Trimming the Fat by wanghonghx

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									            Healthy Cooking
      Trim the Fat and Halt the Salt
               Manny J. Delgado
NBCT, CCE, CEC, MCFE, CDM, CFPP, CPFM, CFSM
         Figuring out Fats
• Fat is a nutrient
• Fat provides 9 calories of energy per gram
• 3 major kinds of fats – saturated, mono-
  and poly-unsaturated
• Primary sources in food – butter, margarine
   – Cheese, cream, whole milk, meats,
     poultry; bacon; shortening; lard;
     chocolate; coconut; oils
              Why Low Fat?

• USDA requires that a school meal meet the US Dietary
  Guidelines
• The Dietary Guidelines recommend a diet low in fat – 30%
  - 35% of total calories maximum intake
• Reduces risk factors for chronic diseases such as - heart
  disease, obesity, high blood pressure, type II diabetes, some
  cancers
                      Sources of Fat in Foods
•   Main dish- meat, meat alternate – cheese, eggs, yogurt, Dried beans ( 0 grams fat/2
    oz); peanut butter(32 grams fat/2 oz)
•   Milk, Fluid – regular, reduced fat (2%); low fat (1%)
•   Vegetables – natural fat –avocado, olives, added fats – butter, margarine, oils, salad
    dressings, mayonnaise
•   Grains/Breads – added butter; frosting; doughnuts; muffins
•   Desserts – containing fats, cream etc
          Options for reducing fat content
•   Specify lean cuts of meat and/or lower fat products
•   Drain fat off meats after cooking
•   Oven bake menu items such as “fried chicken, French fries”
•   Limit the use of gravy
•   Off-set a higher fat entrée with other lower fat foods in the same
    meal – example: Oven Fried Chicken, rice or baked potato instead of
    mashed; steamed vegetables/salad; fruit; low fat milk or juice
          Options for reducing fat content
• Reduce added fat in cooked vegetables
• Substitute low fat desserts such as fruit, gelatin desserts
• Serve low fat condiments – ketchup, mustard versus
  mayonnaise based dipping sauces or dressings
• Use reduced fat or low fat cheeses
• Eliminate cheese on sandwiches
                 Reduced fat = Reduced Calories

• Calories may not meet the federal desired recommendations
• Increase calories by:
    – Increasing serving size of plain breads, pasta, rice and other grain products
    – Serve higher calorie vegetables such as corn or potatoes with low calorie
      vegetables like carrots or broccoli
    – Offer chocolate milk that contains more calories than other milks
    – Serve reduced fat desserts that can count as grain/bread components such as
      rice pudding, gingerbread, gelatin with fruit and whipped topping
    – Add high calorie, low fat condiments such as jams, jelly, syrup or honey
                    Follow Standardized Recipes

• Recipes are tested and tried for best results
• Fat content is already reduced, DO NOT add more than is stated in
  the recipe
    – Do not add margarine, oil or butter on vegetables if the recipe does not call
      for it
    – “butter the toast” AFTER the bread is toasted, not before
    – Put the mayonnaise and/or salad dressings on the side
    – Make your tuna/egg/chicken salads –”dry”, with just enough mayonnaise to
      hold it together
        Cooking with Less Fat
• Instead of :       Substitute-
Whole Milk         Skim or Low fat Milk
Whole Egg 1            2 Egg Whites
Cream Cheese       Low fat Cream cheese
Heavy Cream        half and half
Sour Cream         Low fat Yogurt
Frying             Bake, Broil, Sauté
Bacon              Canadian Bacon
Reducing Sodium – Choosing a
 diet with less sodium and salt
                Sodium/Salt
• Sodium is necessary for your health
• Sodium is one of the minerals found in salt
• Salt is made of two minerals -Sodium (40%) and
  Chloride (60% )
• Both occur naturally in foods
• Salt and sodium-containing ingredients are used
  in food processing
• Many sauces add salt as an ingredient – soy
  sauce, ketchup
• Salt enhances flavors of foods
  Functions of Sodium in the body
• Body needs about 500 mg (1/3 tsp) daily

• Regulates body fluids

• Regulates blood pressure
              Common Food Sources
•   Table Salt
•   Cured meats – deli meats, sausages, ham
•   Baking soda- bicarbonate of soda
•   Baking powder
•   Antacids – Tums, Alka-Seltzer
•   Snack foods – salted nuts, chips, pretzels, crackers
•   Canned soups and bouillon cubes
•   Cheeses
•   Condiments – pickles, ketchup, mustard
•   Seasonings and flavor enhancers – MSG
•   Ethnic Foods – Asian-( Chinese, Japanese, Thai)
   Reducing Sodium/Salt in the Diet
• Fresh is best ! Choose fresh or frozen foods
• Choose canned items without added salts and
  sodium –based preservatives
• Limit salty snacks like chips and pretzels
• Avoid adding canned/salted ingredients, soup
  bases to dishes for flavoring
• Avoid condiments such as mustard, ketchup, soy
  sauce
• Select low salt cheeses
• Avoid cold cuts and canned luncheon meats –
  “spam” or “vienna sausages”
      Daily Recommended Intake -
   1 teaspoon salt = 2,400 mg Sodium
  Do not add more than the recipe calls for:

• ¼ teaspoon salt        = 600 mg sodium

• ½ teaspoon salt        = 1,200 mg sodium

• ¾ teaspoon salt        = 1,800 mg sodium

• 1 teaspoon salt        = 2,400 mg sodium

• 1 teaspoon baking soda = 1000 mg sodium

• 1 teaspoon soy sauce   = 1000 mg sodium
• HEALTHY FOODS SHOULD TASTE
  GOOD AND LOOK APPEALING
• TOO MUCH FAT AND SALT WILL
  MAKE FOODS UNHEALTHY
• “IF A LITTLE BIT MAKES IT GOOD, A
  LOT DOES NOT MAKE IT BETTER!”
• FOLLOW THE RECIPE – DO NOT ADD
  TO “YOUR” TASTE!

								
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