YENZA

Document Sample
YENZA Powered By Docstoc
					  YENZA! USING THE INTERNET
FOR RESEARCH & TEACHING IN THE
 HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCES



   http://www.nrf.ac.za/yenza


        Manual for Trainers

          Revision: June 2001




                                            Ann Tothill
                                Ann.Tothill@pixie.co.za
SECTION 1: ABOUT YENZA! ………………………………                                     3
     Background to the Yenza! initiative
       The Yenza! web site
       Yenza! for trainers
       Assumptions about Yenza! learners
       About the sample Yenza! workshops
       What skills and knowledge do I need to use Yenza! for trainers?


SECTION 2: CHOOSING A WORKSHOP FORMAT AND DECIDING WHAT
TO COVER ………………………………………………..……                                          7
       Organizing content
       Skills levels
       Possible content areas / skills


SECTION 3: GENERAL TRAINING ISSUES ………….                                 16
       Numbers
       Presentation
       Beginning the workshop
       Terminology and jargon
       Dealing with mixed level groups
       Handouts
       Keeping your skills up to date


SECTION 4: PLANNING A WORKSHOP ………………                                    21
       Needs assessment
       Advertising the workshop
       Technical preparations
       Workshop evaluation form


APPENDIX I …………………………………………………..                                         25
Sample skills assessment forms


APPENDIX II …………………………………………………                                          33
Sample workshop evaluation form




05 August 2012                                                                2
SECTION 1: ABOUT YENZA!


Background to the Yenza! initiative

South Africa has the highest rate of Internet connectivity on the African
continent, with most tertiary institutions enjoying full connectivity. There is,
however, a long way to go before the potential of the Internet as a tool for
research and teaching is realized in South Africa. The National Research
Foundation, in partnership with the Infolit Project of the Adamastor Trust,
developed Yenza! in 1998 in order to promote the effective use of the Internet
as a research and teaching tool in the humanities and social sciences. The
Yenza! initiative seeks to contribute to the understanding of the potential role of
the Internet and to provide a dynamic resource which can make a practical
contribution to the development of Internet, research and information literacy
skills.

The Yenza! web site

The Yenza! web site contains six main sections:

   Learning to use the Internet

    Using e-mail and e-mail discussion lists; searching for information;
    evaluating information

   Teaching with the Internet

   The research journey

    Starting out; surveying the field; the research proposal; research
    methodology; research outputs

   Discipline-specific resources

    Anthropology, Criminology, Development studies, Economics, Education,
    English, Gender studies, Geography and environmental studies, History
    Home economics and related disciplines, Journalism, communication and
    media studies, Law, Library and information science, Linguistics, Music,
    Nursing science, Philosophy, Political science, Psychology, Religious studies,
    Science education, Social work, Sociology

   Developing a web site

    Site planning; HTML; site building; web development resources; taking your
    database online

   Yenza! for trainers

    Manual for new trainers; sample workshop modules; general training
    resources; zipped version of entire Yenza! site




05 August 2012                                                                   3
A key concern has been to develop content appropriate for the South African
higher education context, drawing on local expertise and resources. Materials on
the site comprise a mixture of annotated links to resources in South Africa and
elsewhere, and materials developed specifically for Yenza! It is hoped that the
proportion of South African content will increase as local academics come
forward with contributions. The materials on the Yenza! web site are freely
available for both self-instruction and use as workshop modules, and are
intended for use by trainers, academics and postgraduate students at South
African universities and technikons.

The site can be used to assist trainers in materials development, to develop
learners' skills during workshops, and as an ongoing resource for both trainers
and learners.

Yenza! for trainers

While the Yenza! materials are available to all trainers and learners, the "Yenza!
for Trainers" section was developed to assist two categories of trainer in
particular:

      Discipline-specific experts who would like to offer Internet workshops to
       their colleagues or postgraduate students. For example, a sociologist
       who uses the Internet for research regularly may want to offer a one-day
       workshop in her faculty but lack the experience to develop an effective
       training programme on her own. Yenza! would provide her with sample
       workshop materials and ideas for adapting them to her own
       requirements.

      Trainers located in computer support divisions who may have both solid
       training experience and advanced Internet skills, but lack exposure to
       humanities and social science research and teaching. For example, a
       trainer may be planning a workshop for historians and need support to
       move beyond a mechanistic "this is how you send an e-mail message"
       approach to "here are some examples of how other historians are using
       electronic discussion lists in their research." Yenza! provides this type of
       trainer with relevant examples, demonstrations and links to resources
       evaluated by experts in the discipline.




05 August 2012                                                                   4
"Yenza! for Trainers" is aimed primarily at trainers planning workshops or short
courses, but the methods and materials can also be adapted for use in courses
of longer duration. These "Yenza! for Trainers" notes are not a step-by-step
guide to running Internet training workshops. Rather, they are concerned with
raising questions for trainers to pursue and suggesting a range of possible
training approaches. Further resources can be found on the Yenza! site itself.

Assumptions about Yenza! learners

While the Yenza! site and materials may be useful to a wide variety of learners,
they were primarily developed for use in a higher education context by
academics and postgraduate students. The needs and circumstances of learners
in this context may differ from those of - for example - learners seeking generic
commercial training, or of undergraduate students. Among the assumptions
about "typical" Yenza! learners:

      Few South African academics are completely unfamiliar with information
       technology. Most have some experience in using e-mail, and many have
       had some exposure to other Internet technologies. Yenza! learners in
       this category are likely to come in at the "false beginner", intermediate
       or advanced levels, and groups with mixed or "erratic" skills levels are
       common.

      Postgraduate students may have no prior Internet experience, or they
       may present a profile similar to that of academic staff.

      Issues of "getting online" differ between the commercial, home user, and
       tertiary education contexts. Home users may need information about
       choosing an Internet service provider and installing and configuring
       software and hardware. Tertiary users are often already "connected"
       with the relevant software installed on their computers.

