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					 Lesson 10

 The Trial
That Rocked
 the World
I. Aims and Contents of Teaching:

 1. the comprehension of the
  text and the mastery of the
  important language points
 2. the paraphrase of certain
  complicated or difficult
I. Aims and contents of Teaching:

 3. the enlargement of the
  students' vocabulary
 4. the familiarization with
  the styles of composition and
  devices of figuration
II. Procedures of Teaching:

1. Background knowledge
2. Detailed study of the text
3. Structural analysis
4. Language features
5. Supplementary exercise
III. Background Knowledge:
1. Religions
 God:   the Deity, the Divinity, Holy
  One, Jehovah, the Lord, Providence,
  the Almighty, the Creator and etc.
 There is only one God in heaven.
  But the belief in God has developed
  three religious sections:
  Christianity, Judaism and Islam.
III. Background Knowledge:
  Roman Catholic
  Orthodox Eastern Church
Trinity: the Holy Father, the Holy
 Son and the Holy Spirit/Ghost, with
 Jesus Christ as its incarnation.
 III. Background Knowledge:

 Bible:
 Name    of the Christian Scriptures,
   the Old Testament and the New
  III. Background Knowledge:
 Bible
 Old    Testament: Christian name
   for the Hebrew Bible, the first
   portion of the Christian Bible
   Genesis: first book of the Old
   Testament which tells the origin
   of the world and of man
  III. Background Knowledge:

 New  Testament: the distinctive
  Christian portion of the Bible
    Gospel: Greek word for good
   news. the first four books of the
   New Testament.
  III. Background Knowledge:

 Bible
 fundamentalism:      conservative
   religious movement. Its aim is to
   maintain word for word
   interpretations of the Bible.
   Nowadays this word can apply to
   other religions.
III. Background Knowledge:
2. American governing system
 a. Legislature: parliament---
   Congress and Senate
 b.   Executive: the president and
   his administration
 c. Judicial: the Federal
   Supreme Court
III. Background Knowledge:

 3.   Civil Law:
 4.   Criminal Law
 5.   Jury
 6.   Counselor / Counsellor
VI. Detailed Study:
1. buzz: a noise of a low hum, low
 confused whisper

