Objectives

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					Objectives
The Research behind and
Benefits of Using Objectives
Objectives of Presentation
• Upon completion of this
  presentation, you will be able to:
  – describe why using objectives is “best
    practice”.
  – discuss the research behind
    objectives.
  – explain what the educational experts
    say about objectives.
Guiding Questions for LZHS
• What do we want students to learn?
• How will we know that students have
  learned it?
• How will we respond when students
  don’t learn?
• How will we respond when students
  already know it?

  – Course objectives help us answer the
    first question
History of Objectives
• Tyler’s (1949) four principles in the development of
  curriculum are:
   – What educational purposes should the school seek to
     attain?
   – What educational experiences can be provided that
     are likely to attain these purposes?
   – How can these educational experiences be effectively
     organized?
   – How can we determine whether these purposes are
     being attained? (p. 1)

• Education is a process of changing the behavior patterns
  of people. It is clear that educational objectives, then,
  represent the kinds of changes in behavior that an
  educational institution seeks to bring about in its
  students.
                 - Ralph Tyler
       (Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction)
Research and Data
Synthesis Study     Focus                Average Effect   Percentile Gain
                                         Size

Wise & Okey, 1983   General effects of   .48              18
                    setting goals or
                    objectives
Wallberg, 1999      General effects of   .46              18
                    setting goals or
                    objectives
Lipsey & Wilson     General effects of   .55              21
                    setting goals or
                    objectives

• After posting and communicating daily
  learning objectives, the results displayed
  increased student achievement and
  motivation.
• The full results can be found in Classroom
  Instruction that Works (2001).
Research and Data
Research and Data
Benefits for Teachers
• Clarity of destination
   – To begin with the end in mind means to
     start with a clear understanding of your
     destination. It means to know where your
     going so that you better understand where
     you are now so that they steps you take are
     always in the right direction.
           - Steven Covey
  (The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People)
Benefits for Teachers

• Clarity of destination
  – If the curriculum is not clear, the
    assessment will be equally unclear,
    and therefore not effective.
       – Steve Chappuis
       – (Leading Assessment for Learning)
           » Assessment Training Institute
Benefits for Teachers

• Academic Freedom
  – The purpose of objectives is not to
    restrict spontaneity or constrain
    academic freedom; but to ensure that
    learning is focused clearly enough
    that both students and teacher know
    what is going on, and so learning can
    be objectively measured.
Benefits for Teachers

• Academic Freedom
  – Different archers have different styles,
    so do different teachers. Thus, you
    can shoot your arrows (objectives)
    many ways. The important thing is
    that they reach your target (goals) and
    score a bulls-eye.
Benefits for Teachers

• Framework for collaboration
  – According to Chappuis (2006), in
    order to be effective, teachers need to
    have ownership of the written
    curriculum and process.
Benefits for Teachers
• Framework for collaboration
  – Teachers need documents to be able
    to work with one another to set and
    achieve clear goals. Schools need to
    give teachers the time and support
    they need to work together to
    translate standards, benchmarks,
    frameworks, and grade-level
    curriculum into clear, teachable, and
    assessable learning targets,
    (Chappuis, 2006).
Benefits for Students

• Clarity of destination
  – One of the first things a person wants
    to know is "What am I going to learn
    in this class?" which is not the same
    as "What will this class cover?"
  – Learning objectives are brief
    descriptions of specific things a
    learner will know or be able to do.
Benefits for Students

• Clarity of destination
  – Students will understand
    expectations.
  – Assessment and grading is based on
    the objectives.
Benefits for Students
• Clarity of destination
  – The benefits of clear targets to
    students are indisputable. As soon as
    students have a clear vision of what is
    expected of them, they are then led in
    the correct direction. Usually students
    do not recall what was learned on a
    daily basis; however, by verbalizing
    and visually posting the learning
    objectives, students had a clear
    perspective of the daily goals of the
    class.
       – Shirley Clarke, 2001
       – Unlocking Formative Assessment
           » Institute of Education, University of
             London
Benefits for Parents
• Partnership with home
  – Parental involvement showed an even
    stronger correlation to student
    achievement than characteristics such
    as class size, school size, or student to
    teacher ratio. These components
    foster an increase in the motivation
    and achievement of students based on
    clear communication of learning
    objectives between teachers, students,
    and parents.
        – Peace, Mayo, and Watkins, 2000
        – “Becoming Consumers of Our Own Research:
          What really makes a difference in improving
          learning”
            » The Journal of Southeastern Regional
               Association of Teacher Educators
Benefits for Parents
• Partnership with home
  – If parents don’t know how to identify
    the standards, or learning objectives,
    represented on various assessments,
    parents will be unable to help their
    children see, for example, that two of
    the seven objectives gave their child
    trouble, and that he or she did fine on
    five of them. The child will be unable
    to see where he or she has had success
    in learning or to identify where their
    difficulties lie.
       – Arter, Chappuis, & Stiggins, 2004
       – Classroom Assessment for Student Learning:
         Doing It Right-Using It Well
           » Assessment Training Institute
Success in Schools
•   Miami Dade County Schools
•   Jefferson City High School
•   Freeport Intermediate School
•   Suburban Chicago High School
    study

				
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posted:8/5/2012
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