cooperation, since its inception in 1981. This regional cooperation
    continues to involve institutions from all language groups, comprising public, private, and civil
    society institutions operating at national, regional, and international spheres of influence.

63. The stability and openness of regional environmental decision making provided by the CEP
    process has resulted in the participation by a wide range of institutions and networks, generating
    significant support for CEP.

64. This high level of ongoing participation and support has generated a wide range of products and
    other direct and indirect benefits at both national and regional levels.

65. Though producing notable achievements, CEP still faces a number of internal and external
    challenges; primarily in the areas of financing and political support from regional governments.

66. Specific issues requiring priority attention include:
           a. Improving political commitment
                Increased political commitment involves increased ratification of the regional legal
                arrangements; more active attempts by regional Governments to ensure compatibility
                between multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) and the Cartagena
                Convention and its Protocols; and increased funding to the Caribbean Trust Fund
                (CTF).
           b. Improving linkages with other multilateral environmental agreements
                A number of agreements have been signed between the RCU and the secretariats of
                international conventions, and others are under consideration. Governments
                participating in the various MEAs should ensure more coordination between CEP and
                the other MEAs. Additionally, the use of the various CEP subsidiary bodies should be
                reorganized to facilitate wider and more structured representation by CEP organs in
                the international environmental decision making process.
           c. Improved financing
                The issue of inadequate financing has plagued CEP from an early stage, and despite
                the many strategies developed to address the problem, governments have not
                approved increases in funding levels that are needed to undertake the approved
                activities. While government should be urged to increase their funding, even in
                modest amounts, with increased formal linkages between CEP and other MEAs, the
                possibility of obtaining ongoing financial support from other sources should continue
                to be explored and expanded. Additionally, the establishment of a complimentary
                mechanism to the CTF (such as a Trust/Foundation) should be seriously considered.

67. Additional opportunities to be explored include:
           a. Support to regional networks
               CEP currently supports a number of regional networks, such as CaMPAM and
               CARICOMP. The expertise residing in such networks, in addition to the data and
               programmes, could be used to support CEP initiatives in a much more structured
               manner.
                                                          UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG. 22/INF.4
                                                                             Page 13


b. Increased use of regional experts in project design and evaluation
   The fact that the CTF provides only 40% of the financial resources used by the
   Programme suggests that staff of the RCU must spend a significant amount of time
   and effort securing grants. The possibility of using regional experts for grant writing,
   project design, and evaluation should be explored, especially where such expertise
   resides in a network supported by CEP.
UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG. 22/INF.4
Page 14


                                   Literature Cited

UNEP. 1983. Action Plan for the Caribbean Environment Programme. UNEP Regional Seas
Report and Studies No. 26. UNEP.

UNEP. 1984. Regional Seas Programme in Latin America and Wider Caribbean. UNEP
Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 22 Rev.1. UNEP, 1984.

UNEP. 1989. The Action Plan for the Caribbean Environment Programme: Evaluation of its
Development and Achievements. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 109.

UNEP. 1993. Evaluation of Projects and Activities Implemented within the Framework of the
Caribbean Environment Programme (1988-1991). CEP Technical Report No. 19. UNEP
Caribbean Environment programme, Kingston, 1993.

UNEP. 1996. Report of the Eight Intergovernmental Meeting on the Action Plan for the
Caribbean Environment Programme and Fifth Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the
Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider
Caribbean Region. Kingston, 9-13 December 1996. UNEP (WATER)/CAR IG. 13/8.

UNEP. 2001a. Status Report on the Implementation of the Caribbean Environment Programme
for the Biennium 2000-2001. UNEP (DEC)/CAR IG. 19/5. 3 May, 2001.

