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SYLLABUS ON GUIDANCE 506

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					                     SYLLABUS ON GUIDANCE 506



Course Code            :     Guidance 506

Course Title           :     Counseling Theories and Techniques

Course Description   :     The course deals with the study of the
                processes of counselling, its principles, various skills and
                approaches important in an interpersonal relationship. It
                also provides the students an avenue to understand
                themselves and others and how to bring the best possible
                congruence between the student and his environment.



Credit Unit            :     3 units

Time Allotment         :     54 hours

General Objectives     :     At the end of the semester, the students are

                       expected to:


                       1. Define important terms related to counseling and
                          counseling development;
                       2. Identify and familiarize the different fundamental
                          counseling theories;
                       3. Demonstrate an understanding of the counselling
                          process, its principles and goals and various
                          approaches;
                       4. Demonstrate understanding of the ethical and
                          legal considerations related to the counseling
                          process;
                       5. Begin to build a personal counselling philosophy.
Topic Outline:
First Meeting
                 I.       Basic Concepts
                 a.     Definitions of Counseling
                 b.     Goals of Counseling
                 c.     Characteristics of a Helping Relationship
                 d.     Characteristics of a Counselor


Second Meeting

                 1st Quiz
                 II.        The Skills/Techniques of Counseling
                           a. Counselor Leads and Responses-1
                           b. Attending Behavior -1
                           c. Paraphrasing-2
                           d. Reflection of Feelings-2
                           e. Levels of empathy-3
                           f. Initiating the Counseling Interview-3
                           g. Cognitive Flexibility-4
                           h. Perceptual Sensitivity-4

Third Meeting

                 Midterm Exam
                           Submission of any Article about Counseling
                           and Reflection Paper
                 III.      Counseling Theories/Approaches
                           a. Client-Centered Therapy: Rogers-5
                           b. Eclectic Counseling: Thorne-6
                      c.   Trait and Factor Approach: Williamson-7
                      d.   Rational-Emotive Therapy: Ellis-8
                      e.   Logotherapy: Frankl-9
                      f.   Reality/Choice Therapy: Glasser-10




Fourth Meeting

                2nd Quiz
                      g.   Gestalt Therapy: Perls-11
                      h.   Behavioral Therapy: Skinner-12
                      i.   Adlerian Counseling: Adler-13
                      j.   Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Beck-14
                      k.   Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: Berg-15
                      l.   Neurolinguistic Programming-16


Fifth Meeting

                IV.   Ethical Standards-17
                V.    Best Practices-18
                VI.   Counseling Philosophy

                Final Exam

                Submission:       Personal Counseling Philosophy
                                  (My Philosophy of Counseling)
                             - one whole page
                             - font 12- Arial
                             - double space
                     - submit during final exam




Major Counseling Theories and Techniques: frame
work for discussing each technique

     o   Proponent/s
     o   View of the Human Being/Theory of
         Personality Development
     o   Sources/Nature of Difficulty/Maladjustment
     o   Goal of Counseling
     o   Role of Counselee
     o   Role of Counselor
     o   Counseling Strategies
     o   Steps in Counseling
     o   Contributions/Limitations
     o   Current Status
     o   Sample of Counseling Session for Critiquing
Course Requirements
   Internet Research – Submission of Guidance Articles for Reflection
                                  and My Counseling Philosophy
   Readings
   Community Extension Service
   Written Examination (Quizzes, Midterm and Final)


Grading System
   Class Work          60%     - (paper requirements, attendance,
                                   class participation)
   Examination         40%     - (written exams-Quizzes, Midterm & Final)




FSUU Vision, Mission and Core Values

Vision

      Father Saturnino Urios University, a lay empowered, Filipino, Catholic,
Diocesan, educational institution envisions a community of men and women
committed to pursue the work of Christ for the wholeness of society.

Mission

     As such, Father Saturnino Urios University commits itself to:

     1. Provide a balanced program of spiritual formation, educational
        development, research undertakings and community involvement for all;

     2. Form self-determined Filipinos who uphold the integrity of creation, are
        crusaders of truth and justice, proud of their identity and heritage and in
        dialogue with different cultures;
      3. Empowers all as catalysts for social transformation and development.