2. sweltering: very hot, causing
 unpleasantness, torrid, sultry
VI. Detailed Study:
 3. counsel: a group of one or more
  lawyers (barristers) acting for
  someone in a court of law
 4. prosecution: the act of bringing
  a criminal charge against sb. in a
  court of law
VI. Detailed Study:
5. silver-tongued: (lit.) able to give
 fine persuading speeches, eloquent
6. orator: a good public speaker, a
 person who delivers an oration
 (formal and solemn public
VI. Detailed Study:
7. nominee: a person who has
 been named officially for election
 to a position, office, honour, etc.
  a Nobel Prize nominee / a
   presidential nominee
VI. Detailed Study:
8. bring about: cause
  Scientists have brought about
   great changes in our lives.
VI. Detailed Study:
9. involve: to cause sb. to become
 connected or concerned
  Don't involve other people in
   your mistakes.
  We    are all involved, whether we
   like it or not.
VI. Detailed Study:
10. testify: to make a solemn
 statement, esp. under oath in a
 court of law, of what is true
  The   witnesses testify / give evidence
   in the law court.
  One witness testified that he had
   seen the prisoner ran out of the bank
   after it had been robbed.
VI. Detailed Study:
11. on hand: available, present,
 within   reach: the distance
   one can reach
 at  hand: near in time or
VI. Detailed Study:
Always  have your dictionary on
 hand / within reach / at hand
 when you study.
Please   be on hand at 12 sharp.
I have a great deal of important
 work on hand.
VI. Detailed Study:
All his old friends will be on hand
 / present to see Jack receive the
 medal of honour.
I want you to be at hand / near
 during my interview with the boss
 of the company.
The post office is close at hand.
    VI. Detailed Study:
12. reassure: comfort and make free from
 fear, stop worrying often by saying sth.
 kind or friendly
  The   doctor reassured the sick man
   about his health.
  She  won't believe it in spite of all our
  VI. Detailed Study:
cf: assure: try to cause to
 believe or trust in sth.; promise
 The     captain assured the
   passengers that there was no
 VI. Detailed Study:
13. erupt: (of a volcano) to
 explode and pour out fire
  Here,  emerge, happen quickly,
   come down upon unexpectedly
   and violently;
  I was suddenly engulfed by the
   whole affair.
 VI. Detailed Study:
14. adhere to: to favour strongly,
 stick firmly to;
  The   wallpaper won't adhere to
   the ceiling.
  They   adhere to the contract.
VI. Detailed Study:
He  resolutely adhered to
 what he had said at the
adhere to the four cardinal /
 fundamental principles
   VI. Detailed Study:
15. prohibit: to forbid, to ban
  to  prohibit the manufacture and
   sale of intoxicating liquors /
   pornographic literature or video
   tapes / prostitution / visiting
   prostitutes / smoking in public
   places, etc.
  VI. Detailed Study:
 FORBID is more direct and
  familiar, while PROHIBIT is
  more formal or official; they do
  not widely differ in their
  essential implications.
 to forbid a child to leave the
    VI. Detailed Study:
16. violate: to disregard or act against
 sth. solemnly promised
  The actress violated the terms of her
  This is considered as a violation of the
  If you violate someone's privacy or
   peace, you disturb it.
   VI. Detailed Study:
17. legality: the condition of being
 lawful; lawfulness
  The  legality of this action will be
   decided by the court.
 VI. Detailed Study:
18. indict: to indict sb. for a crime
 means to charge them with it
  Five   men were caught at the
   scene and indicted.
VI. Detailed Study:
 accuse,   charge, prosecute, blame
 One   accuses sb. of cheating.
 One   charges sb. with cheating.
 One   prosecutes sb. for theft.
 One   blames sb. for the failure.
       VI. Detailed Study:
least of all: to an insignificant degree
  Nobody      need worry, you least of all/
    least of all you.
  Least     of all would I lie to you.
  Nobody      seemed amused, least of all
VI. Detailed Study:
19. anticipate: to expect what will
  We    are not anticipating that there
   will be much trouble.
  We   anticipate that the enemy would
   try to cross the river and so seize the
       VI. Detailed Study:
take on: begin to have (a particular
 quality, appearance, etc), assume sth.
  He has taken on some irritating
  The  chameleon can take on the
   colours of its background.
  Her   eyes took on a hurt expression.
 VI. Detailed Study:
20. festoon: If you festoon sth. with
 decorations, lights or other things, you
 spread or hang these things over it in
 large numbers in order to decorate it.
  The   garden was festooned with
   coloured lights.
 VI. Detailed Study:
21. sprout: to grow or come out,
 appear and spread rapidly
  n.   new growth of a plant, shoot
  bean   sprouts / bamboo shoots
22. rickety: weak in joints and likely
 to break
  rickety   old man / stairs / cart
VI. Detailed Study:
23. evangelist: one who preaches
 the gospel (good news)
24. exhort: urge earnestly or
 advise strongly sb. to do sth.
  to exhort sb. to do good / to
   work harder, etc.
VI. Detailed Study:
25. cheer: support and encourage,
 shout in praise, approval or support
  Every   time a Chinese runner won a
   race the crowd cheered.
  The   crowd cheered their favourite
 VI. Detailed Study:
26. infidel: (old & derog.) (used esp. in
 former times by Christians and
 Muslims of each other) someone who
 does not follow one's own religion,
27. draw up: to form and usu. write
  to   draw up a plan / a contract
 VI. Detailed Study:
28. florid: (of a person's face) having a
 red skin
29. paunchy: (derog. and humour) (esp.
 of a man) having a fat stomach, pot
30. attorney-general: chief law officer
 and legal expert of the government of a
VI. Detailed Study:
31. shrewd: clever in judgement, esp.
 of what is to one's own advantage
  a  shrewd lawyer who knows all the
  He  is a shrewd and sometimes
   ruthless adversary.
 VI. Detailed Study:
32. steep: soak, to let sth. stay in a
 liquid for softening, bringing out a
 taste etc.
  Steep   the coffee
  Leave  the coffee to steep for 5
 VI. Detailed Study:
33. agnostic: person who believes
 that one can only have knowledge
 of material things and that nothing
 is or can be known about God or
 life after death
  cf:  atheist: person who doubts
   the existence of God
VI. Detailed Study:
34. growl /au/: to say sth. in a low
 rough and rather angry voice.
  The   dog growled at me.
  He   growled out a demand to her
   to stop.
VI. Detailed Study:
35. preliminary: introductory,
36. spar: to box without hitting
 hard, argue or dispute (with sb)
  The   children are sparring with
   each other.
VI. Detailed Study:
37. drawl: to speak or say slowly
 with vowels greatly lengthened
  drawl   out one’s words
VI. Detailed Study:
38. ignorance: lack of knowledge
 Poverty, disease and ignorance