UNEP. 2001b. Evaluation of the Work of the Interim Scientific and Technical Advisory
Committee (ISTAC) of the SPAW Protocol since its inception (1992-2000). Draft.
UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG. 20/3. 24 September 2001.
                                                                     UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG.22/INF.4
                                                                                        Page 1

                                         APPENDIX I

                             Objectives of the Action Plan
                     for the Caribbean Environment Programme
                                      (taken from UNEP 1983)


The principal objectives of the Action Plan are to assist the Governments of the region in
minimizing environmental problems in the Wider Caribbean through assessment of the state of
the environment and development activities in environmental management. Furthermore, the
Action Plan will establish a framework for activities requiring regional co-operation in order to
strengthen the capacity of the States and Territories of the Wider Caribbean region for
implementing sound environmental practices and thus achieve the sustainable development of
the region. In order to achieve these overall goals, co-operation will specifically include:

   Assistance to all countries of the region, recognizing the special situation of the smaller
    island countries;

   Use of the region’s human, financial and natural resources through technical co-operation
    among developing countries;

   Regional self-reliance through the sharing of experience in common problems;

   Cooperation on problems of a transnational or international nature, including natural and
    man-induced disasters;

   Stimulation and coordination of international assistance activities;

   Strengthening of existing national and subregional activities;

   Increasing public interest in, and awareness of, the environment/development process.
                                                           UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG.22/INF.4
                                                                              Page 1

                                   APPENDIX II

                          CEP Collaborating Institutions

Association of Caribbean States (ACS)
Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD)
Caribbean Community (CARICOM)
Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity (CARICOMP)
Caribbean Conservation Association (CCA)
Caribbean Environmental Health Institute (CEHI)
Caribbean Fisheries Management Council
Caribbean Fisheries Resources Assessment Programme (CFRAMP)
Caribbean Hotel Association/Caribbean Action for Sustainable Tourism (CHA-CAST)
Caribbean Natural Resources Institute (CANARI)
Caribbean Tourism Organization (CTO)
Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE)
Consortium of Caribbean Universities for Natural Resources Management (CCUNRM)
Eastern Caribbean Cetacean Network (ECCN)
Eastern Caribbean Coalition for Environmental Awareness (ECCEA)
Escuela Agricultura de la Región Tropical Húmeda (EARTH College)
European Union
Greenpeace International
Global Environment Facility
Humane Society of the United States
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW)
International Maritime Organization (IMO)
IUCN-The World Conservation Union
Marine Education and Research Center (MER)
Monitor International
Organization of American States (OAS)
Organization of Eastern Caribbean States/Natural Resources Management Unit
PANOS Institute
Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA)
The Nature Conservancy (TNC)
Third Millennium Foundation
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
WIDECAST
UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre
UN Development Programme
University of the West Indies
World Bank
                                                                       UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG.22/INF.4
                                                                                          Page 1

                                         APPENDIX III

                                Status of Legal Instruments
                                       (http://www.cep.unep.org)


                                   The Cartagena Convention

                             Date of        Ratified /        The majority of the signatories to the
          State
                            Signature       Acceded           Convention signed the document at its
Antigua and Barbuda                     11-Sep-86             adoption in Cartagena in March of
Bahamas                                                       1983. Ratification by the signatories
Barbados                   05-Mar-84    28-May-85             occurred in the following years. The
Belize                                  22-Sep-99             only signatories yet to ratify the
Colombia                   24-Mar-83    03-Mar-88             Convention       include     Honduras,
Costa Rica                              01-Aug-91             Nicaragua      and     the    European
Cuba                                    15-Sep-88             Economic Commission (now called
Dominica                                05-Oct-90             the European Union). A number of
Dominican Republic                      24-Nov-98             other nations, which did not sign the
France*                    24-Mar-83    13-Nov-85             Convention, have acceded to it, as
Grenada                    24-Mar-83    17-Aug-87             provided by Article 27 of the
Guatemala                  05-Jul-83    18-Dec-89             Convention. Upon receipt of the ninth
Guyana                                                        ratification, the Convention entered
Haiti                                                         into force as described in Article 28 of
Honduras                   24-Mar-83                          the Convention, on 11 October 1986.
Jamaica                    24-Mar-83    01-Apr-87
Mexico                     24-Mar-83    11-Apr-85
Netherlands**              24-Mar-83    16-Apr-84             Notes:
Nicaragua                  24-Mar-83                          * France signed with a reservation.
Panama                     24-Mar-83    07-Nov-87             ** Ratified on behalf of the
St. Kitts and Nevis                                           Netherlands Antilles Federation on 16
Saint Lucia                24-Mar-83    20-Nov-84             April 1984, and for Aruba as of 1
St. Vincent and the                     11-Jul-90             January                         1986.
Grenadines                                                    *** Ratified on behalf of the Cayman
Suriname                                                      Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands
Trinidad and Tobago                     24-Jan-86             on 28 February 1986, reserving the
United Kingdom***          24-Mar-83    28-Feb-86             right to extend it at a future date to
United States of America   24-Mar-83    31-Oct-84             include other territories. On 21
Venezuela                  24-Mar-83    18-Dec-86             November 1987, it was extended to
European Economic          24-Mar-83                          the British Virgin Islands
Commission
(European Union)                                              Note    from       the     Secretariat:
                                                              The other Territories of the United
                                                              Kingdom      participating    in    the
                                                              Caribbean Environment Programme
                                                              are Anguilla and Montserrat.
UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG. 22/INF.4
Page 2
                                       The Oil Spills Protocol