      The focus of training with both academics and postgraduate students
       must be less on learning the technologies for their own sakes than on
       harnessing these technologies effectively for research and teaching
       purposes.

      While undergraduate students may need to be taught over an extended
       period of time (a semester course, for example), the workshop/short
       course format is better suited to academics and postgraduate students,
       with much left to discovery learning.

       For a South African example of a semester-long course targeted at
       undergraduates, visit the Web site of the University of Natal's "Internet
       Expertise for the Human Sciences" programme:

       http://isango.und.ac.za/




05 August 2012                                                                 5
About the sample Yenza! workshops

At present two sample Yenza! workshop modules are available:

   Introduction to electronic mailing lists

   Introductory web site development

These sample modules may be downloaded from the "Yenza! for Trainers" Web
page at

       http://www.nrf.ac.za/yenza/trainers/

Additional modules will be added as they are developed. The Yenza!
development team welcomes suggestions for additional modules for inclusion in
the site.


What skills and knowledge do I need to use the Yenza materials?

Internet trainers need technical skills and knowledge about the areas they are
teaching, a basic understanding of training principles, and an awareness of the
disciplines they are working with. You don't need to know "everything" about
the Internet to offer an Internet training workshop. You do need to be familiar
with the materials you will cover in your course, and be able to answer questions
raised by learners – or at least point them in the direction of other resources
which will address their concerns.

Yenza! offers inexperienced trainers shortcuts by bringing together tips for
trainers, sample workshops and a selection of discipline-specific resources.
Internet workshops typically requires days of preparation per hour of training.
Yenza! is intended to help the inexperienced or hurried trainer reduce this time
substantially.

To assess whether your skills are adequate to run the type of course you hope to
offer, we suggest that you look at the section on "possible content areas/skills"
in this document. Are you familiar with all the skills and tools listed under the
components you plan to include in your workshop? If not, work on developing
the additional skills you need, and/or look for someone else to work alongside
you in planning and presenting the workshop.

At present there are no international standards in place for the certification of
Internet trainers, but there are proposals to develop such standards. If you are
interested in becoming "an Internet trainer" (rather than someone who can run
workshops on selected Internet topics) you may find it useful to read Diane
Kovacs' article on the proposed core competencies and curricula for certified
Internet trainers:

       http://www.kovacs.com/trainer.html




05 August 2012                                                                  6
SECTION 2: CHOOSING A WORKSHOP FORMAT AND DECIDING WHAT
TO COVER

A variety of factors will inform your choice of workshop content, format and
duration. These include

      The needs and existing skills levels of learners
      The nature of the skills and knowledge to be taught
      Balancing different learning styles with your preferred teaching style
      The time available for running the workshop or course
      Your own level of skills and knowledge
      The facilities and equipment available
      The number of learners
      What additional expertise you can draw on to plan and present the
       workshop or course

Possible formats include hands-on training, demonstration, small group
discussions, "project based" training, individual coaching and combinations of
these approaches. Compromise will often be necessary. For example, a
shortage of computers for hands-on activities may oblige you to rely largely on
demonstrations, or you may be restricted by learners' schedules to a whole-day
format for materials better suited to being taught over two half-days. Do
consider the "best" way to teach the materials in terms of educational principles,
but plan according to circumstances.

Organizing content

Trainers may wish to organize workshops around tools (for example,
"Introduction to E-mail" or "Using Netscape") or thematically (for example,
"Using the Internet for Research").

          "Tool-focussed" workshops can be useful at the basic level or when
           learners need to learn specialized skills in a short time (an example of
           this would be offering a lunch-time session on the use of a specific
           database). On the other hand, this approach may tend towards the
           mechanistic, focussing on skills rather than on their creative
           application. The effective use of one tool may also rely on using
           another tool simultaneously (for example, identifying listservers for a
           particular subject area is likely to rely on the use of Web directories
           and search engines).

          "Thematic" workshops are useful for focussing on the creative
           application of tools and also mirror the way in which the effective use
           of online resources tends to integrate a range of tools. An "Internet
           for Research" workshop might, for example, cover listservers, Web
           search engines, and telnetting to online library catalogues. One
           difficulty with this approach is that learners will seldom have the
           same level of skills across the range of tools, which can make for a
           frustrating experience for both instructor and learners.




05 August 2012                                                                   7
Skills Levels

Because "the Internet" spans such a wide range of skills and tools, specifying
broad bands of skills (beyond the level of learners who have never used any
Internet tools) can be misleading. Skills are often erratic: learners may have
advanced e-mail skills but never have used the World Wide Web, or use search
engines competently but not know how to create bookmarks. It's often easier to
develop a course for complete beginners than for learners with some
experience. Developing intermediate and advanced courses is often more a
matter of "mixing and matching" than following narrowly defined skills bands.
Nevertheless, it is useful to have some broad categories of skills levels in mind
when developing courses.

Possible content areas/skills

The list which follows sets out key Internet-related tools and skills, prerequisites
for their introduction, and suggests appropriate stages and methods for slotting
them into the curriculum.

Overview/History of the Internet

Learners completely new to the Internet should be given a basic overview of the
various components of the Internet, how the Internet works and where it
originated. Most South African academics and postgraduate students will,
however, have heard of the Internet, even if they haven't used it. Ask questions
to elicit what they already know (and what they want to know) about the
Internet before embarking on a lecture. Be wary of overloading learners with
terminology or technical details at this point.

The United States Library of Congress provides a pages of links to articles on the
history of the Internet at

       http://www.loc.gov/global/internet/history.html

A (rather technical!) article by Mike Lawrie on the history of the Internet in
South Africa is available from Uninet at

       http://www2.frd.ac.za/uninet/history/

Windows (3.1, 95, 98)

Using a mouse, launching programmes, minimizing, maximizing and restoring
windows, switching between windows, saving, copying and moving files,
managing files in File Manager/Windows Explorer, selecting, copying and
pasting text

Teaching these skills should not be a core focus of an Internet training
workshop. Be aware, however, that some learners may be unfamiliar with some
of the basic Windows skills your course relies on such as copying and pasting,
file management, and switching between windows. Deal with such problems




05 August 2012                                                                    8
during the course by – where essential – teaching the skills and/or pointing the
learner/s in the direction of relevant resources, such as the ITrain Computer
Handbook, which is available from

         http://unganisha.idrc.ca/itrain/materials.html

Anticipate such problems by stipulating prerequisites clearly before course,
and/or distributing materials such as the Computer Handbook to participants
before the course.

