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									sportscotland                                             Updated 27/02/07
                                                            Research Unit

This paper summarises sportscotland’s research (including evaluation)
programme for 2007 and 2008, listing projects currently under way and
possible future projects that may be instigated this year or next year.

Role of the Research Unit
The purpose of sportscotland’s Research Unit is to obtain research in order
to inform the development of new and existing policy and to evaluate the
impact of policy.

The Research Unit:

    commissions and manages research (including evaluation) projects and
     publishes the results, but does not usually carry out research in-house;
    provides advice on research generally and evaluation in particular, both
     for internal colleagues and external partners; and
    obtains monitoring information that is research based, for example to
     monitor the national strategy for sport participation targets (otherwise
     monitoring is the responsibility of sportscotland’s Monitoring Unit).

sportscotland’s Research Unit comprises Jon Best (JPB), Kristi Long (KL),
Eilidh Nicolson (EMN) and Kirsty Noble (KN) who are the Research Managers
dealing with the individual projects listed below. For more information on
individual projects, contact the Research Manager whose initials are next to
the title:          (0131 472 3284)       (0131 472 3208)   (0131 472 3218)      (0131 472 3232)

Research Unit
Caledonia House
South Gyle
Edinburgh EH12 9DQ
Information for Consultants and Researchers
As the following list shows, sportscotland commissions a wide range of
research projects, excluding only those of a scientific, technological or
medical nature. Projects of expected value of over £5,000 go through formal
tender procedures unless there are compelling reasons otherwise (and
projects are not normally large enough to trigger EU procurement
procedures). A detailed project brief is placed on our website with an open
invitation to submit a short expression of interest. A shortlist normally of four
to six of those submitting an EoI are then invited to tender.

If you have not been receiving email alerts to the briefs appearing on the
website and wish to do so, please ask us to add you to our list. We do not
normally consider unsolicited proposals.

Research projects are categorised according to the three underpinning
principles    (infrastructure/pathways/ethics) and   seven    priorities    of
sportscotland’s Corporate Plan 2007-11. Some projects – for example about
participation data – are cross-cutting and cannot be allocated to a single
Corporate Plan area; these are added in a ‘Generic’ category. A final section
has been included following a meeting of research colleagues from the UK
sports councils and other agencies. This comprises ideas for possible joint

    Sustainable sporting infrastructure (including volunteering)
    Sporting pathways (including long-term player development)
    Ethics and equity
    Quality facilities
    Active Schools (including children’s participation more broadly)
    Coaching
    Community sport
    Performance development (excellence)
    ‘Strong partners’
    ‘Strong sportscotland’
    Generic
    Possible Joint Projects with the UK Sports Councils

Sustainable Sporting Infrastructure – Current
Participation in Volunteering                                           JPB
Develop JPB’s existing research paper to create profile of sports volunteers
from boosted participation survey. Early 2007.

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Regional Sports Officers for Volunteering in Sport Evaluation                KN
Evaluation of six posts with a specific sports volunteering remit, established in
existing regional Volunteer Centres. Main and summary reports received;
briefing paper in preparation prior to publication in early 2007.
Researcher: Lesley Greenaway
Internal Client Officer: Christine Mullen

Sustainable Sporting Infrastructure – Prospective
Barriers to Sports Volunteering                                            KN
Possible further research on barriers, partly to investigate whether the
increase in relevant legislation is a serious concern or whether this has been
overstated. Possible joint approach with other agencies; draft brief in
Internal Client Officer: Christine Mullen

Sporting Pathways – Current
Long-term Player Development
This work is being led by Sports Coach UK. Mainly a watching brief for the
Research Unit.
Internal Client Officer: Clive Brewer

Ethics and Equity – Current
Participation Data for Equity Groups                                JPB/EMN
A paper has been published on the website (December 2006) with a profile of
equity-related participation data together with Census data.          Further
participation data to be published in a second paper in early 2007.
Researcher: TNS, analysis by Edinburgh University (Steve Dowers).
Internal Client Officer: Jill Bennett/Kristi Long

Girls' Maturity and Physical Activity PhD                                  KL
Three-year study of the impact of physical maturation on adolescent girls’
physical self-perception and participation in physical activity. Year one has
just been completed and an interim report received. Second interim report
due by March 2007. The study will conclude in 2008.
Researchers:        Heriot-Watt University: Ailsa Anderson and Samantha
Internal Client Officer: Jessica Lindohf