Urian Core Values

Unity and community life, collegiality and subsidiarity in administration and
management;

Religiosity and a deep sense of God, celebrated in the liturgy and actions
on behalf of justice and peace; and responsibility in the readiness to
respond to the call of the times;

Integrity and commitment to truth, academic, freedom, research,
professionalism and industry;

Altruism as being for others, love as other – orientedness, with a
preferential option for the poor, the needy and care for the integrity of
creation;

Nationalism and democracy, pride in our Filipino/a and indigenous heritage,
commitment to national independence and community building for social
transformation and development.




SUBJECT OVERVIEW

   A Masters Degree in Counseling is a prerequisite for counselors.
      As stipulated in RA9258, a license is required for practice.
Guidance and Counseling has been defined in the Rules and
Regulations of Republic Act 9258, Rule 1, Section 3; as a profession
involving an

     “integrated approach to the development of a well-
functioning individual primarily by helping him/her utilize
his/her potentials to the fullest and plan his/her present
and future in accordance with his/her abilities, interests
and needs.”



Scope of Guidance and Counseling Board Examination - The
examination shall be in English and shall consist of a written test covering
the following subjects:

                             1. Philosophical , Psychological and
                                Sociological Foundations of Guidance
                             2. Counseling Theories, Tools and
                                Techniques
                             3. Psychological Testing
                             4. Organization, Administration and
                                Supervision of Guidance Services, and
                                Program Development
                             5. Group Process
                             6. Career Guidance
LESSON PROPER:
         Basic Concepts
                a. Definitions of Counseling
                b. Goals of Counseling
                c. Types of Counselling to Participants
                d. Characteristics of a Helping Relationship
                e. Characteristics of a Counselor



COUNSELING

   Is the heart of the Guidance Program.
   Is considered the major service of a comprehensive and
    systematic program for helping individuals address the
    changing demands of the different developmental stages,
    understand themselves and their environment, resolve
    issues and problems, and develop their potential optimally.
   It integrates all the data gathered about the individual and
    his environment, in order to make sense.
   It is the core activity through which all the other activities
    become meaningful.


 It is the one-to-one relationship, the counsellor interprets
 the data gathered about the individual and relates them to
 the information about the world outside the client in order
 to facilitate growth and adjustment, problem-solving and
 decision-making.
 The dynamic personal interaction between a counselor
  and a counselee, where the counsellor employs methods,
  approaches or techniques to enhance the counselee’s
  intrapersonal and interpersonal development and
  competencies.

 A service with a basic and a significant strategy which
  involves a person-to-person relationship. This provides the
  individual the opportunity to make his own plans and
  decisions to come up with a resolution of his own personal
  problems.


 Individual or group sessions with counselors are available
  to students who have academic, personal, interpersonal,
  emotional, career and moral concerns.




   COUNSELING is a goal-oriented relationship
  between a professionally trained, competent
  counsellor and an individual seeking help for
  the purpose of bringing about a meaningful
    awareness and understanding of the self and
    environment, improving planning and decision
    making and formulating new ways of behaving,
    feeling and thinking for problem resolution
    and/or development growth.




Goals of Counseling
The goals of counselling may be classified in different
ways and the various approaches in counselling may
address them differently.


Genetic Goals
   They pertain to general classification (according to
   Gibson and Mitchell, 1999). Genetic goals because
   they can be targeted for everyone, depending upon
   the stage at which an individual is encountered.

  a.    Developmental Goals
   When clients are assisted in preparing for their
     anticipated human growth and development in the
     physical, personal, emotional, social, cognitive and
     spiritual dimensions, the goal of counselling may be
     developmental in nature.

   Example: A pre-adolescent maybe helped to
    understand the growth spurt, the moodiness she
    may experience, changes in the interests and
     characteristics of the friends she grew up with, and
     so on, so that when these actually take place, she
     may not be caught unprepared and would be ready
     to respond to the situation.

b.     Preventive Goals

          When clients encountered at the time they are
           not experiencing any problem but are helped
           to avoid experiencing undesired outcomes,
           the goal may be preventive.

          Example: A student decides to take nursing
           because of the opportunity to work abroad. If
           test results and grades show that she is weak
           in science and math and interviews reveals
           that she is impatient with people, money,
           time and energy can be saved if she is made
           to aware of the characteristics that may work
           against success in the field. At the same time
           she may be spared from loss of self-esteem
           and embarrassment.


c.     Enhancement Goals
          When client’s encountered need is to be
           helped to identify, recognize and enhance
           unused or underused talents, skills and
           abilities, the goal may be enhancement.