E-mail

Creating and sending e-mail messages, receiving e-mail messages, replying to
and forwarding messages, creating and managing folders, creating automatic
filters, creating distribution lists, attaching files to messages and receiving
attachments, extracting messages to files, CCs and blind copies, "netiquette",
viruses, virus hoaxes and chain letters, internal vs Internet e-mail, remote
access: POP3, telnet and Web-based e-mail

        Don't assume that even learners who use e-mail regularly know how to
         make full use of their e-mail packages' features. For example, before
         teaching a module on listservers establish whether learners know how to
         create folders and automatic filters.

        Basic e-mail training should be structured, hands-on and single-package
         based.

        Intermediate or advanced e-mail training can, if necessary, take the
         form of demonstrations, and may involve more than one package or
         even a package not used by the learner. (For example, "this is how you
         create a folder in Pegasus Mail. The procedure in Eudora is similar –
         experiment when you're back at your own computers").

        Bear in mind possible technical difficulties: for example, the guest logins
         used in some computer training facilities may not provide fully-functional
         e-mail accounts.

            If you are unfamiliar with the e-mail package used at the training
             facility you're using, the following resources may assist you:

                    ITrain

                 The ITrain materials include comprehensive manuals for
                 instructors and students on using Outlook, Pegasus and Eudora.

                 http://unganisha.idrc.ca/itrain/materials.html

                 These manuals are available in both zipped MS Word and PDF
                 formats.




05 August 2012                                                                    9
Electronic mailing lists (listservers)

"What is a listserver", listserver basics, moderated vs unmoderated lists,
subscribing, unsubscribing, list name address vs command processor address,
other listserver commands, listserver software, formulating questions,
managing large volumes of mail, mailing list etiquette, finding discipline-specific
listservers

          Before electronic mailing lists are introduced, learners must have
           mastered at least the basics of sending and receiving e-mail – and
           preferably be comfortable with the full range of e-mail features.

          Before you start to teach listservers, check learners' proficiency in
           the skills listed under "e-mail" above. If possible, do this before the
           workshop, for example through a pre-workshop questionnaire. If you
           are aware of gaps in advance, plan to spend some time during the
           workshop addressing them. If you discover such gaps only when
           learners present themselves at the workshop deal with them without
           derailing the course. For example, explain that in order to manage
           the volume of mail generated by listservers they may want to create
           folders and filters in their e-mail package. Demonstrate this
           procedure very briefly, and suggest that learners explore how to do it
           on their own after the workshop.

          Identify a selection of listservers relevant to learners' subject areas
           before the workshop.

          Listservers can be taught as part of an advanced e-mail course, as a
           stand-alone module, or as part of Internet for research or teaching
           modules.

          Ideally, training in the use of listservers should involve hands-on
           practice. For learners with good e-mail skills it is, however, possible
           to teach listservers through Web-based demonstration and
           exploration.

          If you are relying on guest logins during the training session,
           hands-on training is likely to be impossible.

The World Wide Web and Browsers

Outline of the Web, hypertext, links, address bar, URLs, navigation,
client/server,  protocols,    toolbar    and      menu    basics,    navigation,
bookmarks/favorites, history file, saving files, turning images off, "guessing"
URLs, configuring browsers, setting home pages, differences between browsers
and browser versions, cookies, plugins, Java, PDF

          Learners completely new to the Web should be taught in a structured
           and explicit fashion, with demonstrations followed by exercises of
           slowly increasing complexity.




05 August 2012                                                                  10
          As with e-mail, even regular Web users are often not familiar with all
           the features of their browsers – and may have gaps in their
           knowledge as basic as not knowing that URLs can be typed into the
           address bar. When teaching materials relating to any aspect of the
           Web (such as search engines) make sure that learners are familiar
           with browser basics. This can be done through the pre-workshop
           questionnaire and by initially "talking" the class through even basic
           actions while you are demonstrating on the Web.

          The following may be useful in familiarizing you rapidly with a range
           of browsers:

                    ITrain
                     The ITrain materials include comprehensive manuals for
                     instructors and students on using Netscape 3:

                     http://unganisha.idrc.ca/itrain/materials.html

                     These manuals are available in both zipped MS Word and PDF
                     formats.

Web Search Engines and Directories

Technical skills, basic and advanced searching techniques in at least one search
engine, meta search engines, directories, information gateways and
clearinghouses, Boolean logic, choosing keywords and developing search
strategies, choosing search tools.

          Before search engines are introduced learners should have mastered
           at least the basics of the World Wide Web and browsers.

          Teaching search engines effectively – particularly at an advanced
           level – places heavy demands on the skills of trainers. Trainers need
           technical skills and familiarity with search engines, knowledge of
           effective search strategies, along with some awareness of the nature
           of the discipline/s under consideration. If you expect to train learners
           from a discipline you are unfamiliar with, enlist the help of someone
           from that discipline (or a subject librarian) during the planning stages
           of the workshop, and use subject-based information gateways or the
           relevant Yenza! pages to identify resources before the workshop.

          Explain – using examples - that different search engines function in
           different ways, but restrict training (at all but the most advanced
           levels) to one or two search engines.

          "Scavenger hunts" are a common tool for teaching search
           techniques: learners are given a list of questions and asked to find
           the answers on the Web. A key advantage of this technique is that
           scavenger hunts offer a structured searching exercise which can be
           developed at various levels to test particular skills or the mastery of
           particular search engines features. Undergraduate students may




05 August 2012                                                                  11
           enjoy scavenger hunts, particularly if an element of competition is
           introduced. Among the disadvantages are that scavenger hunts can
           be frustrating if the trainer hasn't bothered to check that the answers
           actually exist, and that advanced learners may find them "feeble" or
           insufficiently focussed. Discipline-specific scavenger hunts may be
           effective, but cannot easily be developed by trainers outside their
           own areas of expertise.