Women's Sports Participation Review                                   KL
A policy-orientated literature review assessing the evidence base for
explanations of adult women’s demand for and participation in sport and
highlighting questions for future research. Draft report received, to be
published in March 2007.
Researcher: Prof Celia Brackenridge
Internal Client Officer: Jessica Lindohf

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Participation in Social Inclusion Partnership/SIMD Areas           EMN/JPB
Part of the larger participation study. Report to be prepared on the 2005/06
data early 2007.
Researcher: TNS, analysis by Steve Dowers
Internal Client Officer: Lee Cousins

Ethics and Equity – Prospective
Disability: Good Practice                                              JPB
There are potential issues about what works, how to engage with people with
disabilities, good practice case studies that relate to the wide variety of
disabilities. sportscotland held meeting with Scottish Disability Sport to
discuss scope; draft project spec being drafted February 2007.
Internal Client Officer: Ruari Davidson

Ethnicity: Good Practice                                                 JPB
There are potential issues about what works, how to engage with people from
different ethnic backgrounds, and good practice case studies. Consultation to
be held with a view to preparing a brief, building on earlier work, in early
summer 2007.
Internal Client Officer: Kristi Long

Sport for Mid-life Women                                                    KL
There may be follow-up research from the Women’s Sports Participation
Literature Review. This would probably take the form of either qualitative
study or action research. May look into the possibility of a joint project with
other sports councils or Sport Equity Alliance.
Internal Client Officer: Jessica Lindohf

sportscotland Ethics Audit                                                 JPB
Consider repeat of earlier study that evaluated ethics and equity in policy and
practice at sportscotland. Possibly 2008/09.
Internal Client Officer: Jill Bennett

Ethics Evaluation                                                      JPB
Liaise with Ethics Manager to determine any requirements. Possibly 2008/09.
Internal Client Officer: Jill Bennett

Women in Sports Leadership Survey                                        KL
Repeat and expansion of earlier study, jointly with the other UK sports
councils and the Women’s Sports Foundation.            Likely to incorporate
evaluation of Women into Coaching pilot. Tentatively scheduled for 2008/09.
Internal Client Officer: Jessica Lindohf

Equity Standard Evaluation                                               KL
There may be a role for the Research Unit to play in working with the other
sports councils to develop an evaluation framework for the management and
rollout of the Equity/Equality Standard. This issue was discussed at the UK

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research meeting in September 2006. Assumption that the Sports Equity
Alliance would take the lead subject to funding.

Quality Facilities – Current
School Facilities Management for Community Use                               KL
Research on the implementation of the Scottish Executive’s policies on
community use of school facilities for sport and for arts/culture, focusing
specifically on the impact of management models (including Public-Private
Partnerships) and highlighting key factors for successful management of
these facilities. This was a joint project with the Scottish Executive and the
Scottish Arts Council. A main report, summary, practical guidelines and good
practice examples are being finalised for publication, in addition to a revised
and updated version of the ‘Workbook for the community use of school
facilities’. Currently awaiting comments from the Scottish Executive, subject
to which it is hoped to publish before end-March 2007.
Researchers: Genesis and Fred Coalter, with input from Penny Lochhead.
Internal Client Officers: David Liddell, Iain Campbell, Lee Cousins
Partner Bodies: Scottish Executive and Scottish Arts Council

PPP Impact on School Sports Facilities                                      JPB
Research into the impact of funding via the Public-Private Partnership on the
quality of construction and management of school sports facilities. Further
work on this issue is being commissioned (Sept 2006) by the Scottish
Executive in liaison with sportscotland’s Facilities Team. No further input from
Research Unit.
Internal Client Officer: Lee Cousins

Synthetic Turf Pitches                                                KN
A joint study with Sport England to inform facility planning. Summary and
main report to be published on the websites early 2007 – being handled by
Sport England.
Researchers: TNS
Internal Client Officer: Stewart Cargill

Mountain Accidents/Incidents                                        KN
An analysis of the nature and causes of mountain accidents and other
incidents. The information is intended to improve understanding of risk
factors in mountain activities and inform policy on mountain safety and
training. Report due end-April 2007.
Researcher: Dr Bob Sharp

Quality Facilities – Prospective
Facility research needs to be explored.

