Aim: What were the economic effects of European colonization in by 0bJxpUr5

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									 Aim: What were the economic
effects of European colonization
        in the Americas?
What was the value of a “blank slate”
for the Europeans in the Americas?

• No traditions to deal with - ordinarily it takes
  generations to force embittered peasants into
  factories and make them workers
• Uprooted laborers could be forced into
  “agricultural factories” and mines
• Created a new system of exploitation – capitalism
  without steam power
Sugar Production: Origins




                        INDIA
                        500 CE
Sugar Production: Too Dry




   NORTH
AFRICA 900 CE
Sugar Production: Too Cool


  SPAIN      SICILY
   1300       1200    CRETE
  NORTH               CYPRUS
AFRICA 90 CE           1200


                               INDIA
                               500 CE
Which way to India?
Sugar Production - Just Right!
But no labor force…


      CANARY
      ISLANDS



     CAPE
    VERDE
Sugar Production - Just Right!
But no labor force…


      CANARY
      ISLANDS



     CAPE
    VERDE       Here It Is!
Sugar: Where else?




            Hot and
            Humid
  Why did the Europeans need
       African slaves?

  Why not get (free) European
          colonists?

Why not use indentured servants?
   Why did the Europeans need
        African slaves?
      Why not get (free) European colonists?
        Why not use indentured servants?

African slaves:
  – Used to tropical climate, used to Eurasian
    diseases, familiar with sugar as a crop
  – Only dispossessed labor can be forced into this
    new form of killing labor
   Plantation slavery as a social
     system in the Caribbean
• Mostly practiced in “killing” climates and
  conditions
• Huge numbers of slaves :: white settlers
• Sugar was produced in a factory-like setting
Sugar as a “Factory” Product:
    Hoeing for Planting
Sugar as a “Factory” Product:
         Harvesting
Sugar as a
“Factory”
 Product:
Gathering
 the Cane
Sugar as a “Factory” Product:
           The Mill
Sugar as a “Factory” Product:
        Sugar House
“The juice of the cane is conveyed in pipes from the mill to the
boiling house. Here it is passed through a succession of coppers
gradually increasing in heat. At each copper a Negro is placed to
take off the scum as it rises, and when the temperature of that vessel
has had its full effect, to remove it with a ladle into the next. “
   Sugar as a “Factory” product
• A sugar plantation is a factory, not a farm
   – Large numbers of workers
   – Division of labor
   – Grueling work; long hours and days; work
     takes place on the owners’ schedule

• Europeans did not invent slavery, but Europe
  made slaves into “factory workers” and plantation
  field hands: “Unfree Laborers” in a capitalist
  enterprise
   American Silver Production

• Europe (1535) 3 million ounces
• Potosi (1540) 1.5 million ounces
• Potosi (1590) 10 million ounces (+ Mexico)
Silver as a “Factory” Product
     America is where Europe
      “invents” capitalism
• The accumulation of capital through the
  “super-exploitation” of Native Americans
  and Africans
• Combining capital with a large labor force
  starts in the Americas
• Large work-places based on division of
  labor and a class structure

								
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