          The following resources may be of value in helping you to improve
           your search engine skills and keep up to date:

                    Search Engine Watch

                     The Search Engine Watch site provides comprehensive
                     information about search engines, ranging from basic
                     information about how different search engines work to
                     advanced information for Webmasters.

                     http://www.searchenginewatch.com/

                     At the site you can subscribe to the Search Engine Report, a
                     monthly electronic newsletter which covers search engine
                     developments and changes to the Search Engine Watch Web
                     site.

                    University of California (Berkeley) handouts

                     The University of California at Berkeley offers an excellent
                     online tutorial on finding information on the Internet, covering
                     from basic to advanced search techniques. Included are an
                     overview of the features of major search engines, and
                     detailed instructions for using seven of the most commonly
                     used search engines:

                     http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/
                     Internet/FindInfo.html

                    Search engine "help" and information pages.

                     Search engines' "help" pages are an important source of
                     information which may be overlooked by users.




05 August 2012                                                                    12
Telnet

Launching telnet, connecting and logging in to remote computers, searching
databases and online library catalogues via telnet, logging off, using e-mail
accounts via telnet, Hytelnet, identifying telnettable resources

            The stage at which Telnet is most usefully introduced depends largely
             on the needs of the group. For example, if learners have telnettable
             e-mail accounts, telnet may be an essential part of basic training. In
             other cases, telnet may be introduced when library catalogues or
             online databases are covered.

FTP

Downloading software through the Web, standalone FTP applications (e.g. WS
FTP), connecting to remote computers, user IDs and passwords, anonymous
FTP, binary vs ASCII, CHMOD

            There is generally little point in introducing "standalone" FTP at an
             early stage – if at all - beyond explaining the terminology if it comes
             up, unless participants have a particular need for it.

            Learners should be familiarized with zipping and unzipping at the
             time FTP is introduced.

Usenet News

Usenet overview, reader software vs Web browsers, browsing, subscribing,
threads, posting, replying to postings, Deja and similar tools

            While Usenet News can be a useful research tool in some disciplines,
             the Yenza! team has generally found mailing lists to be of more value.

            Teaching Usenet news may pose technical challenges, as training
             rooms computers are often not configured to read newsgroups.

Specialized databases and other resources

For example: the National Research Foundation's Nexus database system,
H-Net Humanities and Social Sciences Online, SOSIG (UK-based Social Science
Information Gateway) and the Scout Report Archives.

            While specialized resources such as those listed above are widely
             taught as part of general Web and Web searching courses they can
             also usefully be approached through mini modules and
             demonstrations        –       for       example        lunch-time
             demonstration-and-exploration sessions.

            H-Net:
             http://www.h-net.msu.edu/




05 August 2012                                                                   13
          SOSIG:
           http://www.sosig.ac.uk/

          Scout Report Archives
           http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/archives/

          Nexus database system:
           http://www.nrf.ac.za/nexus/

Evaluating Internet Resources

          Evaluating Internet resources critically is an important part of using
           the Internet effectively for research and teaching. Trainers should
           not, however, approach this mechanistically - appropriate methods
           of dealing with evaluation will differ according to the needs and
           backgrounds of learners. Undergraduate students, for example, are
           still learning to evaluate resources in general, while evaluation is part
           of the daily business of academics.

          If you are using Netscape Communicator and have access to Web
           space, it's easy and dramatic to demonstrate the "vanity press"
           aspect of the Web by publishing a page on the spot.

          Develop focussed, realistic exercises if you are including the
           evaluation of Internet resources in workshop for academics. For
           example, have them identify and evaluate resources in their
           discipline for inclusion in the Yenza! site.

          Elicit ideas on evaluation from learners rather than handing over
           checklists, and emphasize that "usefulness" relates closely to
           purpose.

Teaching with the Internet

          Unless you have experience in teaching with the Internet (and
           particularly if you have no tertiary teaching experience), be wary of
           "telling academics how to teach".

          If you do not have experience of teaching with the Internet, your role
           should be to point learners to resources about online teaching, and
           demonstrate sites which illustrate ways in which the Internet is used
           for teaching. Keep up to date with developments in the area; Yenza!
           offers some pointers:

           http://www.nrf.ac.za/yenza/teaching/




05 August 2012                                                                   14
Using the Internet for research

Your approach to teaching the Internet for research purposes should take a
variety of factors into account.

          What is your own background in research? If you are not an
           experienced researcher, be wary of "telling academics how to do
           research." Be sensitive to the different needs and contexts of
           different academic disciplines.

          What background in research do trainees have? Are they experienced
           researchers who want to explore the possibilities of using the
           Internet in research, or are they novice researchers who are still
           learning the basics of research in general?

          Without setting out a rigid plan or checklist, you can point to some of
           the ways in which the Internet can be used throughout the research
           process. Emphasize that while the Internet can be a useful source of
           information at all stages, trainees should also explore its potential as
           a tool for networking, collaboration and the dissemination of their
           own research results.

                In the preparatory phase, the Internet can be used in identifying
                 a research topic, through both online literature searches and
                 networking.

                The Internet may be a useful source of ideas about research
                 design and methods.

                E-mail and Web-based tools can facilitate collaborative research
                 across distances.

                The Internet presents possibilities of conducting survey research
                 online – for example through Web-based surveys and interviews
                 by e-mail.

                Research results can be disseminated online, for example
                 through publication in electronic journals and publishing working
                 papers online.




05 August 2012                                                                  15
SECTION 3: GENERAL TRAINING ISSUES

This section looks at a variety of general issues for trainers to take into account.
Workshop planning will be dealt with in greater detail in Section 4.