          Example: If an individual laments all his
           weaknesses and remains unaware of the
           strengths that could enable him to meet his
         goals, he may be helped recognize those
         strengths, how and where they might be used
         and how they could be enhanced.


d. Exploratory Goals
 When clients do not believe that they have an
  existing problem but can benefit from examining
  options, testing skills, and trying new and different
  activities, environments, relationships and so on.
  They can be helped to explore other pathways.

 Example: If a client overindulges in isolated
  computer games or play-station activities, helping
  him experience playing with other people or joining
  others in fun-filled activities can help him experience
  the enjoyment of doing things with others.




   Reinforcement Goals When clients are already
    taking action for resolving their concerns or
    already have a planned course of action when they
    come for counselling. The goal would be to help
    them recognize that what they are doing, thinking
    or feeling may be okey or may need some fine-
    tuning.
   They are given the feedback needed in light of
    what they wish to accomplish. Affirmation or
    modification can be the target of such clients.
  e. Remedial Goals
   Goals whereby the clients are assisted to overcome
    or solve an already existing concern are called
    remedial.

    Example: A failing student who is being physically
    abused by her boyfriend can be assisted by helping
    her find ways to handle the abusive boyfriend and
    her own failure.


Human Dimensional Goals
   This refers to the various dimensions of a human
   being that must be addressed.

    a. Cognitive Goals
   These goals refer to the development of the intellect
    and this is a concern mainly in school. The focus
    would be the acquisition of the basic foundations of
    learning and cognitive skills.


    b. Psychological Goals
   These goals refer to the development of good intra
    and interpersonal skills: social/interaction skills,
    emotional control, self-esteem and the like.
   Counselors in schools and other settings are often
    called upon to respond to these.

    c. Physiological Goals
   These are the goals whereby the clients are helped
    to develop the basic understanding and habits for
   good health, such as those done by fitness and diet
   counsellors. Very few school or clinical counsellors
   have the expertise for these and are likely to refer to
   doctors, dieticians and other health-care provider.

   d. Spiritual Goals
  Helping individuals focus on internal processes within
   them which have to do with wholeness and inner
   peace whether this includes the relationship with God
   or not.
  In the Philippines, spiritual goals are still mainly
   looked upon by many as connected to the
   relationship with God, sinfulness and other aspects
   of morality. Clients with such goals are often
   referred to priest, pastors and other religious
   providers.




GOALS OF COUNSELING IN GENERAL:



1. Providing the psychological support.

2. Adjustment and resource provision

3. Problem-solving and decision making.

4. Improving personal effectiveness,
5. Insight and understanding.

6. Self actualization

7. Achievement of positive mental health.




Types of Counseling according to
Participants

    Counseling can be delivered in different
   ways. Five of the most popular are the
   following:


 a.   Individual counselling

    This is an interaction of two people only –
   the client and the counsellor.
   This is the most common form of
   counselling in the Philippines because it
   can spring from:
1. Routine interview – The counsellor
   ensures that each student is called to
   determine whether there are concerns
   that must be explored or to interpret
   test results. From such interviews, the
   skillful and dedicated counsellor is able
   to make actual counselling, whether
   preventive, developmental or remedial.

2. A counselor’s discovery from others or
   from collected information that
   someone needs assistance but is not
   seeking it. The counsellor may call the
   person for a private discussion to
   motivate him/her to seek counselling
   since imposing counselling is not
   ethically acceptable.


3. Referrals done by a significant other –
   teacher, parent, spouse, etc. Who has
   done everything to help the person but
   to no avail.
 4. Voluntary counselling where an
    individual notices something about
    himself/herself which he/she cannot
    understand, accept or handle and
    which seems to be beyond his/her
    ability to deal with.

 Individual   counselling     may     be    the
 preferred avenue, especially if the
 problems are peculiar and particular to the
 individual and if the individual is so private
 that he/she would not open up or
 cooperate in a group.



b. Group Counselling

 This counselling is extended to several
 people with similar concerns and desired
 common goals.

  Examples:
    1. Positive behavioural changes
    2. improved social or interpersonal
       skills
   3. development of appropriate values
      and attitudes
   4. extensive and relevant career
      planning and decision making
   5. elimination of self-defeating
      behaviours.


For some clients group counselling can be
beneficial than individual counselling.

