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					                             OPMS:
                    New Education Presentation




                                    Contains animations – use F5
                                            key to view

1/21/2011 (c) GSC          OPMS - General Presentation             1
              The One Page Management System
                          (OPMS)

                      A practical way to crystallize all ideas
                    relating to a ‘Mission’ onto a single page,
                          with links to all needed details

               Enables development of an effective
                  Action Plan to accomplish the
               Mission – starting with current ideas
                  available with people involved




1/21/2011 (c) GSC                   OPMS - General Presentation   2
                    The heart of the matter:


             In order to accomplish any Mission,
               we have to ensure the Mission is
              continuingly kept in mind – but we
             have to focus on successfully doing
             the things that may “CONTRIBUTE
                       TO” that Mission



1/21/2011 (c) GSC          OPMS - General Presentation   3
                    The OPMS: your entire Mission
                    crystallized onto a single page!




                    Links to every aspect of your Mission!




1/21/2011 (c) GSC               OPMS - General Presentation   4
    Current Mission: “To design effective educational system (for India)”




1/21/2011 (c) GSC            OPMS - General Presentation                    5
All aspects of ANY ‘Mission’ – no
      Current Mission: “To design effective educational system (for India)”
matter how large or ambitious, can
                             page, with
be captured on a singleThis Dimensions contains: THINGS TO DO to
    All the BARRIERS, etc, that may hinder or
    prevent all details! accomplish the Mission AND all the action all
linkages toaccomplishment of Mission AND represents any or models
                      The ‘SYSTEM TIE-LINE’
                               constructedusing the elements in means to show
                The ‘SYSTEM TIE-LINE’ provides us a practical the THINGS TO
                           the in various using inherent within the
                                relationships
    all the action models constructed Dimensions may impact onthe Mission
                 of elementsDO list
            Usehow‘System Tie-Line
    those elements the THINGS TO DOconsideration (more – e.g. how do
                 of on system under in our Action Planning’ later)
            Useand‘System Tie-Line
                          This is a ‘2nd order’ ‘MODEL activities to
                the various BARRIERS impact on theOF MODELS’be
                           – it accomplish the Mission?, etc, etc…
                performed to comprises of ALL the elements and
                          ALL the models arising during the course
                            should be developed between classes
                 Linkagesof any Mission into appropriateelements in
                             that have been our OPMS in order to
                 the various dimensions offound useful through
                  Linkage across Dimensions: How to develop
                              minds about our systems Missions.
                 clarify ouryears of people working onand how to
                        appropriate action in them… shown later do
                        develop effectiveTHINGS TO DO that would
                         Linkage across Dimensions: How
                        help us to overcome the BARRIERS, etc
                          the BARRIERS, etc, hinder or prevent
                          that important issue becomes entirely
                        - accomplishment of THINGS TO DO
                                       clear
                          (and the Mission)?to us!



    1/21/2011 (c) GSC                 OPMS - General Presentation               6
On development, this general structure can become a detailed
 Current Mission: “To design effective educational system (for India)”
        Action Plan to overcome Barriers confronted…

      Action Plans to help prepare to          Action Plans to develop the
       We get a series of models within
     avail the OPPORTUNITIES like the          strengths required (but not
       following, which would help clarify
        the ‘window of opportunity’! TO currently available) to
                             THINGS
       how to accomplish desired
                                               DO
                                               accomplish Mission
                                                Action Plans to overcome
       objectives: the models are detailed
           PERT and Gantt Charts to
                                              weaknesses that may hinder
                               BARRIERS
       in regard to whichHinder specific
             help view timelines for
                                               or prevent accomplishment
       hinder which specific THINGS TO
            Activities and Events in                We get a whole series of such
                                                      of our Mission!
       DO, and exactly what are the
                       System                       models linking up specific
       THINGS TO BARRIERS
                      DO to overcome                elements in the various
      We are already familiar with PERT and Gantt
       specific BARRIERS!                           dimensions of the OPMS to
       Charts through ‘Project Planning Software’
                                                    specific elements in other
          Enable us to identify    to overcome      dimensions

                                           More THINGS TO DO


                     The model means: “BARRIERS hinder specific THINGS TO
                     DO – and we are enabled to identify more THINGS TO DO to
                     overcome those BARRIERS”
 1/21/2011 (c) GSC                   OPMS - General Presentation                    7
  Current Mission (for example): “To enhance value we bring to our clients”

               Recap: As the linkages between various
           ‘fundamental dimensions’ are clarified, users
                     Fundamental Dimensions
                             (above ‘subsystems’
             find that all needed System Tie-Line) within the
           global system (which are seen below Systems Tie Line)
           also become clear to them! (And OPMS helps
                 develop and define these subsystems)