Numbers

Numbers of trainers and learners

          A general rule of thumb for Internet training is a maximum of ten
           learners per instructor. Even with ten learners it is preferable for the
           instructor to have an assistant.

          Assistants need not be familiar with course content: they may play a
           valuable role simply by dealing with events such as computers
           hanging, or assisting learners who can't locate something essential
           onscreen.

Numbers of learners per computer

          Hands-on training is generally conducted most effectively with
           between one and three learners per computer.

          The number of learners per computer generally affects the time it
           takes to cover materials. "One student per computer" workshops
           (particularly with no assistant trainers) will tend to move more slowly
           than workshops with students grouped in twos or threes at
           computers.

Presentation

          In order to present online materials and offline demonstrations
           effectively you will need access to a data-projector or overhead
           projector and LCD panel.

          If you plan to use PowerPoint slides, either save them in HTML format
           and run them off the Web, or make sure that the computer you are
           using for demonstrations has PowerPoint or the PowerPoint viewer
           loaded.

Beginning the Workshop

          During the course of introductions at the start of the workshop elicit
           information about learners' existing skills levels and what they hope
           to achieve during the course. Although you should send out a
           pre-workshop questionnaire asking for this information, don't rely
           wholly on information received in advance. Try to stick broadly to
           your programme, but be prepared to modify it if necessary.

          Don't skip the basics unless you know for sure that learners have the
           skills.




05 August 2012                                                                   16
          Introduce learners to handouts and resources such as the Yenza! site
           at the beginning of the workshop. Explain that you won't be teaching
           them everything they'll ever need to know, at the same time
           reassuring them with resources they can refer to both during and
           after the workshop.

          Start demonstrations slowly and talk learners conversationally
           through your actions as a further skills check. For example, "I'm
           opening Netscape and typing the URL into the address bar…please
           stop me if I'm doing anything you're not familiar with."

          Make it clear to learners when they are expected to watch you, and
           when they are required to copy your actions.

          Avoid having the workshop derailed by the need to teach
           basic/unanticipated skills. Give thought to when it is essential to stop
           and teach unplanned skills, and when you can point learners in the
           direction of resources they can explore on their own after the
           workshop.

Terminology and Jargon

          Consider which terms are essential for the level and content you are
           teaching. Explain the essential terms to learners, but don't overload
           them with terminology. For example, explain the terms relating to
           e-mail addresses to participants in a basic e-mail course, but don't
           introduce terms such as "FTP" or "client/server".

          Refer learners to glossaries for comprehensive information and
           definitions, for example

           http://www.matisse.net/files/glossary.html

           or the glossary contained in the ITrain Computer Handbook.

          Consider keeping a "running list" of Internet terms. As terms are
           introduced, or learners ask for explanations, write them up on a
           flipchart or whiteboard.

          It isn't necessary to swallow the dictionary, but do familiarize
           yourself with key terms. ("Gee, I'm not sure what a search engine is"
           will do little to enhance your credibility as a trainer).

Dealing with Mixed Level Groups

Except when you are training complete beginners, you are likely to find yourself
facing groups with mixed skills levels.

          Try to minimize disparities in skills levels through pre-workshop
           questionnaires and by being very specific about workshop contents in




05 August 2012                                                                  17
           advance. Don't just advertise an "Advanced Internet Workshop" – do
           specify the prerequisites and the skills and tools which you intend to
           cover. You may still land up with a group with very disparate skills,
           but don't let it be your fault.

           You might also consider running an introductory session for learners
           with weaker skills before the workshop, and/or sending out
           self-instructional materials before the workshop. For example, if your
           workshop on listservers relies on knowledge of Pegasus Mail's
           advanced features, send participants a handout on Pegasus Mail and
           indicate which skills you will assume they are familiar with.

          The more inexperienced the trainer, or the larger the group of
           learners you will be dealing with, the more important it is to try to
           reduce the disparity in skills levels.

          Techniques and strategies for dealing with groups of mixed skills
           levels include

                    Having assistants on hand to coach more/less advanced
                     learners

                    Going to the workshop prepared with "self-directed" exercises
                     for more advanced learners to work on

                    Preparing a set of exercises of increasing difficulty which
                     participants can work on at their own pace

                    Dividing the group if there are enough instructors to work with
                     separate groups

                    Planning a project-based approach which makes use of peer
                     teaching

                    Using learners with more advanced skills to coach/assist
                     learners with more basic skills.

                     There are limits to this technique, though! If all the skills and
                     tools to be covered in a workshop are clearly too basic for one
                     or two of the learners, it may be best to give them the option
                     of leaving the workshop.

Handouts:

Deciding when and how much information to hand out will depend on factors
such as the content to be covered, the time available, learners' skills and
learning styles, the amount of time available for materials development and
your personal preferences.

          Most of the additional information learners are likely to need is
           available on the World Wide Web. It is, however, time-consuming




05 August 2012                                                                     18
           and inconvenient to have to conduct a Web search each time you
           need a basic piece of information. Consider which information could
           be most usefully provided as a handout, without drowning learners in
           paper.

          Point learners to additional resources at the beginning of the
           workshop; introduce them early on to the Yenza! site. As noted under
           "Beginning the workshop" this will help reassure students that they
           don't need to understand every term mentioned, and don't have to
           note down every word you say.

          Don't overburden learners with massive tomes of documentation.
           How many people actually read computer manuals?

          Aim for a coherent set of handouts, but don't feel obliged to develop
           an entire original training manual if existing resources are suitable for
           your purposes. Many educational sites – including Yenza! – make
           their materials freely available for educational purposes.

Keeping your skills up to date

If you intend to offer Internet training on a regular basis, it is essential to keep
your skills up to date, and to familiarize yourself with Internet developments.
One of the easiest ways of doing so is by subscribing to relevant mailing lists –
both discussion lists and electronic newsletters. Among the lists the Yenza! team
has found most useful are:

          Internet training issues:

                NETTRAIN, a discussion list for Internet trainers with over 3000
                 subscribers worldwide, is a highly valuable resource for trainers.
                 Be warned, though, that it does generate a lot of messages.