1. They are relieved to know that they do
   not, after all, have the monopoly of
   problems.

2. Being with the like-minded and like-
   hearted people give them courage to
   express their feelings.

3. It provides an avenue for those with
   social and interpersonal deficits to
   have an immediate opportunity to get
   to know themselves and the extents to
   which the skills focused on are actually
   being developed.
4. Instead of listening to just one person
   – the counsellor, clients get to hear
   other people’s view and experiences.


5. The set-up helps members learn the
   elements needed to relate with others
   effectively and develop responsibility
   for maintaining productive work with
   others.


6. The counsellor is able to reach out to
   more people as a result of seeing more
   people at the same time.

There are criteria for using group
instead of individual counselling.

1.    Clients can benefit more from the set-
     up.

2. There are enough clients with similar
   concerns who are willing to work on
   their concerns together.
 3. The clients have the ability to work
    cooperatively with a group.


 4. The individual members are free of
    mental and emotional baggage that
    would hamper group work.



 5. Usually six to eight members are
    useful for creating learning
    opportunities and for the counsellor to
    be able to handle the group effectively.



 The challenge of group counselling is to be
 able to attend to each member of the
 group and handle each individual
 effectively while dealing with the dynamics
 and goals of the group.



c. Multiple Counselling
 In multiple counselling, more than one
 counsellor handles an individual, a couple
 or a group.

  This way:
1. The concern can be seen from different
   angles or perspectives which make for
   comprehensive handling.

2. More options maybe generated from
   more people looking into the problem
   and its resolution.



3. For couple counselling, having a male or
   a female counsellor may prevent the
   client from thinking that the counsellor
   and his/her partner are hanging on
   him/her just because they are of the
   same gender.

4. For couple or group or family counselling,
   one counsellor can be alert to the
   signals presented by the other members
   of the counselling relationship while the
   other counsellor is busy processing one
   or the other member.

 There are situations when two or three
 counsellors are present in the room with
 the client. And there may be situations
 where only one counsellor is present in
 the room with the client/s, and the rest f
 the counsellors are outside, following the
 sessions through a one-way mirror and a
 sound system that allows them to listen in
 on the discussion. An intercom enables
 the counsellor and her co-counselors to
 communicate with one another. When the
 counsellor in the room is stuck or when
 the counsellors outside wish to intervene,
 they can call their colleague and make
 their suggestion.



d. Couple Counseling
  This  was    previously   called   marital
  counselling.
Such relationships include male-male and
female-female relationships which, like
any relationship, have their share of
difficulties.


Counseling is usually extended only when
spouses are experiencing difficulties in the
relationship. Usually the partners are
invited to discuss their relationship
difficulties and discover ways and means
to prevent by which issues might be
resolved.


Mutual tasks that facilitate understanding
and/or healing are introduced.




Ideally,   multiple counselling should be
extended to prevent triangulation or a
party’s feeling that he/she is being ganged
up on. If the couple is made up of a male
and a female, it helps if the counselors
 consist of a male and a female too, so that
 one party does not feel oppressed by a
 member of the opposite sex.




e. Family Counseling

 Seen by the Systems Theories as a must
 for everyone who is experiencing difficulty,
 since it is believed that the family impacts
 on the individual who is considered as
 having the difficulty and likewise, the
 individual and his/her problems impact on
 the family. A vicious cycle emerges.

 While individual counselling should ideally
 be accompanied by Family Counseling,
 practitioners of Family Counseling
 acknowledge that working with an
 individual on family matters can also be
 effective. There is an acceptance that a
 change in one part of the system can
 create corresponding changes in the other
 parts. However, goal attainment is
facilitated when everyone in the family
works together cooperatively, as support
and encouragement are more tangible and
visible.




Multiple Counselling
     is recommended to facilitate
observation and processing. Family
counselling is more effective when there is
an opportunity to observe reactions of
different family members while one of
them is engaged in an active interaction
with one or the other counsellor.
       At the same time, the counsellor may
   see the concerns from different vantage
   point and handle them more
   comprehensively. Moreover, the
   involvement of several counsellors may
   prevent the alienation some members
   could feel.




The Characteristics of a
Helping Relationship
  According to Okun, helping relationships begin
 with a helper or counsellor and a helpee or
 counselee, meeting to focus attention on the
 helpee’s concerns.


  It shares the ingredients common to all
 satisfactory relationships: TRUST, EMPATHY,
 GENUINENESS, CONCERN AND CARING,
 RESPECT, TOLERANCE AND ACCEPTANCE,
 HONESTY, COMMITMENT TO THE
 RELATIONSHIP AND DEPENDABILITY.