                               Date of                           With the exception of the E.E.C.
         State                             Ratified / Acceded
                              Signature                          (E.U.), all states simultaneously
Antigua and Barbuda                        11-Sep-86             signed the Oil Spills Protocol
Bahamas                                                          with the Convention. In almost
Barbados                   05-Mar-84       28-May-85             all cases the Oil Spills Protocol
Belize                                     22-Sep-99             was ratified or acceded to by a
Colombia                   24-Mar-83       03-Mar-88             state at the same time as that
Costa Rica                                 01-Aug-91             state ratified or acceded to the
Cuba                                       15-Sep-88             Convention. The Oil Spills
Dominica                                   05-Oct-90             Protocol entered into force
Dominican Republic                         24-Nov-98             simultaneously       with     the
France                     24-Mar-83       13-Nov-85             Convention on 11 October 1986.
Grenada                    24-Mar-83       17-Aug-87
Guatemala                  05-Jul-83       18-Dec-89
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras                   24-Mar-83
Jamaica                    24-Mar-83       01-Apr-87
Mexico                     24-Mar-83       11-Apr-85
Netherlands                24-Mar-83       16-Apr-84
Nicaragua                  24-Mar-83
Panama                     24-Mar-83       07-Nov-87
St. Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia                24-Mar-83       20-Nov-84
St. Vincent and the                        11-Jul-90
Grenadines
Suriname
Trinidad and Tobago                        24-Jan-86
United Kingdom             24-Mar-83       28-Feb-86
United States of America   24-Mar-83       31-Oct-84
Venezuela                  24-Mar-83       18-Dec-86
European Economic
Commission
                                                                  UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG.22/INF.4
                                                                                     Page 3
                                          The SPAW Protocol


                                Date of                          The Government of St. Lucia
          State                             Ratified / Acceded
                              Signature                          deposited the ninth instrument
Antigua and Barbuda        18-Jan-90                             of ratification to the SPAW
Bahamas                                                          Protocol on 25 April 2000. The
Barbados                                                         Government of Colombia, as
Belize                                                           Depositary, has evaluated the
Colombia                   18-Jan-90        05-Jan-98            instrument     and    officially
Costa Rica                                                       informed that the Protocol
Cuba                       18-Jan-90        04-Aug-98            entered into force on June 18,
Dominica                                                         2000.
Dominican Republic                          24-Nov-98
France                     18-Jan-90        April-02
Grenada
Guatemala                  18-Jan-90
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica                    18-Jan-90
Mexico                     18-Jan-90
Netherlands                18-Jan-90        02-Mar-92
Nicaragua
Panama                     16-Jan-91        27-Sep-96
St. Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia                18-Jan-90        25-Apr-2000
St. Vincent and the        26-Jul-91        26-Jul-91
Grenadines
Suriname
Trinidad and Tobago        18-Jan-90        10-Aug-99
United Kingdom             18-Jan-90
United States of America   18-Jan-90
Venezuela                  18-Jan-90        28-Jan-97
European Economic
Commission
UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG. 22/INF.4
Page 4
                                        The LBS Protocol