                 For a taste of NETTRAIN's discussions visit the list's archives:

                 http://listserv.acsu.buffalo.edu/archives/nettrain.html

                 Subscribe to NETTRAIN by sending an e-mail message to

                 listserv@listserv.acsu.buffalo.edu

                 subscribe NETTRAIN

                 Request the information file for the list by the following message
                 to the same address:

                 info NETTRAIN

          Teaching with the Internet/technology




05 August 2012                                                                      19
                The H-MMedia list "discusses and promotes the use of
                 multimedia, computers, and the Internet for teaching, research,
                 and scholarship in the humanities and social sciences.

                 More information about the list is available at

                 http://www.h-net.msu.edu/~mmedia/

                NODE learning technologies network is a not-for-profit electronic
                 network supported by a consortium of Ontario higher education
                 institutions.

                 http://node.on.ca/

                 This highly rated site facilitates information and resource sharing
                 and research in the field of learning technologies in higher
                 education, and sends out the biweekly electronic newsletter
                 "Networking." Subscribe online at

                 http://node.on.ca/networking/subscribe/

          Search engines

                The Search Engine Report is a monthly e-mail newsletter which
                 tracks search engine developments and changes to the Search
                 Engine Watch site. Subscribe online at

                 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/sereport/index.html

          Discipline specific research and teaching resources

                The Internet Scout project catalogues and evaluates online
                 research and teaching resources, and sends out a bimonthly
                 e-mail report.

                 Further information is available from the Scout Report site at

                 http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/

          Yenza! The Yenza! project provides support for trainers using these
           training materials through the Yenza! Web site.




05 August 2012                                                                   20
SECTION 4: PLANNING A WORKSHOP

The key to a successful Internet workshop lies on the one hand with thorough
preparation and planning, on the other with flexibility and the recognition that
however well you plan you cannot control all circumstances.

Needs assessment

The first step in planning a training course or workshop is identifying the needs
of your institution or department. Although what you teach will in some measure
be determined by your own level of skills and knowledge, your primary concern
should be with what your colleagues or students want and need to learn, rather
than just with what you are able to teach.

Needs assessment should take place at three stages:

      Before you plan and advertise the workshop, assess the broad training
       needs of your target group (e.g. your institution, faculty or department).
       This can be done informally by talking to colleagues or formally by means
       of a questionnaire (see the first sample training needs and training needs
       and skills assessment form in Appendix I) This needs assessment will
       help you develop your training programme in broad outline, and identify
       what combination of training, "sensitizing", demonstration and
       discussion is appropriate.

      Send out a (preferably brief) questionnaire in advance, to be returned to
       you no less than three days before the workshop. Again be as specific as
       possible in your questions. Don't rely solely on questions such as "do you
       consider yourself a beginning, intermediate or advanced Internet user?".
       Rather, ask questions about specific competencies such as "which of the
       following can you do…create folders in your e-mail package…create
       automatic mail filters", etc. In order to keep the questionnaire short,
       restrict yourself to questions about skills which are relevant to the
       course. There is no need to ask questions about FTP skills if you are
       planning a course on e-mail.

       See the first sample training needs and training needs and skills
       assessment form in Appendix I for further ideas.

      At the beginning of the workshop you should again do a quick round-up
       of any particular needs that participants may have.

Advertising the workshop

Be as specific as possible about both course content and prerequisites when you
advertise the course. Rather than simply advertising an "Intermediate Internet
Course" phrase your advertisement along the following lines:




05 August 2012                                                                21
                              Beyond the Basics:
             Using the Internet in the Humanities & Social Sciences

       This course is aimed at academics in the social sciences who want to
       explore the possibility of using the Internet in their research.

       This two-day course will cover

          electronic discussion lists ("listservers")
          search engines
          social science information gateways
          South African online databases
          conducting survey research and interviews online

       Prerequisites are familiarity with Windows 95/98, e-mail, and Netscape
       or Internet Explorer.


          Even if you have been specific about course content and
           prerequisites in your advertisement for the course, it is useful to
           obtain more specific information from participants before the
           workshop. This will help you tailor the course to the particular skills
           and needs of the group, and help you anticipate difficulties of mixed
           skills levels.

Technical preparations

The technology will usually let you down! Nevertheless, paying meticulous
attention to technological preparations will increase the likelihood of your
workshop running smoothly.

          Book facilities and equipment well in advance.

          Check out the computer facilities in advance, and in person if
           possible. If you will be running the workshop outside your own
           institution and can't inspect the facilities, ask detailed questions by
           phone or e-mail. For example: how many computers are there? How
           many with Internet connections? What software packages are being
           run? What is the training room layout like? Will a flipchart and/or
           whiteboard be available? Is there a data projector or LCD panel?

          Find out whether guest logins will be required, and make any
           necessary arrangements.

          Consider setting up a "test" list for learners to practice listserver skills
           during the training session.




05 August 2012                                                                      22
          If the training room computers are running software or versions you
           are not familiar with, gain experience on these packages before the
           workshop.

          Prepare for the worst! Think about how much of the workshop you
           would be able to run offline if the live Internet connection went down.
           Prepare offline demonstrations, and make sure they work.

          Explore tools such as WebWhacker and Microsoft Camcorder for
           developing offline demonstrations:

          WebWhacker

           WebWhacker is an "offline browser" which enables one to download
           entire Web sites – including text and images – for offline
           demonstration. Evaluation versions – functional for 30 days - can be
           downloaded from the Blue Squirrel site:

           http://www.bluesquirrel.com/products/whacker/whacker.html

          SnagIt

           SnagIt, from Techsmith, is an excellent screen capture utility which
           includes a video capture facility. The price for a single-user copy is
           US$39.95, but an evaluation version may be downloaded free of
           charge:

           http://www.techsmith.com/products/snagit/default.asp

Workshop evaluation form

          Why evaluate? Workshop evaluations are useful in helping you
           assess and improve your practice. Phrase questions so as to elicit
           information which will be useful to you, and aim to keep the
           evaluation form brief.