  remain major world problems.
 We are in complete ignorance of his
 She is very young, and ignorant of
  what life really is.
 They ignored traffic regulations.
 VI. Detailed Study:
39. bigot: one who obstinately or
 intolerantly devoted to his own
 opinions and prejudices, esp. religious
  bigotry: the state of having very
   strong, unreasonable attitudes and
    VI. Detailed Study:
40. rampant: widespread and impossible to
  Theft, robbery, trafficking in narcotics,
   rural women and children are rampant in
   some places.
  Rich   soil makes some plants too rampant.
  Mosquitoes   are rampant in the
 VI. Detailed Study:
41. fagot: a bundle of sticks of firewood
42. enlighten: cause to understand, free
 from ignorance or false beliefs, give
 more knowledge.
  Can   you enlighten me on this subject?
   the age of Enlightenment in the 18th
 VI. Detailed Study:
43. contaminate: to make impure, bad
 by mixing with dirty or poisonous
 Don't eat the food, it may have been
   contaminated by the flies.
 The river is contaminated with
   waste from the factory.
 Our students are being
   contaminated by foreign ideas.
VI. Detailed Study:
44. snort: to make a rough noise by
 blowing air down the nose, to express
 impatience or anger by this sound
  We ran when the bull began to
  snore: breathe heavily and noisily
   through the nose and mouth while
 VI. Detailed Study:
45. evidence: (in law) words which
 prove a statement, support a belief
 There wasn't enough evidence to
   prove him guilty.
 Have you any evidence to support
   this statement?
 not a bit / piece / scrap / shred of
VI. Detailed Study:
46. brandish: to wave
 threateningly sth. esp. a weapon
 about, this word stresses threat.
  I shall brandish my sword
   before them.
 VI. Detailed Study:
47. denounce: to criticise severely and
 publicly, announce threateningly
  The   newspapers denounced the new
  A  mass meeting denounced him as a
VI. Detailed Study:
48. sonorous: having a pleasantly
 full loud sound
  the   sonorous tones of the priest
  the   sonority of the bass voices
  The  church clock chimed
 VI. Detailed Study:
49. reconcile: make peace between,
 make friendly again
 I cannot reconcile the two points of
 I asked how he would reconcile
  apartheid with Christianity.
 The two girls quarrelled but are
  now reconciled.
 VI. Detailed Study:
50. jungle: tropical forest too thick to
 walk through easily.
51. image: likeliness, form, copy
 You see your image in the mirror.
 I can close my eyes and see images
  of things and persons.
 The coin bears an image of the
 VI. Detailed Study:
52. divine: of, related to, or being god
 or a god
53. thrust: to push forcefully and
 suddenly, to make a sudden forward
 stroke with a sword, knife, etc.
  He   thrust the fork into the meat.
VI. Detailed Study:
54. Applause: n.
  applaud:   v.
  Everyone   stood up to applaud.
  The   audience applauded the singer
   for 5 minutes.
  The  crowd bursts into applause and
   shouts "Hurray!"
VI. Detailed Study:
55. fervour: passion, zeal, enthusiasm,
 intense heat
  speak   with great fervour
  fervent:  showing strong and warm
   feelings, hot, passionate
  a   fervent love / hatred
     a fervent lover / admirer
VI. Detailed Study:
56. arena: an area of land or a large
 room where sports, entertainment and
 public events take place.
  The   city built a new sports arena.
  After World II Japan entered the
   arena of international trade.
 VI. Detailed Study:
57. prairie: (in North America) a wild
 treeless grassy plain.
58. scorch: to burn (part of ) a surface
 so as to change its colour, taste
  The   hot iron scorched the tablecloth.
  a   scorched-earth policy
  The   hot weather scorched the grass.
VI. Detailed Study:
59. observe: to make a remark, to
 say, to comment
  He  observe that the house
   seemed to be too small.
  VI. Detailed Study:
60. passion: strong, often uncontrollable
  The   poet expressed his burning passion
   for the woman he loved.
  passionate:   filled with passion, eager
  The  two groups had a passionate
 VI. Detailed Study:
61. sip: to drink in small quantities
 suck: to draw (as liquid) into the
  to suck milk from his mother's
 sap: to drain the fluid part of a
VI. Detailed Study:
62. jug: a large deep, usu.
 earthenware or glass
 container with a narrow
 mouth, a handle and a lip for
  VI. Detailed Study:
63. appeal: to make a strong request for
 help, support, mercy; beg
 He appealed to his attacker for mercy.
 He appealed to me for help.
v. please, attract, interest
 Some people say Peking Opera is too
   old-fashioned to appeal to people any
 The idea appealed to me.
 VI. Detailed Study:
64. intellect, intellectual,
 intelligence, intelligent
intellect: the ability to understand
 or deal with ideas and information,
 the ability to reason rather than to
 feel or act.
VI. Detailed Study:
  adj.  concerning the intellect,
   able to use the intellect well,
   showing unusual reasoning
 VI. Detailed Study:
   n. a person who works and lives by
   using his mind.
  It is man's intellect that distinguishes
   him from the beasts.
  Chess is a highly intellectual game.
  He is an intellectual person / an
 VI. Detailed Study:
 a. good ability to learn and
   understand quickly
 b. information gathered by the
   government or the army about their
   country's enemies and their activities.
 intelligence quotient (IQ)
 Use your intelligence.
 VI. Detailed Study:
intelligent: having or showing powers
 of reasoning or understanding.
  Dr.    Smith is a man of great
   intelligence but Prof. Brown earns
   the respect of his colleagues for his
   high intellect.
  VI. Detailed Study:
An Intellectual or Intellectual person is
 one who has developed his brain and is
 highly educated.
  One can be very intelligent / have
   great intelligence, without knowing
  A small child with a clever quick
   mind is intelligent but he can hardly
   be an intellectual.
  VI. Detailed Study:
65. duel: unlawful fight between two
 persons who have quarrelled, usu. with
 swords or pistols, at a meeting arranged
 and conducted according to rules, in the
 presence of two other persons called
 VI. Detailed Study:
66. roar: to give a deep loud
 continuing sound.
  tigers   roaring in their cages
  He just roared (ie laughed loudly)
   when he heard that joke!
  n.   long loud deep sound
 VI. Detailed Study:
67. mortal: n. a human being as
 compared with a god, a spirit, etc.
  All   human beings are mortal.
adj. causing death; fatal
  a   mortal wound, injury, etc
  The collapse of the business was a
   mortal blow to him and his family.
VI. Detailed Study:
68. agency:
 Truth   does not need any human
   influence to support it.
 Xinhua    News Agency
 the   Central Intelligence Agency
VI. Detailed Study:
69. momentary: transitory, lasting
 for a very short moment