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Active Schools – Current
Active Schools Evaluation 2004/05-2007/08                            JPB
Year 2 of a three-year evaluation of sportscotland’s investment in Active
Schools, evaluating both processes and impact of Active Schools, is
complete. Four Year 2 survey reports have been edited and summarised and
added to the ASNC website and Livelink. The three main reports for Year 2
are on the ASNC website and a summary report including a response to the
issues by sportscotland is due to be published early 2007.
Researchers: Loughborough Partnership.
Internal Client Officers: Maggie Murray and Sheila McEwan.

Evaluation Lessons Review                                                  KL
A literature review that assesses the lessons learned from previous
evaluations of large-scale intervention programmes designed to increase
children’s levels of physical activity and develops an evaluation framework to
inform the Active Schools evaluation. Publication early 2007.
Researchers: Tess Kay, John Lyle, Fred Coalter.

Sustainability of Participation Review                                 JPB
A research review assessing factors that influence sustainable participation
among young people, commissioned as a background to the Active Schools
evaluation. Publication early 2007.
Researcher: John Lyle.

Clubgolf Evaluation                                                        KN
The Clubgolf programme is being evaluated over two years, with case studies
and various surveys. Children will be followed over two years (including those
who have dropped out). Progress report available for August 2006; draft
interim report received December 2006; final report December 2007.
Researchers: Mike Williamson and TNS
Internal Client Officer: Martin Bowie

Active Schools – Prospective
Physical Activity of Scottish Schoolchildren (PASS) Study         EMN
An annual longitudinal survey, following children from Primary Yr 7 to
Secondary Yr 4, previously wholly funded by NHS Health Scotland. Taking
part in discussions about future funding and design.
Researcher: Edinburgh University: CAHRU (Jo Inchley)

Factors in Youth Sport Leading to Sustained Participation             JPB
Need for primary research raised at the UK Sports Councils’ research mtg in
September 2006. Brief to be prepared.

Active Schools Evaluation                                                 JPB
Future evaluation needs are under discussion, based on current assumptions
that the focus during 2008 and possibly 2009 will be on monitoring rather than
evaluation, with subsequent evaluation needs to be determined. External

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evaluation may be needed of pilots emerging during 2007/08 from the
Secondary Coordinator Review.

Coaching – Current
Coaching Audits and Workforce Development Plans                          EMN
Sport-specific coaching audits and workforce development plans are being
carried out on behalf of 12 Scottish governing bodies of sport. The project
started in August 2006 and will continue to July 2007. Phase I (of three) data
collection is under way with results due in early 2007.
Researchers: Jonathan Long, John Lyle, Alan Lynn, Brian Samson.
Internal Client Officers: Gill Messenger, Linda Low.
Partner Body: SkillsActive: Pam Scott.

Coaching – Prospective
Coaching Strategy                                                    EMN
Next step will be to develop a monitoring and evaluation framework for the
Coaching Scotland Strategic Framework. No action at the moment, but the
Research Unit will be asked for input at some point in the future. The
Research Unit will be represented on a research group to look at coaching
Internal Client Officer: Billy Bell

Recognition and Reward in Coaching                               EMN
This work would be used to develop the awards scheme planned as part of
the Coaching Scotland strategy. Watching brief at the moment.
Internal Client Officer: Billy Bell or Iain Kennedy

Audit of Pay Rates and Deployment for Coaching in Scotland              EMN
This would also include information about pay by level of performer, sector,
qualification of coaches. Also seeking information on contracts, how coaches
receive payment, deployment. Might be an area for collaborative study with
SkillsActive. This research would help to identify possible locations for full-
time paid positions and apprenticeships.
Internal Client Officer: Billy Bell or Iain Kennedy

Community Sport – Prospective
Club Development Programme                                               JPB
(1) A desk review may be needed to inform this.
(2) Evaluation will be required in due course. May link with the development
of sports partnerships within broader regional infrastructures. Check on state
of play.