  TRUST is established when an individual
 perceives and believes that the other person in
 the relationship will not mislead or harm him or
 her in any way.




 Carl Rogers defined a helping relationship
  as “a relationship in which at least one of
  the parties has the intent of promoting the
  growth, development, maturity, improved
  functioning, and improved coping with life
  of the other.”
              A helping relationship may include
       any relationship where the helper holds the
       purpose of promoting the development and
       more mature and adequate functioning of
       another – the helpee.



The helper/The counsellor:
     Displays a warm interest in the person
     without emotional over involvement;
     Displays an attitude of desiring to
     understand the person;
     Displays complete and unconditional positive
     regard for the person;
     Displays an egalitarian attitude to the person;
     Displays a respectful attitude of the
     individuality of himself and of the other
     person;
     Displays non-possessive caring of the person;
     Works towards goals of the person he is
     helping (rather than his own goals or what
     he believes the other persons goals should
     be);
     Creates a relationship of trust & confidence
     with the person he is helping;
     Creates conditions for the person to make
     their own independent choices and decisions;
     Displays understanding of the meaning and
     feelings of the person;
     Clarifies and openly states feelings which the
     person had been approaching hazily;
     Displays sensitivity to the attitude and needs
     of the person being helped; and
     Displays a genuine congruence. His words
     match his own internal feelings.




Characteristics of a Counselor
      Because of the nature of the work,
      counsellors have to have personality
      traits and characteristics that may not
      be required in other occupations.

        The following are identified by the
        American School Counselor
        Association(1990):


   1.    Genuine interest in the welfare of
        others
   2. Ability to understand the perspective
      and viewpoint of others
3. Belief in the ability of others to solve
   their problems
4. Openness to learning and differing
   options
5. Willingness to take risks
6. Strong sense of self-worth
7. Courage to make mistakes and learn
   from them
8. Valuing for continued growth as a
   person
9.   Warmth and caring
10. Keen sense of humor
11. Patience and flexibility
12. Creativity
13. Decisiveness
  KEY ELEMENTS FOR PROFESSIONAL
  COUNSELING

1. The fundamental quality a counsellor
    must possess is interest in and
    concern for other people.
   Prioritizing others’ needs over self.
  Everything the counsellor does must be
  for the welfare of the client.




2. From this fundamental quality should
   emanate the spirit and the practice of
   skills needed for effective
   counselling:
  True listening, solicitous concern, accurate
  empathy, genuine acceptance,
  nonpossessive warmth, a nonjudgmental
  attitude, unconditional positive regard and
  the desire to grow in the other key
  elements
3. Attainment of necessary educational
   qualifications from a reputable
   institution is a must.
  One who truly cares about other people
  will strive to render effective assistance
  and seek to be truly qualified.

4. Self-knowledge and awareness are
   imperative.

  Counselors carry who they are and what
  they are in counselling. Unless they know
  themselves well, they may not be able to
  recognize and handle the personal
  characteristics, attitudes and values that
  could or facilitate their counselling
  effectiveness.




5. Knowledge of human nature and
   behaviour enables counsellors to
   formulate and/or select the appropriate
      philosophy on which to base their
      practice and choice of strategy.

      At the same time, this knowledge can
     help them handle unexpected incidents
     that could arise in counselling. This is
     why counsellors need a good background
     in psychology.

     Awareness and knowledge on: innate
     characteristics, familial situations,
     conditions and stage of development;
     socio-cultural factors; developmental
     stage; dominant motives, interests
     and ambitions that control the lives of
     humans; and symptoms that indicate
     the presence or absence of important
     elements of character - is essential if
     the counsellor wants to know what is
     important to the client; how the client
     views people, conditions and events and
     how the concern might be handled,

6.     Knowledge of requirements,
      conditions and opportunities in the
      world around
     Personal-social, academic-educational,
     career-occupational helps lead clients to
     appropriate paths.


7.     Continuous updating and upgrading
      should follow the acquisition of a degree.

      Since human beings are dynamically
     changing and counselling and psychology
     are continually evolving, all practitioners
     must keep abreast of the developments in
     the field by participating in conventions
     and workshops, conducting research or
     examining research done by others.

8.     Awareness of and adherence to
      professional ethics
     These ensure effective practice and
     guarantee that what must be done is
     being done. Ethical practice creates client
     satisfaction and the further use of the
     counselling service.


     www.pgca.org.ph        www.pap.org.ph

				
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