                                Date of                          The LBS Protocol was
           State                            Ratified / Acceded
                               Signature                         opened for signature on 6
 Antigua and Barbuda                                             October 1999 in
 Bahamas                                                         Oranjestad, Aruba. The
 Barbados                                                        LBS Protocol was open
 Belize                                                          for signature in Bogotá,
 Colombia                   02-Oct-00                            Colombia until 5 October
 Costa Rica                 06-Oct-99                            2000.
 Cuba
 Dominica                                                        Parties to the Cartagena
 Dominican Republic         03-Aug-00                            Convention that have not
 France                     06-Oct-99                            yet signed the Protocol are
 Grenada                                                         now invited to accede the
 Guatemala                                                       LBS       Protocol       by
 Guyana                                                          depositing its instrument
 Haiti                                                           of accession to the
 Honduras                                                        Government of Colombia
                                                                 as Depositary.
 Jamaica
 Mexico
 Netherlands                06-Oct-99
 Nicaragua
 Panama
 St. Kitts and Nevis
 Saint Lucia
 St. Vincent and the
 Grenadines
 Suriname
 Trinidad and Tobago
 United Kingdom
 United States of America   06-Oct-99
 Venezuela
 European Economic
 Commission
                                                            UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG.22/INF.4
                                                                               Page 1

                                   APPENDIX IV

                                   Main Outputs
A.     CEP Technical Reports

  Year     Report                                   Title
           Number
1989         1        The Action Plan for the Caribbean Environment Programme:
                      Evaluation of its Development and Achievements (1976-1987)
1989           2      Regional Overview of Environmental Problems and Priorities
                      Affecting the Coastal and Marine Resources of the Wider Caribbean
1989           3      Implications of Climatic Changes in the Wider Caribbean Region:
                      Preliminary Conclusions of the Task Team of Experts
1989           4      Assessment of the Economic Impacts of Hurricane Gilbert on
                      Coastal and Marine Resources in Jamaica
1990           5      The Strategy for Development of the Caribbean Action Plan
1991           6      Directory of Marine Environmental Research Institutions in the
                      Wider Caribbean Region
1991           7      The Transboundary Movement of Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes in
                      the Wider Caribbean Region – A Call for a Legal Instrument within
                      the Cartagena Convention
1991           8      Report of the CEPPOL Regional Workshop on Coastal Water
                      Quality Criteria and Effluent Guidelines for the Wider Caribbean -
                      San Juan, Puerto Rico, 5-15 November 1990
1991           9      Report on the CEPPOL Seminar on Monitoring and Control of
                      Sanitary Quality of Bathing and Shellfish-Growing Marine Waters
                      in the Wider Caribbean - Kingston, Jamaica, 8-12 1991
1991          10      Environmental Data and Information System: SIMARNA – the
                      Cuban Experience
1992          11      WIDECAST Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for the Netherlands
                      Antilles
1992          12      WIDECAST Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for Barbados
1992          13      Training in Land and Coastal Use Planning: Case Study Venezuela
1992          14      Environmental Quality Criteria for Coastal Zones in the Wider
                      Caribbean Region
1992          15      WIDECAST Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for the British Virgin
                      Islands
1992          16      WIDECAST Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for Antigua and
                      Barbuda
1992          17      WIDECAST Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for St. Kitts and
                      Nevis
1992          18      WIDECAST Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for Belize
1993          19      Evaluation of Projects and Activities Implemented within the
                      Framework of the Caribbean Environment Programme (1988-1991)
UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG. 22/INF.4
Page 2
 Year     Report                                  Title
          Number
1993        20      Environmental Problems Affecting the Marine and Coastal
                    Environment in the Wider Caribbean Region
1993         21     Relevance and Application of the Principle of Precautionary Action
                    to the Caribbean Environment Programme
1993         22     Ecosystem and Socioeconomic Response to Future Climate
                    Conditions in the Marine and Coastal Regions of the Caribbean Sea,
                    Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, and the Northeast Coast of South
                    America
1993         23     Report of the Second CEPPOL Seminar on Monitoring and Control
                    of Sanitary Quality of Bathing and Shellfish-Growing Marine
                    Waters in the Wider Caribbean. Kingston, Jamaica, 9-13, August
                    1993
1993         24     WIDECAST Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for Suriname
1993         25     WIDECAST Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for Aruba
1993         26     WIDECAST Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for St. Lucia
1993         27     WIDECAST Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for St. Vincent and
                    the Grenadines
1993         28     Can Television Tell the Environmental Story?: Report of the
                    Seminar “Visual Media and the Environment”
1994         29     Environmental Impact Assessment for the Establishment of a
                    Marina/Small Craft Harbour in Southwest Tobago
1994         30     WECAN: Youth Teach Youth. Environmental Science Handbook
                    for Environmental Education and Awareness in Schools – Case
                    Study of Jack’s Hill All Age School
1994         31     Ecotourism in the Wider Caribbean Region: An Assessment
1994         32     Guidelines for Sediment Control Practices in the Insular Caribbean
1994         33     Regional Overview of Land-Based Sources of Pollution in the
                    Wider Caribbean Region
1995         34     Evaluation of the Coastal and Marine Resources of the Atlantic
                    Coast of Guatemala
1995         35     Regional Management Plan for the West Indian Manatee,
                    Trichechus manatus
1996         36     Status of Protected Area Systems in the Wider Caribbean
1996         37     Common Guidelines and Criteria for Protected Areas in the Wider
                    Caribbean Region: Identification, Selection, Establishment and
                    Management
1997         38     Coastal Tourism in the Wider Caribbean Region: Impacts and Best
                    Management Practices