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Performance Development – Current
Sports Partnership Pilots                                             JPB
The Research Unit is helping to develop monitoring and evaluation
frameworks for the two Sports Partnership pilots. An initial evaluation of
baseline information on Sport Tayside by KL took place in September 2006.
No further research input until business case for developing Sports
Partnerships has been accepted.
Researcher: Vaga
Internal Client Officer: Craig Burn

Role Models and Sporting Success Review                                 JPB
A review of literature assessing the impact of sporting success and role
models on participation. Being finalised for publication in early 2007.
Researcher: John Lyle

Sports Development Legacy of the World Badminton Cup                   JPB
The Research Unit is assisting the Developing Potential Team in a project to
determine the sports development legacy of the Sudirman Cup (World Team
Badminton Championships) held in Glasgow in June 2007 and its associated
sports development programme. A particular issue for sportscotland are the
generic implications for other events.
Researchers: TNS with Prof Fred Coalter.
Internal Client Officer: Joy Cameron

Strong Partners – Current
Staffing Matters Review                                                  KN
A review of progress made by Scottish Governing Bodies of sport (SGBs) with
reference to the Staffing Matters report published by sportscotland in 1994.
The purpose of the original report was to identify ways in which we could
assist and direct the governing bodies in obtaining the most effective
management of professional staff resources. The review will assess the
extent and impact of the implementation of the original recommendations and
assess the effectiveness of the current operation and management of paid
staff within SGBs. Good draft report received and commented on.
Researcher: Tim Pickles
Internal Client Officer: Catherine Goodfellow

SFA Youth Action Plan Evaluation                                           JPB
The Research Unit will assist as required in the evaluation of the progress and
outcomes of the Youth Action Plan for Scottish football.
Internal Client Officer: Lawrie Randak

Provision for Sport in Higher Education                                  EMN
Repeat of an earlier project surveying Scotland’s universities to explore their
provision for sporting opportunities. Results received.
Researcher: John Taylor, Stirling University
Internal Client Officer: LR
Partner Body (lead organisation): SUPEA

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Strong Partners – Prospective
Governing Body Investment                                              EMN
Evaluation of sportscotland’s investment in governing bodies. The project is
still under discussion, but is likely to take the approach of developing a
general evaluation framework (stage I) and then evaluating the impact of
investment in a number of strands (coaching, organisational development,
player improvement, volunteering, staffing) in two governing bodies as case
studies (stage II). KL and EMN met with the Client Officer in October to
discuss Sport England’s monitoring and evaluation framework. Will follow up
with whether additional work needs to be commissioned. EMN will take over if
necessary, but this may be a more appropriate project for Monitoring.
Internal Client Officer: Sharon MacDonald

Strong sportscotland – Current
Communications Review with Partner Organisations                           JPB
The Research Unit is assisting the Marketing Team who are commissioning
two or three surveys of communications with sportscotland covering local
authorities, governing bodies of sport and (possibly) the Scottish Institute of
Sport network. Reports received for LAs and SGBs.
Researchers: George Street Research.
Internal Client Officers (lead): James Prentice (LAs); Claire Purves (SGBs).

MSPs’ Survey                                                           JPB
Annual Mori survey of MSPs, covering awareness of and attitudes to
sportscotland and other benchmark bodies. In previous years we have been
used to benchmark other NDPBs; and then included in our own right in 2005
(see report) and 2006 (see questionnaire). Latest results received November
2006. Advisory input from Research Unit.
Researcher: Ipsos Mori
Internal Client Officer (lead): John Duncan

sportscotland Environmental Management System                        KL
In-house survey on staff travel to develop a travel plan, November 2006.
Project completion due March 2007.
Researcher: Kristi Long
Internal Client Officer: Lee Cousins and David Liddell

Generic – Current
Sports Participation Survey 2003/04: Reports                      EMN/JPB
Main and summary reports in preparation, together with local authority, sport-
specific and topic fact sheets. Due early 2007.
Researcher: Knight, Kavanagh & Page and Edinburgh University
Internal Client Officer: Lee Cousins

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Sports Participation Survey 2003-05: Reports                         EMN
Overview figures for adults and children prepared. Annual report with time
series figures in preparation, due early 2007.
Researcher: TNS and Steve Dowers
Internal Client Officer: Lee Cousins

Sports Participation Survey 2006-08                              EMN/JPB
Continuing survey of Adults and Children with data collection every second
month. Annual report due early summer 2007.
Researcher: TNS
Internal Client Officer: Lee Cousins

Economic Impact of Sport in Scotland                                  KN
Draft report received based on 2004 data with comparisons with 2001, 1998
and 1995. Awaiting final info in revised draft. KN has written a research
digest based on the report for publication early 2007.
Researcher: Chris Gratton

Local Authority Expenditure on Sport                                      KN
Joint research on local authority spend on culture and sport. Data collection
now undertaken by CIPFA. Second year report (2004/05) published.
Continuing review of data gathering. 2005/06 draft report completed.
Advisory input from Research Unit; currently watching brief.
Researcher: CIPFA
Internal Client Officer: Iain Campbell
Partner Bodies: COSLA, Scottish Exec, SAC, SMC, SLIC and others.