                             ‘Subsystems’
                            (below System Tie-Line)




1/21/2011 (c) GSC            OPMS - General Presentation                 8
         To tackle a problem using OPMS:


         1. Convert problem to ‘Mission’ (illustrated later)

         2. OPMS will ask you some ‘trigger questions’ about
            the Mission – respond to those questions with
            your available ideas – OPMS will create lists of
            your ideas (illustrated later)

         3. Put those ideas together to create an Action
            Plan (illustrated later)




1/21/2011 (c) GSC           OPMS - General Presentation        9
                                    Problem:
                       “Organization not sufficiently
                               profitable”

                                  Mission:
                        “To double organizational
                      profitability within two years!”
                                    Problem:
                    Our Educational Systems not effective
                                  enough
                                  Mission:
                       “To develop (and implement)
                      effective educational systems -
                              within --- years”


1/21/2011 (c) GSC                OPMS - General Presentation   10
       First, use ‘Idea Generation Tools’, which work by
     responding to specific ‘trigger questions’ about issue
                       under consideration

     E.g.: 1st Trigger Question:
      “What, in your opinion, are the THINGS TO DO
        to develop effective educational systems -
                    within --- years?”




1/21/2011 (c) GSC          OPMS - General Presentation        11
                We illustrate the process in outline for an ‘individual
                Mission:
                “To create effective educational systems
                for India’s real needs”
                First, we try and find out something of what we know on
                the issue by responding with appropriate ‘elements’ to a
                Trigger Question about the Mission…(the elements as
                imagined by one specific individual based on his
                understand and his reading about education – everyone
                interested should articulate his/her own elements, and
                all those elements should be added to the Action Plan!)

                    To do the action planning effectively, we create an
                     Interpretive Structural Model with the elements
                                        generated



(c) GS Chandy                       OPMS General Presentation              12
    1st Trigger Question: “What, in your opinion, are the THINGS TO DO
    ‘To create effective educational systems for India’s real needs?”
Some responses to this trigger question:

•     To discover who the real out the ‘elements’ different need in our ‘system’. Here’s how to
    First, we need to find stakeholders are in eachthat we educational section
•   Some more elements: of all stakeholders - students, teachers, parents, others...
      To give due weight to the ideas
•
                                               get hold of those!
      To ensure that the real stakeholders in education have a real voice
•   ● To ensure that a wide number of examples to get people interested are properly
       To create all good ideas provided by different groups of people interested in education in
        using OPMS on planning
      integrated into our actioneducational issues
•
•
                            systems
      To implementpassionateintensively needs of those being forinto educational
    ● To create educationalOPMS meeting the real teachers are availableeducated various stream
      To ensure that truly            and committed
                                                      and extensively every
•       educational place in society for
      To provide a proper institutions good teachers
•   ● To pay teachers well, give them the kind of rewards they really want
       To get good teachers involved in designing effective teaching
•     To provide all needed avenues for teachers to develop themselves
        systems through the OPMS
•     To ensure that students at each level have a proper voice in the educational systems catering to their
      specific needs
•     To develop effective professional trigger questions to elicit ideas about
     There are various sucheducation courses
•     To put into aspects of level, effective practical means for people to discuss elements
     differentplace, at an initiala Mission, and literally thousands of and resolve issues
•     To ensure generated in due have their – but THINGS TO DO to in the educational
     may bethat teachers at each level course proper voice in the actual actioning accomplish
      system
•    the Mission should generally come first… (Illustrated here are issues and
      To get stakeholders in education effectively together in various groups, to discuss educational
      ALL useful elements should be integrated into the
      how OPMS could help
     elements generated by one individual, based on the thinking and
•
•
      To convince people at
                                     on conventional – you of course would generate
                             done + thethe issue mode of prose discussion is not develop
     reading he had large that structural graphics (p+sg) would be most useful toeffective effective Action
      Action Planning in order to get real commitment
      To convince people that prose
     an entirely different set of elements reflecting your own different
      Planning on this issue
•     from all interested!
      To convince people that p+sg
     background, etc). is in fact an essential requirement for making real headway on this complex
      issue



(c) GS Chandy                             OPMS General Presentation                                    13
                              two-element
We shall now show a simpleTo give due weight to the ideas of all
      The two elements are:
                            stakeholders (B)
Interpretive Structural Model, articulating the
implicit linkage between two of the elements in
the list: discover who the real stakeholders are in each
    “To          To discover who the real stakeholders are in each different
    different educational section” (A)
                 educational section (A)

