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BGC-Cycles-ppt-2010

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					Biogeochemical Cycles
  3 Fundamental Laws of Nature

• Conservation of Matter

• 1st Law of Thermodynamics
      (Conservation of Energy)

• 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
     (Entropy)
            Earth:
 Matter does not come and go


Earth is a
 Closed
 System
to Matter
     Biogeochemical Cycles:
     Reservoirs & Pathways
              Atmosphere


                             Biosphere




                           Lithosphere
Hydrosphere
Some Major Cycles of Matter

        •Water Cycle
        •Rock Cycle
        •Chemical Cycles
          •Carbon
          •Nitrogen
          •Phosphorous
          •Sulfur
              Carbon Cycle
                  Atmosphere


                                 Biosphere




                               Lithosphere
Hydrosphere
    Carbon Cycle: Reservoirs
                  Atmosphere
                      1x
              (= 7.3x1017 grams
                   carbon)             Biosphere


                                  3x


    55x
                                    35,000x
                                  Lithosphere
Hydrosphere
              Carbon Cycle
                  Atmosphere         Respiration& Decay

                               Photosynthesis

                                         Biosphere




                                     Lithosphere
Hydrosphere
                     Carbon Cycle
                                   Atmosphere                 Respiration& Decay

                                                        Photosynthesis

                                                                  Biosphere


       Dissolution                    Weathering
                                      & Volcanism
                      Exsolution
                                                                         Burial &
                                                                         Lithification


                 Photosynthesis                               Lithosphere
Hydrosphere                             Burial &
                                        Lithification
   Human
  Impacts
                 Carbon Cycle
                                                       Deforestation:
                                             Decrease Photosynthesis
                       Atmosphere                Increase Respiration




                                                  Biosphere
Net Effect:
Increase in Carbon
in Atmosphere        Burning fossil fuels:
                     Increased combustion




                                              Lithosphere
  Hydrosphere
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

                             northern
                              winter



                                              northern
                  QuickTime™ an d a           summer
        TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
           are need ed to see this picture.
   Impact



          QuickTime™ an d a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
   are need ed to see this picture .
              Nitrogen Cycle
                     Atmosphere

                                        Denitification:
                                              bacteria    Biosphere
                  Nitrogen fixation:
                         • bacteria              Absorption
                         • lightning


                                                              Waste &
                                                              Decomposition

                                       Erosion
                                                      Lithosphere
Hydrosphere
Nitrogen-
  Fixing
Bacteria in
  Root
 Nodules
   Human
  Impacts
                 Nitrogen Cycle
                              Atmosphere


                                                                       Biosphere
Net Effect:
Increase in Nitrogen       Nitrogen fixation:
                       • industrial (fertilizer)
in water & soil                • combustion




                                                   Increased Erosion
                                                                Lithosphere
  Hydrosphere
         Phosphorous Cycle
                                   Never enters the atmosphere

                           Atmosphere


                                                     Biosphere

                                            Absorption



                                                          Waste &
                                                          Decomposition
                                         Weathering & Erosion
                                                 Lithosphere
Hydrosphere   Absorption
                                 Sedimentation
   Human
  Impacts
             Phosphorous Cycle


                                                             Biosphere
Net Effect:
Increase in phosphorous in water &
“algal blooms”; Depletion in soils

               Mining, use (fertilizer, detergent, etc.)
               & increased runoff



                                                           Lithosphere
   Hydrosphere
              More Phos. for organisms
                      Impact:
                   Eutrophication



          QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor               QuickTime™ an d a
   are neede d to se e this picture.   TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
                                          are need ed to see this picture.
     Impact:
    Red Tide



          QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Un compressed) decompressor
   are neede d to see this picture.
                       Sulfur Cycle
                                                            Bacteria
                                    Atmosphere              Absorption


                                                 Bacteria
                                                 Release          Biosphere

                                      Volcanoes         Absorption
       Precipitation                  & Weathering


                                                                         Waste &
               “Evaporation”        Weathering                           Decomposition

                                                 Sedimentation

Hydrosphere            Absorption
                                                              Lithosphere
                                     Deep Sea Vents
   Human
  Impacts
                       Sulfur Cycle
                                Atmosphere


Net Effect:                                         Biosphere
               Precipitation”
Increase in    Acid Rain
atmosphere                         Burning
(health                            Fossil Fuels

effects) and
acid rain

  Hydrosphere                                     Lithosphere
What is the ultimate interface
 of all 4 reservoirs for these
            cycles?


            Soil

				
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