2000         39     Plan de Acción para la Recuperación de las Tortugas Marinas de
                    Venezuela
1998         40     Appropriate Technology for Sewage Pollution Control in the Wider
                    Caribbean Region
1998         41     Best Management Practices for Agricultural Non-Point Sources of
                                                                  UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG.22/INF.4
                                                                                     Page 3
     Year    Report                                       Title
             Number
                          Pollution
1996             42       Guidelines for Integrated Planning and Management of Coastal and
                          Marine Areas in the Wider Caribbean Region


B.      Additional Publications

     Year                  Author                                        Title
     2001   The Nature Conservancy                 Funding Protected Areas in the Wider
                                                   Caribbean: A Guide for Managers and
                                                   Conservation Organizations
     2000   UNEP-CAR/RCU and the Coastal           MPA Training of Trainers Manual
            Zone Management Centre
     2000   CEP for the CEN Project              ICAM Manual
     2000   CEP for the CEN Project              Solid Waste Management Manual
     2000   CEP for the CEN Project              Siting and Design Manual
     1998   USAID/UNEP/CEHI for the CEN          Sewage Treatment Operators Manual for the
            Project                              Caribbean Region
     1998   CEP for the CEN Project              Manual for Sand Dune Management in the
                                                 Wider Caribbean
     1998   Caribbean Action for Sustainable     Trends in Hotel Certification and Rating
            Tourism (CAST) for the CEN Project Programs: Guidelines for the Caribbean
     1997   Caribbean Environmental Health       Why Treat Wastewater? Environmental,
            Institute (CEHI) for the CEN Project Health and Legal Considerations
     1997   USAID/UNEP for the CEN Project       Improving Training and Public Awareness on
                                                 Caribbean Coastal Tourism
     1997   The International Fund for Animal    Jump with Whales
            Welfare (IFAW)
     1996   Centre for Marine Conservation       Manatees and Dugongs


C.      Programme Guidelines

       Legislative guide to assist with the national implementation of the SPAW Protocol
        (UNEP(OCA)/CAR WG.13/3).

       1992. Proposed Guidelines to be used in the Analysis of Case Studies to be presented at
        the CCA Workshop on the Management of Protected Areas.

       1992. Criteria for Species listing in the Annexes to the Protocol and for the establishment
        of specially protected areas.
UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG. 22/INF.4
Page 4
     Draft General Guidelines and Criteria for Management of Threatened and Endangered
      Marine Turtles in the Wider Caribbean Region (UNEP(OCA)/CAR WG.19/INF.7).

