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Psychological Disorders

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					     Psychological Disorders
• Welcome to week 14!
  – Psychology assistantship applications
  – Study guide for ch. 13, 14 and 15 on web
  – Quiz ch. 13: Disorders
  – Exam 4 essays: Peak experience and
    disorders/treatment
       Psychology Assistantships

• Criteria
   – Earn a B+ or A in this course
   – Have desire to help students and can work well with
     them
• Qualified applicants receive:
   – 1,2, or 3 units of transferable elective credit
        • (psych. 199 – A,B,C: Teaching Experience in Psychology)
   – Letter of recommendation
   – Reinforcement of psychological concepts
• Requirements
   –   Attend class
   –   Assist with paper flow
   –   Conduct weekly study sessions
   –   Pre-view debate papers
                   Case:
• Chris and Britt just got married. Since they
  moved in together Chris has been
  obsessively cleaning the whole house. He
  spends all his time cleaning and he can’t
  stop even when it makes him late to work
  or deprives him of sleep. He says he is
  fearful that the germs will make him and
  Britt sick.
 Example: do not copy any part of
 this entire example in your essay
• My diagnosis of this case is obsessive
  compulsive disorder because of these
  symptoms: repeated obsessions about
  germs, repeated compulsions to bring
  relief from anxiety about germs and
  inability to get to work on time and not
  sleeping.
 Do not copy this in your essay
• The cause from the neuroscience view is
  that there is an imbalance in the
  neurotransmitters in his brain that cause
  the tendency toward obsessive thought
  and resultant compulsions. He may also
  have some adrenaline problem.
 Do not copy this in your essay
• The stressor that caused the appearance
  of the symptoms of this disorder was
  getting married and living with his new
  wife.
 Do not copy this in your essay
• The cause from my theoretical orientation,
  cognitive, is that the person has self-
  defeating, illogical and irrational thinking
  as a result of the influences on his thinking
  such as parents, peers, media, and family.
  These thoughts cause him stress and that
  manifests the genetic tendency to have
  obsessive compulsive disorder.
 Do not copy this in your essay
Cognitive therapists use cognitive
 restructuring and exposure of illogical and
 irrational thinking to help clients. They
 identify the irrational thinking and help
 clients produce a new more rational
 thoughts. They also point out the illogical
 parts of clients’ thinking.
Do not copy this in your essay!
• Therapy:
• Therapist: “What have you been thinking
  about that has caused you difficulty lately?
• Client: “I can’t stop thinking about the
  germs in my new home.”
• Therapist: What is one specific thought
  you have?”
 Do not copy this in your essay!
• Client: I say, “I have to get all these germs off
  my counters before they infect me and my new
  wife.”
• Therapist: Let’s try some cognitive restructuring.
  I will write down a new thought for you to
  practice that says, ‘I am beginning to realize that
  I will not be satisfied with any amount of cleaning
  and that I will try to begin to trust that I will be
  healthy.”
 Do not copy this in your essay!
• Client: “But I don’t believe that.”
• Therapist: “With repetition you can replace the
  old thought with this new one. I think this, in
  addition to your medication, will make it easier
  for you not to respond with compulsive
  behavior.”
• Client: “I’ll try it, but it will be really hard not to
  clean anyway.”
        What is Abnormal?
• Write three goals you have for
  understanding abnormal behavior.
 Psychological Disorders

 Psychological Disorder
   a “harmful dysfunction” in which
    behavior is judged to be:
     Rare
     Disturbing to the person or others
     Maladaptive
     Dangerous
 Psychological Disorders

 Medical Model
   concept that diseases have physical
    causes
   can be diagnosed, treated, and in most
    cases, cured
   assumes that these “mental” illnesses can
    be diagnosed on the basis of their
    symptoms and cured through therapy,
    which may include treatment in a
    psychiatric hospital
Psychological Disorders

  Bio-Psycho-Social
   Perspective
   assumes that biological,
    sociocultural, and
    psychological factors combine
    and interact to produce
    psychological disorders
Psychological Disorders
       Exercise on disorders:

• Use the handout in your syllabus called
  Psychological Disorders Worksheet and
  try to diagnose these cases with a partner
  now.
      Classifying
 Psychological Disorders
 DSM-IV
  American Psychiatric Association’s
   Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
   Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition)
  a widely used system for classifying
   psychological disorders
  presently distributed as DSM-IV-TR
   (text revision)
              DSM IV-TR
• Five Axes
  – Axis 1: Clinical Syndromes
  – Axis 2: Personality Disorders
  – Axis 3: Medical Conditions
  – Axis 4: Psychosocial and environmental
    factors
  – Axis 5: Global Assessment of Functioning
      Diagnostic Impression
• Axis I: 296.33 Major Depression
• Axis II: 301.60 Dependant Personality
  Disorder
• Axis III: Cirrhosis of the liver
• Axis IV: loss of friends, retirement,
  moving,
• Axis V: 70, mild symptoms
        Schizophrenia