70. hush: silence, stillness, quiet,
VI. Detailed Study:
71. rule: decide officially
  The    jury ruled that he was innocent
   of all charges.
  The club ruled against accepting
   new members.
  I cannot rule out / exclude the
   possibility of trouble.
VI. Detailed Study:
72. adjourn: to bring a meeting,
 trial, etc to a stop, esp. for a
 particular period or until a later
73. hawker: a person who travels
 from place to place selling things,
 usu. with a cart.
 VI. Detailed Study:
74. ponder: to consider, to think about
 sth. carefully
  Each   chess player will have five
   minutes to ponder his next move.
  Give   me a few days to ponder over it.
VI. Detailed Study:
75. brute: an animal, esp. one that you
 feel sorry for
  The lions I am talking about are the
   poor half-starved brutes reserved
   for tourists.
  stupid, animal-like or cruel person,
   esp. one who has a tendency to
   behave violently.
  He is an unfeeling brute.
   VI. Detailed Study:
76. cower: to bend low and draw back as
 from fear, pain, shame, cold etc.
  The   dog cowered when its master beat it.
  crafty expert agents fresh from the
   cowing and tying down of a dozen
  coward:  a person unable to face danger
   because he lacks courage
 VI. Detailed Study:
77. sulphur: AmE. sulfur. 硫磺
  sulphurous: scathing, harsh
78. dispatch: a report sent by a
 journalist who is in a different town or
  I picked up the paper and read a
   dispatch from a correspondent in
   New York.
 VI. Detailed Study:
79. collapse: fall down or in, break to
  The  roof collapsed under the
   weight of the snow.
  Ifyou work too hard, your health
   may collapse.
  Their   marriage collapsed.
VI. Detailed Study:
80. resume: go on after stopping for a
  We'll stop here and resume
   working at 2 o'clock.
  Those standing may resume their