     Draft general guidelines for ecotourism.

     UNEP: 2000. Funding Protected Areas in the Wider Caribbean: A Guide for Managers
      and Conservation Organizations. UNEP Caribbean Environment Programme. Kingston,
      Jamaica.

     2000. Brochure for Governments and interested individuals and organizations on the
      SPAW Protocol, its obligations, and benefits.

     Comparative analysis of the CBD, CITES Convention, and SPAW Protocol
      (UNEP(OCA)/CAR WG.19/4).

     Comparative analysis of the species listed in SPAW and CITES (UNEP(OCA)/CAR
      WG.19/INF.12).

D.    Species Management Plans


     Manatee recovery plans for 9 countries: Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras,
      Mexico, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago, and Venezuela.

     Queen Conch (Strombus gigas): The Need for Caribbean-wide Management
      (UNEP(OCA)/CAR WG.19/INF.13)
                                                         UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG.22/INF.4
                                                                            Page 5
E.     Ordinary Meetings of CEP

         Meeting                       Date                      Location
 st
1 Intergovernmental         6-8 April, 1981           Montego Bay, Jamaica
2nd Intergovernmental       24-26 March, 1983         Cartagena de Indias, Colombia
3rd Intergovernmental       24-26 April, 1985         Cancún, Mexico
4th Intergovernmental and   26-28 October, 1987       Guadeloupe
1st Contracting Parties
5th Intergovernmental and   17-18 January, 1990       Kingston, Jamaica
2nd Contracting Parties
6th Intergovernmental and   16-18 November, 1992      Kingston, Jamaica
3rd Contracting Parties
7th Intergovernmental and   12-14 December, 1994      Kingston, Jamaica
4th Contracting Parties
8th Intergovernmental and   9-13 December, 1996       Kingston, Jamaica
5th Contracting Parties
9th Intergovernmental and   14-18 February, 2000      Kingston, Jamaica
6th Contracting Parties


1st Monitoring Committee    14 - 16 December, 1981    United Nations Headquarters,
                                                      New York
2nd Monitoring Committee    18 -19 March, 1983        Cartagena de Indias, Colombia
3rd Monitoring Committee    8 - 10 November, 1983     Havana, Cuba
4th Monitoring Committee    21-23 April, 1985         Cancun, Mexico
5th Monitoring Committee    11-13 May, 1987           Kingston, Jamaica
6th Monitoring Committee    21-23 October, 1987       Guadeloupe
7th Monitoring Committee    12 - 14 September, 1988   Mexico City, Mexico
and Bureau of Contracting
Parties
8th Monitoring Committee    10 - 13 January, 1990     Kingston, Jamaica
and Bureau of Contracting
Parties
9th Monitoring Committee    12 - 14 June, 1991        Kingston, Jamaica
and Bureau of Contracting
Parties
10th Monitoring Committee   11 - 13 November, 1992    Kingston, Jamaica
and Bureau of Contracting
Parties


11th Monitoring Committee   7 - 9 December, 1994      Kingston, Jamaica
and Bureau of Contracting
Parties
12th Monitoring Committee   9 - 12 June, 1997         Kingston, Jamaica
UNEP(DEC)/CAR IG. 22/INF.4
Page 6

         Meeting                       Date                      Location
and Bureau of Contracting
Parties
13th Monitoring Committee   9 - 13 July, 2001         San José, Costa Rica
and Bureau of Contracting
Parties

Protocol Specific
1st SPAW ISTAC              4 - 8 May, 1992           Kingston, Jamaica
2nd SPAW ISTAC              3 - 5 May, 1993           French Guiana
3rd SPAW ISTAC              11 -13 October, 1995      Kingston, Jamaica
4th SPAW ISTAC              3 - 6 August, 1999        Havana, Cuba
1st LBS ISTAC               19 - 23 February, 2001    Ocho Rios, Jamaica
1st SPAW STAC               27 - 29 September, 2001   Havana, Cuba
1st SPAW COP                24 - 25 September, 2001   Havana, Cuba

								
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