Generic – Prospective
Sports Participation Survey 2003/04: Geographical Variations           JPB
The report showed that there are substantial variations among local
authorities in adult participation rates that are not explained by standard
socio-demographic factors. Main and summary reports were published on 30
August 2006. Need to commission further work (in tandem with similar work
being undertaken in England by Sport England) to explore reasons/contexts
for the ‘under-performing’ areas. Initial meeting March 2007.
Researchers: Fred Coalter and Steve Dowers (for first report)
Internal Client Officer: Lee Cousins

Sports Participation Survey 2003/04: Studentships                      JPB
Two data mining studentships to be advertised. Currently on hold because of
other priorities for data analysis. Possibly revised in 2007/08.

National Strategy Review                                                JPB
Research issues may emerge to inform strategy development.

UK Grass-roots Participation Legacy of 2012 Olympics                    JPB
Research issues may emerge.

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Possible Joint Projects with the UK Sports Councils
A range of possible joint projects were discussed at the UK research meeting
in September 2006. These included the implications of an Olympic legacy
research programme which is currently under initial discussion. A further
issue is that all appropriate projects – particularly reviews – should be
informed by explorations of relevant research in other (non-sport) fields.

Longitudinal Tracker Survey
Sport England is in discussions with the ESRC to see whether a long-term
participation tracker study could emerge from the Olympic legacy research. A
draft review of research gaps and outline proposal are available. Any
sportscotland involvement in the PASS study (see above) would need to
mesh with this proposal.

Local Role Models
A literature review is planned on ‘local’ role models – family, peers, coaches,
members of the local community. It would complement the review on role
models and sporting success undertaken for sportscotland (see p4). It would
include a review of relevant research from other disciplines, and be extended
to interviews exploring good practice. The Sports Council for Wales is
leading on this project.

Leadership and Community Development
Sport England is considering commissioning primary research in this area in
2007. It would be informed by the local role models review.

Reasons for Non-participation in Sport: Quantitative
Sport England has a comparable pattern to sportscotland of areas of low
participation that cannot be explained by standard socio-demographics. Both
organisations will continue to explore the issue, exchanging ideas and

Reasons for Non-participation in Sport: Qualitative
Sport England is currently reviewing the implications of its ‘Understanding
Participation’ and other research. Once the strategic direction for this area
has been determined, further research may be commissioned, possibly a
review. It might embrace the issue of increasing the value that people place
in sport. There is also evidence of a prevalence of non-participation across
culture and leisure more broadly. This would be an appropriate topic for
commissioning by DCMS/Scottish Executive.

Sustaining Participation                                                  JPB
sportscotland’s review demonstrated that there is little research evidence
relating programmes for children’s participation to sustained participation in
adulthood. The issue of sustainability of adult participation relates to entry
and re-entry and the life cycle. It could form a component of any tracker
study; in the mean time, Sport England agreed to financially support a review

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of the life cycle and life history’s influence on participation. sportscotland will
lead on the project and prepare a brief in early 2007.

Social Marketing
What is the evidence that social marketing works in a sport context, and what
are the success factors? The Sports Council for Wales is pulling
international information together, and Sport England will forward research.
The SCW will lead on exchanging information.

Evaluation Toolkits
A consensus that although there are a number available, it was probably not
worth seeking to achieve a consistent approach as organisations are already
committed to particular manuals for specific programmes. Relevant manuals
will be circulated among the sports councils to consider whether updating is

Olympic Legacy Research                                                  JPB
In addition to the possible tracker study, a coherent research programme
around the Olympic legacy needs to emerge from initial discussions (including
the ESRC) currently under way. This is being led by UK Sport and Sport
England, with a need for the other UK sports councils to be linked in. Issues
include economic impact, volunteering/capacity building, social capital,
regeneration, sports development.      In particular, what are the critical
factors/ingredients for the successful impact of major events on sports

UK Sports Councils’ Research Database                                      JPB
sportscotland is preparing a discussion brief for a possible small project to
create a closed website for research commissioned by the UK sports councils
and selected related bodies. In addition to published reports (normally
available on websites), it would focus on research ideas, briefs, draft reports
and other unpublished material. Draft brief to be circulated early 2007.

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