          When to evaluate? The most "practical" time to evaluate a workshop
           is at the end of the workshop itself, just before participants leave.
           Asking participants to complete the evaluation form at this time may
           ensure          the         highest           response           rate.

           Bear in mind, though, that participants may be completing the form
           in a rush, and that a questionnaire completed immediately after a
           workshop cannot assess the long-term impact of the course. Try to
           find a way of getting feedback a few weeks after the workshop, for
           example by following up informally with participants, sending out a
           short questionnaire, or maintaining a discussion list for participants.

           The novelty of Web-based evaluation forms sometimes contributes
           to a high rate of return. You may wish consider this option if you have
           the technical support needed to develop this type of form.




05 August 2012                                                                 23
          Question format: Closed questions are quick to answer, but restrict
           the respondents' choices. Open-ended questions and spaces for
           comment allow the respondent more freedom, but take longer to
           complete and may not address the issues which are important to you
           as trainer. A combination of open-ended questions and closed
           questions on a three- to five-point scale may be the most useful way
           to probe participants' perceptions of a workshop.

          Consider the range of what you want to evaluate, for example the
           effectiveness of your own presentation skills, the materials used, the
           duration of the workshop, the workshop content etc.

See Appendix II for a sample workshop evaluation form.

Develop a checklist

Rather than providing a ready-made checklist for workshop preparations, we
suggest that you develop your own checklist when you start planning your
workshop, suited to your own particular training context.




05 August 2012                                                                24
APPENDIX I

SAMPLE TRAINING NEEDS AND SKILLS ASSESSMENT FORMS

The two sample training needs and skills assessment forms which follow are
included as illustrations of different ways of eliciting information relating to
Internet skills and training needs. The exact questions which you ask must be
formulated in the light of your training programme content and objectives.

Formulating questions

Two question formats are common:

          Questions asking learners to assess the level of their skills in a
           particular area ("beginner", "intermediate" etc.)

          Questions asking learners to identify what they can do ("compose
           and send an e-mail message", "configure my browser's preferences"
           etc.)

Learner's self-assessment of their level of skills tends to be inaccurate. When
developing your skills and needs assessment questionnaire you might want to
include some questions to probe learners' perceptions of their skills levels, but
don't rely entirely on this type of information to develop your workshop. Asking
learners about what they can actually do is likely to provide more useful
information for planning purposes. You may also want to probe the extent to
which learners are satisfied with their existing skills levels.




05 August 2012                                                                25
Sample training needs and skills assessment form (1)

This type of evaluation form is useful in probing the skills of participants who
have signed up for a specific workshop in order to fine-tune the programme.

Yenza! Using the Internet in the Humanities and Social Sciences

Workshop prerequisites: familiarity with Windows 3.1, 95 or 98.

Please complete this questionnaire and return it to [name of trainer] no later
than [date].

This information will assist us in adapting this workshop to the particular needs
of participants.

1. How would you rate your Internet skills overall?
      Basic / Good / Excellent

2. Do you use e-mail?
       Never / Occasionally / Every Day

       If you use e-mail

       2.1 Which package and version do you use

       (e.g. Pegasus 2.5) ……………………………………………………………………………..

       2.2. Which of the following can you do (mark as many as apply)

          Create and send messages
          Create folders
          Create automatic mail filters
          Attach files to outgoing messages
          Open files attached to incoming messages

3. Are you subscribed to any e-mail discussion lists (listservers)? Yes / No

       If yes, which ……………………………………………………………………………………….

       ……………………………………………………………….…………………………………………….

4. Do you use the World Wide Web?
       Never / Occasionally / Every day

       If you use the World Wide Web,

       4.1. Which browser/s and version/s (for example, Netscape 3, Internet
       Explorer 5) do you use?

       ……………………………………………………………………………………………...……………




05 August 2012                                                                 26
       4.2. Which of the following can you do (mark as many as apply)

          Set your browser's startup page
          Configure your browser preferences (turn loading of images on and
           off, set proxies, configure your mail preferences)
          Open additional browser windows
          Search for text in loaded pages
          Bookmark sites for future reference
          Organize your bookmarks
          Open and use the history file
          Save pages onto disk
          Select, copy and paste text into other applications
          Open frames in new windows
          View and save images

5. Have you used Web search engines? Yes / No

       If yes,

       5.1 Have you used / do you use AltaVista? Yes / No

                 If yes

                 5.1.1 Which of the following are you able to do (mark as many as
                 apply)

          Include and exclude words in AltaVista's Simple search
          Search for phrases with AltaVista's Simple search
          Restrict your AltaVista Simple search by host, domain, URL and title
          Assess when to use AltaVista's Simple search and when to use
           Advanced search
          Use Boolean operators to refine your Advanced AltaVista search

       5.2 Which other search engines have you used?

       ……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………..

       ……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………..


6. Have you used meta search engines? Yes / No

       If yes,

       6.1 Which meta search engines have you used?

       ……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………..

       ……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………..

7. Have you ever designed your own Web site? Yes / No




05 August 2012                                                                 27
8. Please indicate your particular research / teaching area/s.

……………………………………………………………………….………………………..……………………..

……………………………………………………………………………….………………..……………………..

9. Please indicate your reason/s for attending this course, along with any
specific skills you hope to develop.

……………………………………………………………………………………..…………….…………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………..




05 August 2012                                                          28
Sample training needs and skills assessment form (2)

Adapted from the Nova Scotia Public Library Internet Handbook:

       http://rs6000.nshpl.library.ns.ca/provlib/handbook98/index.html

This type of form is most useful in assessing the general training needs of an
organization as a basis for developing a complete training programme, but it can
also be adapted for use in assessing prospective participants' skills before a
workshop.

This example relies mainly on learners identifying in general terms what they
can do, but also includes an element of self-identification of Internet skills levels
in that the statements relating to competencies are categorized into four levels.