     “To give due weight to
  On next Prose we add next the ideas of all stakeholders” (B)
            slide, transation: “To discover who the real
  element on list: “To
            stakeholders are in each different educational
  ensure that the real
  stakeholders inWe now develop this starter model
            section MAY users a couple of questions to elicit weight to
    The OPMS then asks the CONTRIBUTE to give duetheir
    perceptions ideasthese element may “contribute to” to
            the of by of all stakeholders” (In conventional
  education havehow adding various ‘elements’each other
                      a real
  voice” (C)circumstances, suchthese are also ‘perceptions’
                     it… all relationships are left entirely ambiguous.)
    In this case, the user felt element ‘A’ “may contribute to” element
                     to be validated.
    ‘B’ – so the model shown will reflect that perception…
    …had the perception been the other way around, the model would
                                Arrows
    obviously reflect this perception! in this and the next such modeling slides
                                stand for: “may (or should) contribute to”. (As
                                one becomes more certain about the model
                                being constructed, one can make the
                                relationship more certain “CONTRIBUTES TO”).


    (c) GS Chandy                  OPMS General Presentation                       15
             To create educational systems meeting the real needs of
             those being educated

                            To give due weight to the ideas of all
                                      stakeholders (B)
Add one more                                                         “should contribute”
element
                           To ensure that the real stakeholders in
                              education have a real voice” (C)


                 To discover who the real stakeholders are in each different
                                  educational section (A)
   This isshould EACH time translate these models fully into prose –
      We a ‘representation’ of the mental model of the specific person
    Prose transation: “To discover who muchreal than
  Some underlying issues: There may be considerable disagreement
      you’ll soon find reading these mental the easier ‘right’ or
   who is considering the issue. (The modelsmodel may be perceived to
  between different people about how various elements are
   ‘wrong’ – weprose!other. in eachdiscussion engendered in find
    stakeholders are Effective models is useful to help the
  “contribute” toclaim that creating suchdifferent educationalout
      standard
                  each
   how the mental models that are held by the person reflects his/her ownat
    sectiontranslation:CONTRIBUTE enable people to arrive
      Prose SHOULD ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  Interactive Management and OPMS processes to ensure that the
   reality. And other people
                               in ed. the whole have a differently).
  a real stakeholderscould seeShould thing quitereal voice,
    true consensus.
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    which in turn SHOULD CONTRIBUTE To give due
     ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    weight to the ideas of all stakeholders”
     ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 (c) GS Chandy                       OPMS General Presentation                       16
We continue exploring the          •To ensure that all good ideas provided by
                                   different groups of people interested in
‘deep logic’ hidden in the         education are properly integrated into our
          To those
‘structure’ of create educational systems meeting the real needs of
                                   action planning
elements in the system…
          those being educated
Add yet one
                •To ensure that allto theideas provided by
                          weight good ideas of all
more element…To give duegroups of people interested in
                different
                education (B)
             stakeholdersare properly integrated into our
                           action planning

                            To ensure that the real stakeholders in
                        To give due weight to the ideas of all
                            education have a real voice” (C)
                        stakeholders (B)
                                                                       “should contribute”
                  To discover who the real stakeholders are in each different
                            To ensure that the real stakeholders in
                  educational section (A)
                            education have a real voice” (C)


    Remember it is very important stakeholders are in each different
            To discover who the real
    to write up prose translations
            educational section (A)
    of all models created till you
    are entirely familiar with this
    new language of ‘structural
    graphics!
  (c) GS Chandy                        OPMS General Presentation                    17
   Logically, we are able to justify adding elements, in       specific,
   appropriate positions Modeling (ISM) is based on a
       Interpretive Structural to our starting two-element graphical
           SINGLE transitive relationship slides) because the
   structure (as we’ve done in the past few running right through
   relationship “CONTRIBUTES TO” is transitive, which means the
           the model.
   following:

          If ‘A’           ‘B’,
          and if ‘B’                 ‘C’,
          then ‘A’ MUST                           ‘C’
          (where ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’ are elements and              stands for
          the specific transitive relationship under consideration)

         Going ‘one level deeper into huge rule it is also
           This simple idea easily process’,
        Mistakenconsistentare hasthe effectivewould through
                      ideas AND, further, corrected –of evenin
            Models constructed using the above impact be in
            logically
         possible (I claim) to bring people easily perceive the
                                                     change
             The process helps the about the construction even
                      toatof this process these who do of
                         constructionmay beefficient because
                                            of people models
           regardinconsistenciesalso those(assuming,in
        regular use least somethatbe quite embedded NOT
            very large models would of
              minds
         thelogical of
             their thought their interpretation.
           as well as toof a correct desire used in each
         havethebasic desire to basic their ownto correct
            of a transitivityis the single
        course, there processes! relationshipmistaken
         notions! This is very sizable
            such structure.
        one’s more workato be done onclaim, and would require
         much
                 own mistaken ideas)to justify it rigorously.
                                           it
(c) GS Chandy                      OPMS General Presentation               20
           Using this algorithm, we’ve used the OPMS
        software to create a model comprising about 20-
                    odd elements (next slide).
       Time taken to create this model: about 20 minutes.
         A diverse group of 8-10 people interested in the
       issue of creating effective educational systems for
         India would take about 2-4 hours – sometimes
              longer -to create a ‘consensus model’.




