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Chapter 22 Art in the Twenty First Century: A Global Perspective GLOBALIZATION • Contemporary art has gone global. • The venue, the subject and even that economics of the art market. • Art historians and critics have had to find new ways of analyzing and organizing material on the subject of multicultural and cross-culturalism in contemporary art. Hybridity • Hybridity - the mixing of traditions of different cultures to crate new blends and new concepts. For Example, The Artist: • Takashi Murakami – Dubbed Japan’s Andy Warhol. – Uses lots of self promotion – Shows work both at museums and creates products for sale in the mass media! Makes no distinction between art and merchandise. – Work aims to reconcile “high art” and “low culture”. Fig. 22-2 P. 534 TAKASHI MURAKAMI. Tan Tan Bo (2001). Acrylic on canvas mounted on board. Appropriation Appropriation-was borrowing elements form other artists work. Today appropriation means referring another artist’s work as a basis for one’s own. High Art and Low Culture • These 2 concepts used to be considered opposites. High art and high culture • Referred to classical antiquity • Was perpetuated through the artistic traditions of the Renaissance. • These classics are associated with elitism. Low Art or low culture • Was a derogatory term used to describe popular or mass culture. • Generally includes popular music, tattoo art and kitsch. For Example the Artist: Jeff Koons - questions high art and low culture with manipulation of ordinary familiar objects. maurizio cattelan Postcolonialism • A reaction in art to the retreat of the European empires, in the former colonies have complex relationships with past occupiers. For Example the Artist: • Hew Locke THE CARIBBEAN AND LATIN AMERICA Art produced by the people of and from the Caribbean and Latin America tends to reflect these themes: – The residue of colonialism – Poverty – Political conflict – And what life means day to day. Cuba Fig. 22-6 p. 558 ALEXANDRE ARRECHEA. Architectural Elements II (2004). Chromogenic print. 43 1/4” x 31 1/2”. Haiti Fig. 22-7 p. 558 JEAN URRICK DESERT. The Burqa Project: On the Borders of My Dreams I Encountered My Double’s Ghosts (2001). Flag-textiles, dye, lace. 63” x 118”. Puerto Rico Fig. 22-8 p. 559 MIGUEL LUCIANO. Plántano Pride (2006). Chromogenic print (platinum plantain). 40” x 30”. Mexico Fig. 22-9 p. 560 ENRIQUE CHAGOYA. Illegal Alien’s Guide to Critical Theory (2007). Color lithograph. 24” x 40”. EUROPE • The United Kingdom - • Damien Hirst - establish his reputation as one of the “yBa” generations (young British artists) • He makes conceptual and installation art that aimed to challenge traditional aesthetics, ethics, morality, and to some plain good taste. • His diamond-encrusted skull fits with the artist’s liking for anatomy and sensation. Germany Fig. 22-15 p. 563 ANSELM KIEFER. Sonnenschiff (2007). Concrete, earth, iron, lead, sunflowers. The Netherlands Fig. 22-16 p. 563 RINEKE DIJKSTRA. Stephanie, Saint Joseph Ballet School, Santa Ana, CA, USA (2003, March 22). C-print 128cm x 107 cm framed. Switzerland Fig. 22-17 p. 564 PIPILOTTI RIST. Frame from Related Legs (Yokohama Dandelions)(2001). Spain Fig 22-18 p. 564 SANTIAGO CALATRAVA. Chicago Spire, Chicago. THE MIDDLE EAST: Iran Fig. 22-19 p. 565 SHIRIN NESHAT. Still from Passage (2001). Color video installation with sound, 00:11:40. Palestine Territories Fig. 22-20 EMILY JACIR. Memorial to 418 Palestinian Villages Destroyed, Depopulated and Occupied by Israel in 1948 (2001). Refugee tent, embroidery thread, daily log of names of people. Israel Fig. 22-21. P566 ADI NES. Abraham and Isaac (2005). Chromogenic print. 100 cm x 100 cm. Iraq Fig. 22-22 p. 567 ZAHA HADID. Performing Arts Centre, Abu Dhabi. ASIA: India Fig. 22-25 PRAJAKTA PALAV AHER. Ganpati Series (2007). Acrylic on canvas. 96” x 72”. China Fig. 22-26 p. 569 ZHANG XIAOGANG. Big Family (2003). Lithograph in an edition of 199. 27.5” x 32.5”. Fig. 22-31.p. 572 SHANGHAI KOHN PEDERSEN FOX ARCHITECTS. Shanghai World Financial Center (2008). Japan Fig. 22-32 AKIRA YAMAGUCHI. Votive Tablet of a Horse (2001). Oil, varnish on plywood, 182.5 cm x 183cm. UNITED STATES AND CANADA • Contemporary artists continue to challenge the use of tradition medium. Figure 22.36: MATTHEW BARNEY. Cremaster 2 (1999), from the Cremaster film series (1994–2002). Silkscreened digital videodisc, tooled saddle leather, sterling silver, beeswax, polycarbonate honeycomb, acrylic, and nylon vitrine, with 35 mm print; digital video transferred to film with audio, 1:19:00, vitrine: 38 3⁄8” x 40” x 46 5⁄8”. Edition 8/10. Yael Kanarek Robert Lazzarini Betty Woodman •Race, color, and stereotype is another big topic in contemporary art. Figure 22.41: LORNA SIMPSON. Still from Easy to Remember (2001). 16 mm film transferred to DVD, sound; 2 1⁄2 minutes. Discussion Questions: • Why were there so many artistic movements in the most current centuries? • Do these movements reflect the historical periods of wars current events and economic times? Give 5 examples • What were these artists and movements trying to convey? • Why do artists feel the need to create art?
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