resume---curriculum vitae
   VI. Detailed Study:
81. squat: to sit on one's heels, or on the
 ground with the legs drawn up close to
 the body
82. perch: rest, stand or sit on the edge of
 sth. that is not intended to be a seat.
  Dr Smith perched on the corner of his
  The sparrow perched upon the
   television antenna.
 VI. Detailed Study:
83. gawk: look at sth. in a foolish way
84. spring: to bring forward suddenly,
 to produce as a surprise
  He  sprang his marriage on his
  The   film made her spring into fame.
  He   sprang a new proposal.
 VI. Detailed Study:
85. trump card: (in card games such
 as bridge or poker) each card of a suit
 that has, for the time being, higher
 value than the other three suits
  Hearts  (spades, clubs, diamonds)
   are trumps.
  to play one's trump card: to make
   used of one's most valuable resource
VI. Detailed Study:
86. startle: to give a shock or
 You  startled me. I didn't hear
  you come in.
 I was startled to hear his news /
  by his news.
      VI. Detailed Study:
87. wile: a trick intended to
 deceive, skill in outwitting
  wily:    full of wiles, cunning,
  The  serpent by his wiles
   persuaded Eve to eat the apple.
  the   wiles of the Devil
 VI. Detailed Study:
88. campaign: a series of planned
 activities to gain a special object
  a   political / advertising campaign
89. passage: passing of a bill so that it
 becomes law.
  Passage   of such a resolution depends
    on public support.
 VI. Detailed Study:
90. resolute: fixed in determination
 or propose, firm
  You  must be resolute and do
   what you think best.
  He   was a serious, resolute student.
 VI. Detailed Study:
91. strode: walk with long steps
92. repel: to drive back by force,
  to   repel an attack
  This material will repel heat and
 VI. Detailed Study:
93. punctuate: to interrupt from
 time to time
  a   speech punctuated with cheers
94. Amen: may this be true, so be
95. enquire, inquire: question
VI. Detailed Study:
96. mop: to wipe up with a mop,
 to wipe away sweat with a
97. bald: hairless, leafless,
98. dome: rounded roof with a
 circular base, sth. shaped like a
VI. Detailed Study:
99. snigger: (AmE snicker) to
 laugh in a disrespectful more or
 less secret way
  cf:   giggle, snort
VI. Detailed Study:
100. twirl: to turn round and
 round quickly, to cause to spin
  The secretary twirled the pencil
   round in her fingers.
  She  twirled her hair round her
 VI. Detailed Study:
101. pursue: to follow in order to
 overtake, capture, kill, or defeat
  The policeman pursued the thief
   down the road.
  She   felt their eyes pursuing her.
  The   poet pursued fame all his life.
  VI. Detailed Study:
102. condemn: a. to declare sb. to be
 wrong or evil
  Everyone     condemned his foolish
  Most   people condemn nuclear war.
b. to sentence, to state the punishment
  The  judge condemned the criminal to
   ten years in jail.
VI. Detailed Study:
Condemn     carries very strong
 judicial connotations. It implies a
 final decision or a definitive
Denounce adds to condemn the
 implication of public declaration.
When meaning to criticise, the two
 words are similar in usage.
 VI. Detailed Study:
103. livid: blue-grey, as of marks on
 the skin after being hit (bruise)
104. slur: an unfair damaging remark
  Don't   slur my brother's reputation.
  The  rumours cast a slur upon my
   good name.
VI. Detailed Study:
105. gravel: hammer
106. quell: to quiet, to put down
 The dictator quelled the uprising.
 The police used fire hoses and tear
  gas to quell the rioters.
107. hubbub: a mixture of loud noises
 cf: din: distressing hubbub, causing
  the ear to suffer
VI. Detailed Study:
108. forlorn: (one who is) left
 alone and unhappy
  as forlorn as King Lear at the
   end of his days.
  VI. Detailed Study:
109. hail: a. to salute, greet with
 enthusiastic approval
  The crowd hailed the victor.
  The people lined the streets to hail
   the returning heroes.
  b. to summon by calling
  to hail a taxi / a passing boat
VI. Detailed Study:

110. on the books : (here) still
 listed in the law
 VI. Detailed Study:
111. wake: track left by a ship on
 smooth water
in the wake of: after, following
Seagulls followed in the wake of the
The car left clouds of dust in its wake.
Many troubles follow in the wake of
IV. Structural Analysis
Part 1: A buzz ran ... his views
  the setting of the scene
Part 2: By the time ... for an oil
  the   trail itself
Part 3: Not long ago...with the passing
  the ending
     IV. Structural Analysis
The process of the trial
  Day  1: Preliminary fight
    J. Scopes is here because ignorance
     and bigotry are rampant. Today it is
     the teachers, and tomorrow it will be
     the magazines,… After a while, it is
     the setting of man against man...
     "That damned infidel."
  IV. Structural Analysis

. The   process of the trial
    Day 2: calling witnesses
   Bryan: “The Christian
   believes that man came from
   above... The evolutionist
IV. Structural Analysis
  Judge ruled against
  permitting the scientists to
  testify for the defence.
  Climax of the trial: Darrow's
  trick to trap Bryan.
IV. Structural Analysis
.   The process of the trial
Day  3: verdict: guilty, $100 fine
 and costs.
 Victorious defeat.
V. Rhetorical Devices:
  my case would snowball into...
 our town ...had taken on a circus
 The street ...sprouted with ...
 … had not scorched the infidels...
  …after the preliminary sparring
  over legalities…
 V. Rhetorical Devices:
  The trial that rocked the world
Transferred epithet
 Darrow had whisper throwing a
  reassuring arm round my shoulder.
 The Christian believes that man came
  from above. The evolutionist believes that
  he must have come from below.
V. Rhetorical Devices:
  when      bigots lighted faggots to
  The  truth always wins...the
   truth...the truth...
  V. Rhetorical Devices:
  Darwin is right --- inside.
A pun is a play on words, or
 rather a play on the form and
 meaning of words.
a. Words or phrases having two
 or more distinct meanings.
 V. Rhetorical Devices:
For  a church outreach visitation
program, I was paired with a rather
reserved woman. We knocked on one
house’s front door. Thinking no one was
home, we started to walk away. Just then,
a man wrapped in a bath towel, dripping
wet, appeared at the upstairs window.
“We hope you can visit our church
sometime,” my partner called up. “We’d
like to see more of you.”
V. Rhetorical Devices:
 “My   daddy’s an account.”
  “Yeah. What does your daddy
  “He’s a lawyer.”
  “ No, just the regular kind.”
V. Rhetorical Devices:
The major was about to address
his men when the general came.
The general talked to the soldiers
and left. Then the major
announced:" The general had just
made a general speech. Now listen
the major points."
V. Rhetorical Devices:
b. words having the same or
 almost same sound but differing in
 form and meaning. Homophones.
  Seven days without water
   makes one weak.
V. Rhetorical Devices:

Then  there was the man in the
restaurant. “You're not eating
your fish,” the waitress said to
him. “Anything wrong with it?”
“Long time no see (sea),” the man
V. Rhetorical Devices:
Oxymoron: formed by conjoining of
 two contrasting terms.
  Malone called my conviction a
   "victorious defeat".
  bitter sweet memories
  proud humility
  orderly chaos
  a damned saint
V. Rhetorical Devices:

 marching     backwards to the
  glorious age of the 16th century
 Hiroshima---the   liveliest city in
  the world
Lesson 10

Thank you.

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