(c) GS Chandy            OPMS General Presentation           21
                The model does not fit
                onto a single screen, so
                only a part of it is visible
                here. Next screens, we
                display the model in
                sections




(c) GS Chandy                       OPMS General Presentation   22
                  TOPMOST LEVEL OF MODEL


                  SECOND LEVEL OF MODEL                   “leads to”


                 THIRD LEVEL OF MODEL


                FOURTH (LOWEST) LEVEL OF MODEL


   Prose translation: “Fourth Level LEADS TO Third Level LEADS
   TO Second Level LEADS TO Topmost Level”



(c) GS Chandy                 OPMS General Presentation                23
                             TOPMOST LEVEL OF MODEL




                                            “may contribute”




(c) GS Chandy   OPMS General Presentation                      24
                             SECOND LEVEL OF MODEL




                                            “may contribute”




(c) GS Chandy   OPMS General Presentation                      25
                             THIRD LEVEL OF MODEL




                                            “may contribute”




(c) GS Chandy   OPMS General Presentation                      26
    TOPMOST LEVEL OF MODEL


      SECOND LEVEL OF MODEL
                                        “leads to”

      THIRD LEVEL OF MODEL
                                            FOURTH (LOWEST) LEVEL OF MODEL
  FOURTH (LOWEST) LEVEL OF MODEL



     Prose translation (from below): “To create a wide number of
     examples to get people interested in using OPMS on
     educational issues MAY CONTRIBUTE to put into place, at an
     initial level, effective practical means for people to discuss in
     resolve issues (in consensus)… …. ….” [IMPORTANT: Such
     prose translation should be done for all parts of all models!!! Soon,
     you’ll find you are very easily thinking in terms of these structural
     graphics].
         “may contribute”
                                      Complete model constructed using the
                                        OPMS prototype software. Write to
                                     gs_chandy@yahoo.com to find out how to
                                         get hold of the OPMS software!

(c) GS Chandy                      OPMS General Presentation                  27
                       The model illustrated in the previous
                     slides is a representation of the ‘mental
                      model’ of one person considering the
                     issues involved… To arrive at a realistic
                     understanding of any group issue (such
                      as this one), we shall need to take into
                     effective consideration the views of ALL
                        involved, enable them to develop a
                       proper understanding of each other’s
                      views, and from that understanding to
                     develop a realistic representation of the
                                  whole system…

                  Warfield’s ‘Interactive Management’, which is the
                foundation of OPMS, is designed to ensure effective
                learning by all involved and the development of
                      ‘consensus wisdom’ on all group issues.

(c) GS Chandy                      OPMS General Presentation          28
     The “HOW?”s and the “WHY?”s of every element are built into
     the model constructed with “contributes to” as its structural
     relationship!
         This property holds for EVERY element in
         the structure – important characteristic of
  We now explain one very check it out for yourself!
  any model predicated on the transitive relationship
  “contributes to” …
                                                              Read DOWN the
                                                                    WHY?
                                                              structure to find out the
                                                              HOW of the focus
                                                              element!
Focus on ANY
element in the
structure:
                                                                  Read UP the
                                                                  structure to find out
                                                                  the WHY of the focus
                                                                   HOW?
                                                                  element!


   (c) GS Chandy                  OPMS General Presentation                        29
The relationship “contributes to” is probably the single most important of

                Some features of ISM
              Some can help transitive
all relationships thatimportantus arrive at a working understanding from
scratch of the systems under consideration
              relationships in systems:

• and a whole“aggravates”more/lessproblems/ modeled through ISM (a
   ANY transitiveothers… case ormay be
               lot of relationship (PERT and
                             “precedes” “supports”
                               to”
   “contributesper(in – well–known in
                             “enhances” important
                            “is
   single relationshipthan”model)
                             Gantt Charts
              difficulties encountered)
                          ‘Project Management Software’)
• An ISM based on on “contributes to” clarifies the “HOWs?”
  and the “WHYs?” of EACH and EVERY things done or to be
  done!
• ISM enables individuals and groups to explore the
  relationships between factors in their systems to any depth
  and degree of detail as required
• A simple model of, say 20-25 elements on 1 or two pages
  would be the equivalent of some 30-40 (or even more) pages
  if translated in full into standard prose: ISM enables huge
  compression of long prose passages!
• ISM is one of the powerful modeling techniques created by
  Warfield that help individuals and groups to explore
  complexity in systems.
(c) GS Chandy                  OPMS General Presentation                     30
 Any number of ideas can be easily
  added, if they’re relevant to the
     Mission on “Education”!