 Schizophrenia
  literal translation “split mind”
  a group of severe disorders
   characterized by:
    disorganized and delusional thinking
    disturbed perceptions
    inappropriate emotions and actions
        Schizophrenia

 Delusions
   false beliefs, often of persecution or
    grandeur, that may accompany
    psychotic disorders
 Hallucinations
   sensory experiences without sensory
    stimulation
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
     Anxiety Disorders

 Anxiety Disorders
   distressing, persistent anxiety or
    maladaptive behaviors that reduce
    anxiety
 Generalized Anxiety Disorder
   person is tense, apprehensive, and in
    a state of autonomic nervous system
    arousal
    Anxiety Disorders

 Panic Disorder
  marked by a minutes-long
   episode of intense dread in
   which a person experiences
   terror and accompanying chest
   pain, choking, or other
   frightening sensation
    Anxiety Disorders

 Phobia
  persistent, irrational fear of a specific
   object or situation
 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  unwanted repetitive thoughts
   (obsessions) and/or actions
   (compulsions)
Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety Disorders

            PET Scan of brain of
             person with
             obsessive-
             compulsive disorder
            High metabolic
             activity (red) in
             frontal lobe areas
             involved with
             directing attention
  Dissociative Disorders

 Dissociative Disorders
   conscious awareness becomes separated
    (dissociated) from previous memories,
    thoughts, and feelings
 Dissociative Identity Disorder
   rare dissociative disorder in which a
    person exhibits two or more distinct and
    alternating personalities
   formerly called multiple personality
    disorder
  Personality Disorders

 Personality Disorders
   disorders characterized by inflexible
    and enduring behavior patterns that
    impair social functioning
   usually without anxiety, depression,
    or delusions
    Personality Disorders
 PET scans illustrate reduced activation in a
  murderer’s frontal cortex

             Normal               Murderer
Types of Personality Disorders
• The “Odd” personality disorders:
  – Paranoid: deep distrust, persecution
    fears

  – Schizoid: avoidance of people, Vulcan
    like

  – Schizotypal: discomfort in
    relationships, odd thinking and
    behavior patterns
 Types of Personality Disorders
• “Dramatic” Personality Disorders
  – Antisocial Personality Disorder: disregard for
    social norms, charming, deadly
  – Borderline Personality Disorder: moody,
    impulsive, manipulative, empty,
    worthlessness, self-destructive
  – Histrionic Personality Disorder: drama kings
    and queens, lies, exaggerations
  – Narcissistic Personality Disorder
 Types of Personality Disorders
• “Anxious” Personality Disorders
  – Avoidant Personality Disorder: restrained
    social relationships, inadequacy, sensitive
  – Dependent Personality Disorder: excessive
    need to be taken care of, clinging, fearing
    abandonment
  – Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder:
    focus on order, high standards, rigid,
    stubborn, lack of affection
     Do you know someone with the
      following type of personality
                disorder?
•   1. Schizoid       • 8. Avoidant
•   2. Schizotypal    • 9. Dependent
•   3. Paranoid       • 0. Obsessive-
•   4. Antisocial       Compulsive
•   5. Borderline
•   6. Histrionic
•   7. Narcissistic
Mood Disorders-Depression, Anti-
   social personality disorder

                          Boys who
                           were later
                           convicted of
                           a crime
                           showed
                           relatively low
                           arousal
       Mood Disorders

 Mood Disorders
   characterized by emotional extremes
 Major Depressive Disorder
   a mood disorder in which a person, for no
    apparent reason, experiences two or more
    weeks of depressed moods, feelings of
    worthlessness, and diminished interest or
    pleasure in most activities
       Mood Disorders
 Manic Episode
   a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive,
    wildly optimistic state
 Bipolar Disorder
   a mood disorder in which the person
    alternates between the hopelessness and
    lethargy of depression and the overexcited
    state of mania
   formerly called manic-depressive disorder
Mood Disorders-
  Depression
Mood Disorders- Suicide
 Mood Disorders-Bipolar
 PET scans show that brain energy
  consumption rises and falls with emotional
  switches




 Depressed state     Manic state    Depressed state
Mood Disorders-
  Depression
           Altering any
            one component
            of the
            chemistry-
            cognition-mood
            circuit can alter
            the others
Mood Disorders-
  Depression

                   The
                    vicious
                    cycle of
                    depressio
                    n can be
                    broken at
                    any point
Schizophrenia
Rates of Psychological
      Disorders

				
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