Internet Training needs and skills assessment form

Level 1: Unaware Level 2: Aware Level 3: Proficient Level 4: Mastery

Please mark the statement which best describes your current skills and
knowledge.

1. E-mail and listservers

   Level 1: I do not use e-mail

   Level 2: I understand the concept of e-mail and can explain personal and
    research-related uses for it.

   Level 3: I use e-mail on a regular basis to communicate with others.

   Level 4: I can send group mailings and feel confident that I could start a
    listserver. I know how to overcome difficulties sending and receiving
    attachments have trained others in e-mail use.

2. Netiquette

   Level 1: I am not aware of any guidelines governing the use of the Internet.

   Level 2: I understand a few rules that should apply when communicating
    electronically.

   Level 3: I have read guidelines for Internet use and follow rules routinely. I
    know about and read FAQ files associated with resources on the Internet.

   Level 4: I am able to teach others about Netiquette rules and why they have
    been developed.




05 August 2012                                                                    29
3. The World Wide Web

   Level 1: I have never used the World Wide Web.

   Level 2: I am familiar with the basics of Web browsing and occasionally
    navigate around the Web using a browser.

   Level 3: I have read my browser's manual and understand its features. I am
    able to configure my browser’s settings and understand what HTML means.

   Level 4: I can actively discuss and compare the merits of different browsers
    and have taught others how to navigate the Web. I am able to design a
    mount a Web page using HTML or an authoring tool.

4. Search Tools

   Level 1: I do not know how to locate information on the World Wide Web.

   Level 2: I recognize the array of information on the net but do not have the
    skills to find it quickly or efficiently.

   Level 3: I can conduct a search on the Web using common search tools and
    explain it to others.

   Level 4: I regularly conduct advanced searches using a number of different
    tools, understand different search engines, and can evaluate or compare
    different products.

5. Newsgroups

   Level 1: I have no knowledge of newsgroups.

   Level 2: I have been shown how to locate and read the newsgroups from my
    account.

   Level 3: I understand the organization of newsgroups and can navigate
    easily through them.

   Level 4: I contribute to one or more newsgroups. I can instruct others in the
    use of newsgroups.

6. Telnet / FTP

   Level 1: I cannot access information from remote computers.

   Level 2: I realize that information and computer programs useful to me are
    stored on computers around the world, however I do not know how to access
    this information.

   Level 3: I can access library catalogues and other remote computers through
    the Telnet command. I can transfer and download files between remote




05 August 2012                                                                30
    locations and my host machine using FTP. I can unzip downloaded files and
    install retrieved programs. I can speak to the issue of viruses and always
    scan downloaded files.

   Level 4: I regularly send and retrieve files and programs. I am able to load
    an updated Web page to a remote server. I feel comfortable helping new
    users learn about Telnet and FTP.

7. History and Structure of the Internet

   Level 1: I know nothing about the Internet.

   Level 2: I have a passing familiarity with the Internet and want to learn
    more. I have read some articles on this topic or have attended a
    presentation introducing the Internet.

   Level 3: I can recount a history of the Internet and recognize its
    international character. I am aware of the extent of its resources. I can
    speak to the issue of equitable access. I know what TCP/IP stands for and
    why it is important.

   Level 4: I routinely access Internet resources using a variety of different
    applications. I actively educate myself on technological changes impacting
    the Internet

8. Computer Networks

   Level 1: I do not understand how networks work or their role in the Internet.

   Level 2: I have heard of ‘clients’ and ‘servers’ and have some familiarity with
    computers. I do not, however, use a network or have the skills to do so.

   Level 3: I can describe how networks operate and the purposes they serve.
    I can distinguish between LAN, WAN, and the Internet

   Level 4: I use different types of networks on a daily basis. I can or do serve
    on committees giving advice and providing information about networks. I
    can speak knowledgeably about protocols, speeds and network
    management




05 August 2012                                                                  31
9. Training needs

I wish to improve my Internet skills in the following areas:

1. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………

2. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………

3. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………

4. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………

5. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………




05 August 2012                                                 32
APPENDIX II

SAMPLE WORKSHOP EVALUATION FORM

The Internet for Social Science Research: workshop evaluation form

Please take a few minutes to complete this evaluation form. The information you
provide will assist us in improving our workshops and being responsive to
faculty needs.

Please feel free to contact [name & e-mail address of trainer] after the workshop
with additional feedback.

Please circle the response which corresponds most clearly to your own
evaluation:

1. Were the workshop objectives clearly stated in advance?

       Not at all clearly | Fairly clearly | Clearly | Very clearly

2. Do you feel that the workshop objectives were achieved?

       No | More-or-less | Yes

3. How useful did you find the workshop as a whole?

       Useless! | Fairly useful | Useful | Very useful

4. How useful did you find the component on Web browsers?

       Useless! | Fairly useful | Useful | Very useful

5. How useful did you find the component on Web searching?

       Useless! | Fairly useful | Useful | Very useful

6. How useful did you find the component on e-mail discussion lists?

       Useless! | Fairly useful | Useful | Very useful

7. How useful did you find the handouts?

       Useless! | Fairly useful | Useful | Very useful




05 August 2012                                                                33
8. How would you rate the level of the workshop in relation to your own skills?

          I should have gone to a more basic course or been given some
           self-study materials in advance.
          The level of the workshop was about right.
          I should have gone to a more advanced course.
          I could have taught this course myself!

9. What would you like to have spent more time on during the workshop?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………..

10. What would you like to have spent less time on during the workshop?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...


11. What time of day do you generally find most convenient for attending staff
development workshops?

       AM | PM - before 15:00 | PM – after 15:00 | Evening | Saturday

12. What time of day do you generally find least convenient for attending staff
development workshops?

       AM | PM - before 15:00 | PM – after 15:00 | Evening | Saturday

13. Please use this space for any comments you would like to make about the
workshop.

……………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………..

Thank you.




05 August 2012                                                               34

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:12
posted:8/5/2012
language:English
pages:34