(c) GS Chandy   OPMS General Presentation   31
John Warfield’s ‘Interactive Management’
  comprises a whole set of methodologies to:
A. enable problem solvers to generate & clarify
                 We’ve just illustrated
   ideas along withStructural Modeling’ (ISM)
       ‘Interpretive
B. two powerful modeling tools to enable them to
   ‘structure’, or organise ideas generated.
   You’ve just seen ISM, one of the modeling tools.



1/21/2011 (c) GSC   OPMS - General Presentation   32
Apart from ISM, Warfield has created another powerful modeling tool,
‘Field Representation and Profiling Method’ (FR) designed to help
us put elements in a system into appropriate ‘similarity classes’ or
‘categories’ – which then help us explore the relationships (transitive
and other) between elements and categories.



   The great benefits of Field Representation are seen in a
live workshop, where participants create FRs from their own
  ideas and put them to practical use. Here we illustrate FR
                  by three different models:
i)     A very simple FR to illustrate the basic idea (in some
       detail);
ii) A real FR created in a live workshop;
iii) A rather complex FR – a ‘model of models’
 1/21/2011 (c) GSC           OPMS - General Presentation                  33
Here’s a random list of some diverse Missions:
  • To become a top level software designer
  • To double organizational turnover within one year
  • “Garibi hatao!” – (The famous ‘anti-poverty’ slogan of Indira
                   We shall show a Field
    Gandhi’s government – the slogan was excellent, but the initiative as a
           failed rather miserably)
    wholeRepresentation created from this
           Our first example ofgetbring results in my
  • To master my math syllabus and therebytoFR follows… math
           random list with a view                excellent
    exams
             some ‘system order’ into it…
  • To get myself a satisfying and well-paying job
  • “To create an effective system of governance to meet India’s
    needs”
  • To align individuals in the organization to the organization’s goals
  • To qualify myself for the best job opportunities available
  • To launch a new product in the US market in 2008
  • To set up my own consulting business
  • To become the global leader in software by 2015
  • “To ensure 90% true literacy in India within 10 years”
  • “To remove our great shame of 40% malnourished children
       in (c) GSC
  1/21/2011India – by 2015” OPMS - General Presentation                       34
      ‘Modeling step of for creating
FirstThe first question’, the FR process                       involves
     inserting the will be shown…
Field Representations‘elements’ into
     categories/’similarity classes’
         We start by inserting the
         first element into a blank
         ‘Dimension’, as
         illustrated below…

         A: Dimension 1
         ● To become a top-level
               software designer                      First element inserted in
                                                      Dimension 1
         …and then we ask
         ‘modeling questions’,
         as shown, next …




1/21/2011 (c) GSC                OPMS - General Presentation                      35
                    In your opinion, is
 “To double organizational turnover
      within 1 year” (element ‘2’)
    similar to (/in the same category as)
      “to become a top-level software
            designer” (element ‘1’)
    [keeping in mind the kind of organizational structures that may be
               needed to accomplish the specific Mission]

1/21/2011 (c) GSC
                                      ?
                             OPMS - General Presentation                 36
 NOTE: The phrase “[keeping in mind the kind of org. structures
 that may be needed to accomplish the specific Mission] is
 important: we would have got a quite different FR if that phrase had
 been, for instance, “[keeping in mind the success/failure
 associated with the various Missions]”




1/21/2011 (c) GSC           OPMS - General Presentation                 37
                       In your opinion, is
 “To double organizational turnover
      within 1 year” (element ‘2’)
              Response Is “NO”, so
    similar to (/in the same category as)
              this element goes into a
              different category as
              shown, …
      “to become a top-level software
            designer” (element ‘1’)
    [keeping in mind the kind of organizational structures that may be
               needed to accomplish the specific Mission]

1/21/2011 (c) GSC
                                         ?
                                OPMS - General Presentation              38
  Here’s how the Field Representation looks at this point:

A: Dimension 1                   A: Dimension 1            B: Dimension 2
● To become a top-level            ● to become a top-level  ● To double organizational
      software designer              software designer        turnover within 1 year
           Next modeling question: Response: “NO”,
                                    so new question
                        In your opinion, is
                                    asked…
                        Response again: “NO”,
                  “Garibi Hatao!” Second element
           Next modeling question: (element ‘3’) in
                        so a new dimension is
                        created…       Dimension 2
              similar to In your opinion,2 is
    A: Dimension 1
                                  the same category as)
                             (/in B: Dimension
      ● to become a“Garibi Hatao!” (element ‘3’)
                    top-level       ● To double org.
“to become a top-level software designer” (element ‘1’)
              software designer        turnover within 1 year
    [keeping in similar to (/in the same category as)
                mind the kind of organizational structures that may be
               needed to accomplish the specific Mission]
   “To double org. turnover within 1 year” (element ‘2’)
        C: Dimension 3
         ● Garibi in mind
                                        ?
     [keeping Hatao! the kind of organizational structures that may be
                    needed modeling question is “NO”, the question is asked
      If the response to ato accomplish the specific Mission]
     again w.r.t. an element in the next Dimension, or a new Dimension is
                                         ?
     created and the element in question is inserted there. If the response
          is “YES”, then the element is inserted in the same Dimension…
   1/21/2011 (c) GSC              OPMS - General Presentation                    39
                     A: Dimension 1                     B: Dimension 2
                       ● To become a top-level             ● To double org.
                           software designer                  turnover within 1 year
                       ●   To master my math syllabus
                            and thereby to do very well
                            in my math exams

             C: Dimension 3
              ● Garibi Hatao!                                         and so on…
Next modeling questions:
                 In your opinion, is
                            … the resulting FR is shown
                             and thereby to
“To master my math syllabuson next slide… do well in
            my math exams” (element ‘4’)
           similar “YES” same category as)
       Response to (/in the – so the new
       element is inserted into DIM. 1
“To become a top-level software designer” (element ‘2’)
   [keeping in mind the kind of organizational structures that may be
              needed to accomplish the specific Mission]
                                               ?
 1/21/2011 (c) GSC                      OPMS - General Presentation                    40
FR: “ System of ‘Types of Missions’ ”

A: Dimension 1                      B: Dimension 2
• To become a top-level…            • To double organizational turnover…
• To master my math syllabus        • To get over the ‘attrition problem’
• To get myself a satisfying and    • To align individuals in organization…
  well-paid job                     • To launch a new product in US market
• …                           System Tie-Line
  C: Dimension 3
  O   “Garibi Hatao!”
  O   “To create an effectiveImportant!
                              system of governance for India’s needs”
                           The titles of the categories are
  O “To develop an effective educational system for our needs”
                           arrived at only after all elements are
  O “……”                   appropriately inserted into blank
   1/21/2011 (c) GSC
                           categories (see next…)
                              OPMS - General Presentation         41
FR: “ System of ‘Types of Missions’ ”
                     The B: Organizational Missions
A: Individual Missions ‘SYSTEM TIE-LINE’ stands for any
• To become a top-level… of the relationships that may be
                                      • To double organizational turnover…
• To master my math syllabus             in the system under
                              inherent To get over the ‘attrition problem’
                                      •
                              consideration individuals in organization…
• To get myself a satisfying and      • To align
   well-paid job                      • To launch a new product in US market
• …                                 On examining the ‘system’ with
                               System Tie-Line
  C: Societal Missionsjust the three dimensions that
                                    have developed here, we are now
  O “Garibi Hatao!”                 able to perceive that a couple
                                    more dimensions are required to
  O “To create an effective system of governance for India’s needs”
                                    render this into a truly useful and
                                    usable system for
  O “To develop an effective educational‘system’… our needs”


  O   “……”

   1/21/2011 (c) GSC            OPMS - General Presentation                    42
 FR: “ System of ‘Types of Missions’ ”
    A: Individual Missions               B: Organizational Missions
    • To become a top-level…           • To double organizational turnover…
    • To master my math syllabus       • To get over the ‘attrition problem’
    • To get myself a satisfying and   • To align individuals in organization…
      well-paid job Earlier, it was•just launch a new list – now, it
                                         To a random product in US market
    • …                         System to represent a ‘system’…
                        is beginningTie-Line
                 …i.e., the FR process has
    C: Societal Missions
    O   “Garibi Hatao!”                   Two more dimensions needed to
    O
                             enabled us to create a
                                          create a useful ‘system’
        “To create an effective system of governance for India’s needs”
    O   “To develop an effective educational system for our needs”
                          useful representation of a
        “……”
                  ‘system’ from a mere
    O



D: Type of organization
 T                         E: Resources reqd.
                       random list!
        Required                                  o ~~~~~~~~~~~~

O   Self-organization                              o ~~~~~~~~~~~~
O   Incorporated Company
     1/21/2011 (c) GSC
                                                   o ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                              OPMS - General Presentation                        43
O   Government or non-governmental organisation
      IMPORTANT: The appropriate titles of the Dimensions of this
       Field Representation came to light only AFTER all elements
         were inserted into those Dimensions via an appropriate
                          ‘modeling question’!

