Healthy Cooking Trim the Fat and Halt the Salt Manny J. Delgado NBCT, CCE, CEC, MCFE, CDM, CFPP, CPFM, CFSM Figuring out Fats • Fat is a nutrient • Fat provides 9 calories of energy per gram • 3 major kinds of fats – saturated, mono- and poly-unsaturated • Primary sources in food – butter, margarine – Cheese, cream, whole milk, meats, poultry; bacon; shortening; lard; chocolate; coconut; oils Why Low Fat? • USDA requires that a school meal meet the US Dietary Guidelines • The Dietary Guidelines recommend a diet low in fat – 30% - 35% of total calories maximum intake • Reduces risk factors for chronic diseases such as - heart disease, obesity, high blood pressure, type II diabetes, some cancers Sources of Fat in Foods • Main dish- meat, meat alternate – cheese, eggs, yogurt, Dried beans ( 0 grams fat/2 oz); peanut butter(32 grams fat/2 oz) • Milk, Fluid – regular, reduced fat (2%); low fat (1%) • Vegetables – natural fat –avocado, olives, added fats – butter, margarine, oils, salad dressings, mayonnaise • Grains/Breads – added butter; frosting; doughnuts; muffins • Desserts – containing fats, cream etc Options for reducing fat content • Specify lean cuts of meat and/or lower fat products • Drain fat off meats after cooking • Oven bake menu items such as “fried chicken, French fries” • Limit the use of gravy • Off-set a higher fat entrée with other lower fat foods in the same meal – example: Oven Fried Chicken, rice or baked potato instead of mashed; steamed vegetables/salad; fruit; low fat milk or juice Options for reducing fat content • Reduce added fat in cooked vegetables • Substitute low fat desserts such as fruit, gelatin desserts • Serve low fat condiments – ketchup, mustard versus mayonnaise based dipping sauces or dressings • Use reduced fat or low fat cheeses • Eliminate cheese on sandwiches Reduced fat = Reduced Calories • Calories may not meet the federal desired recommendations • Increase calories by: – Increasing serving size of plain breads, pasta, rice and other grain products – Serve higher calorie vegetables such as corn or potatoes with low calorie vegetables like carrots or broccoli – Offer chocolate milk that contains more calories than other milks – Serve reduced fat desserts that can count as grain/bread components such as rice pudding, gingerbread, gelatin with fruit and whipped topping – Add high calorie, low fat condiments such as jams, jelly, syrup or honey Follow Standardized Recipes • Recipes are tested and tried for best results • Fat content is already reduced, DO NOT add more than is stated in the recipe – Do not add margarine, oil or butter on vegetables if the recipe does not call for it – “butter the toast” AFTER the bread is toasted, not before – Put the mayonnaise and/or salad dressings on the side – Make your tuna/egg/chicken salads –”dry”, with just enough mayonnaise to hold it together Cooking with Less Fat • Instead of : Substitute- Whole Milk Skim or Low fat Milk Whole Egg 1 2 Egg Whites Cream Cheese Low fat Cream cheese Heavy Cream half and half Sour Cream Low fat Yogurt Frying Bake, Broil, Sauté Bacon Canadian Bacon Reducing Sodium – Choosing a diet with less sodium and salt Sodium/Salt • Sodium is necessary for your health • Sodium is one of the minerals found in salt • Salt is made of two minerals -Sodium (40%) and Chloride (60% ) • Both occur naturally in foods • Salt and sodium-containing ingredients are used in food processing • Many sauces add salt as an ingredient – soy sauce, ketchup • Salt enhances flavors of foods Functions of Sodium in the body • Body needs about 500 mg (1/3 tsp) daily • Regulates body fluids • Regulates blood pressure Common Food Sources • Table Salt • Cured meats – deli meats, sausages, ham • Baking soda- bicarbonate of soda • Baking powder • Antacids – Tums, Alka-Seltzer • Snack foods – salted nuts, chips, pretzels, crackers • Canned soups and bouillon cubes • Cheeses • Condiments – pickles, ketchup, mustard • Seasonings and flavor enhancers – MSG • Ethnic Foods – Asian-( Chinese, Japanese, Thai) Reducing Sodium/Salt in the Diet • Fresh is best ! Choose fresh or frozen foods • Choose canned items without added salts and sodium –based preservatives • Limit salty snacks like chips and pretzels • Avoid adding canned/salted ingredients, soup bases to dishes for flavoring • Avoid condiments such as mustard, ketchup, soy sauce • Select low salt cheeses • Avoid cold cuts and canned luncheon meats – “spam” or “vienna sausages” Daily Recommended Intake - 1 teaspoon salt = 2,400 mg Sodium Do not add more than the recipe calls for: • ¼ teaspoon salt = 600 mg sodium • ½ teaspoon salt = 1,200 mg sodium • ¾ teaspoon salt = 1,800 mg sodium • 1 teaspoon salt = 2,400 mg sodium • 1 teaspoon baking soda = 1000 mg sodium • 1 teaspoon soy sauce = 1000 mg sodium • HEALTHY FOODS SHOULD TASTE GOOD AND LOOK APPEALING • TOO MUCH FAT AND SALT WILL MAKE FOODS UNHEALTHY • “IF A LITTLE BIT MAKES IT GOOD, A LOT DOES NOT MAKE IT BETTER!” • FOLLOW THE RECIPE – DO NOT ADD TO “YOUR” TASTE!
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