    • Individual Missions
    • Organizational Missions
    • Societal Missions

D: Type of organization                         E: Resources reqd.
   Required                                           o ~~~~~~~~~~~~

O   Self-organization                      o ~~~~~~~~~~~~
O   Incorporated Company                   o ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
O   Government or non-governmental organisation
    1/21/2011 (c) GSC          OPMS - General Presentation             44
                    A: Individual Missions
• To become a top level software designer
• To master my math syllabus and thereby get excellent results
  in my math exams
• To get myself a satisfying and well-paying job
• To qualify myself for the best job opportunities that become
  available
• To set up my own consulting business
• To become more effective at what I do
• To learn to use PowerPoint effectively
• …


1/21/2011 (c) GSC          OPMS - General Presentation           45
          B: Organizational Missions
• To obtain needed financing for a major project
• To align individuals in the organization to the organization’s
  goals
• To double turnover, with adequate profitability, within 2 years
• To double organizational turnover within one year
• To get over the ‘attrition problem’
• To launch a new product in the US market in 2008
• To become a global leader in software services by 2015
• To obtain needed financing to market globally
• …

  OPMS has been successfully applied to large number
            of ‘individual Missions’, and also to several
1/21/2011 (c) GSC
                      organizational Missions’
                            OPMS - General Presentation   46
                  C: Societal Missions
• “Garibi hatao!” (Indira Gandhi’s famous slogan, which has alas never
   been effectively worked on)
• “To create an effective system of governance to meet India’s
     needs”
• “To develop an effective educational system for India’s needs”
• “To ensure 90% true literacy in India within 10 years”
• “To become one of the ‘least corrupt’ nations in the world
     within 10 years (instead of being one of the ‘more corrupt’
     nations)”
• “To remove the great shame of 40% Indian children
     malnourished by 2015
• “To accomplish any societal Mission would demand
     …
       we work with government and groups involved in
Thus far, we’ve not worked much on ‘Societal Missions’
1/21/2011 (c) GSC
                          societal issues…
                            OPMS - General Presentation          47
        Original list of diverse Missions
•    To become a top level software designer
•    To double organizational turnover within one year
•    “Garibi hatao!”
•    To master my math syllabus and thereby get excellent results in my math
     exams
            We claim that a significant
•    To get myself a satisfying and well-paying job
            enhancement in understanding
•    “To create an effective system of governance to meet India’s needs”
            develops through FR categorization
•    To align individuals in the organization to the organization’s goals
            – just review that Field
•    To qualify myself for the best job opportunities available
            Representation! (Reviewed, next slide)
•    To launch a new product in the US market in 2008
•    To set up my own consulting business
•    To become a global leader in software services by 2015
•    “To ensure 90% true literacy in India within 10 years”
•    To align individuals in the organization to the organization’s goals


1/21/2011 (c) GSC              OPMS - General Presentation                     48
  FR: Systems required to useful operations relating to ordering
There“are a couple more handle different kinds of Missions”
    the dimensions and elements within them, shown later
     A: Individual Missions                      B: Organizational Missions
                                                     Effective use of the ‘System
     • To become a top-level…S                 Tie-Line’ will bring out the
                                        • To double organizational turnover…
     • To master my math syllabus               full power of this ‘system
                                        • To get over the ‘attrition problem’
     • To get myself a satisfying and                 representation’
                                        • To align individuals in organization…
       well-paid job                    • To launch a new product in US market
     • …                         System Tie-Line
                                                   ‘System Tie-line’
     C: Societal Missions                      represents any or all the
     O “Garibi Hatao!”                         relationships inherent in
     O “To create an effective system of governance for India’s needs”
                                                the ‘system’ we wish to
                                                  create our needs”
     O “To develop an effective educational system for or improve

     O   “……”

 D: Type of organizationE: Resources reqd.
  T
    Required
 O   Self- organization                            o ----------------------
 O   Incorporated Company
      1/21/2011 (c) GSC
                                                   o ----------------------
                               OPMS - General Presentation                          49
 O   Government or non-governmental organisation
    So, let’s recap     WHY we do this ‘categorization’
• The mind is able to get a better ‘overview’ picture of the whole by looking at a
  few categories rather than looking at a large number of disparate elements
• We can better understand the relationships between the factors in the system
  when we look at those categories rather than at the disparate elements in the
  list (some relationships illustrated later)
• By creating such a Field Representation of ‘Missions’, we are enabled to
  understand the ‘structures’ of the kind of systems needed to accomplish each
  type of Mission. When the System Tie-Line is put to use, we get a pretty
  comprehensive picture of the relationships within the entire system considered.
• The human mind has learnt over millennia to categorize factors in a system in
  ways that are useful to enable understanding of the systems confronted. The
  Field Representation process just utilizes this existing, well-developed human
  skill and thereby provides us a practical means to create ‘graphical pictures’ of
  systems that encompass all dimensions of the system under consideration.
• Conjecture: The FR process can lead to a simpler - more effective, more
  understandable - way of creating ‘ontology maps’ than the conventional means
•   Most importantly, such representations, effectively used, are models that satisfy this
    fundamental law of systems:
    “Ashby’s Law of Requisite Variety” (explained, next slide)

    1/21/2011 (c) GSC                OPMS - General Presentation                         50
         Ashby’s Law of Requisite Variety:
   (‘Simple Simon’ version)


        “The dimensions of a proposed
     solution to any problem should match
     the dimensions of the problem itself”
   A great many of our individual, organizational and societal
   Take look at the news of ANY                        and you
Formala(non-mathematical)day (including today),the claim will the
                                   definition:“The variety in
   systems are designed without the designers having keptjust
   see scores (even hundreds!) of examples to validate         this
  control system must – which explains why so many of our
   fundamental law in mind the desperate needlarger than the
   made – and to demonstrate be equal to or of society to have
   systems do perturbations in order tomay fail control"
   accessible practical means to ensure or our achieve
variety of thenot perform optimally thatevensystems are designed
   to satisfy Ashby’s Law!
   catastrophically



 1/21/2011 (c) GSC            OPMS - General Presentation         51
             We illustrate Field Representation (FR)
            method once again – now with a structure
               created from the elements in a list of
           elements created for a Mission “To develop
           an effective educational system for India’s
                              needs”

      (The Field appears on two slides as it does not fit into one screen)




1/21/2011 (c) GSC                OPMS - General Presentation                 52
Page 1
         Field Representation: “System to develop and put into place effective
              Educational Systems for India at every level in every field
         A : STAKEHOLDERS IN EDUCATION
         ● To discover who the real stakeholders are in each different educational
           section(1)
         ● To get stakeholders in education effectively together in various groups, to
           discuss educational issues and how OPMS could help(14)
  S      B : GIVE STAKEHOLDERS THEIR PROPER VOICE!
  Y      ● To ensure that real stakeholders in education have a real voice(2)
  S      ● To give due weight to the ideas of all stakeholders - students, teachers,
  T        parents, others...(3)
  E      ● To ensure that all good ideas provided by different groups of people
  M
           interested in education are properly integrated into our action planning(4)
  T      ● To ensure that students at each level have a proper voice in the educational
  I        systems catering to their specific needs(10)
  E      ● To ensure that teachers at each level have their proper voice in the actual
  L
            actioning in the educational system(13)
  I
  N      C : EFFECTIVE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
  E      ● To create educational systems meeting the real needs of those being educated
            and of society(5)
         ● To develop effective professional education courses(11)
         ● To initiate specific educational institutions into using OPMS for their
           specific interests of various kinds(19)
         ● To implement OPMS intensively and extensively into various educational
           institutions(20)
         ● To get good teachers involved in designing effective teaching systems through
           the GSC
    1/21/2011 (c)OPMS(21)                  OPMS - General Presentation                     53
Page 2
                  Field Representation: “System to develop and put into place effective
                       Educational Systems for India at every level in every field (contd.)


              D : DEVELOPING PASSIONATE, COMMITTED TEACHERS
              ● To ensure that truly passionate and committed teachers are available for
                every educational stream(6)
  S           E : PLACE OF TEACHERS IN SOCIETY
  Y           ● To provide a proper place in society for good teachers(7)
  S           ● To pay teachers well, give them the kind of rewards they really want(8)
  T
  E
              ● To provide all needed avenues for teachers to develop themselves(9)
  M           F : PRACTICAL MEANS FOR PEOPLE TO DISCUSS AND RESOLVE ISSUES
              ● To put into place, at an initial level, effective practical means for people
  T             to discuss and resolve issues(12)
  I           ● To convince people at large that the conventional mode of prose discussion is
  E
                 not effective(15)
  L
  I           ● To convince people that prose + structural graphics (p+sg) would be most useful to
  N           develop effective Action Planning on this issue(16)
  E           ● To convince people that p+sg is in fact an essential requirement for making
                real headway on this complex issue(17)
              G : CREATE OPMS EXAMPLE PORTFOLIO (for educational issues)
              ● To create a wide number of examples to get people interested in using OPMS on
                educational issues(18)




      1/21/2011 (c) GSC                     OPMS - General Presentation                              54
Page 1                      Let’s ‘relational a few things that
                We can createnow look atsketches’
      Now watch the linkages
        Field Representation: “System factor in a put into
                showingwe can do develop and
      developing in the Fieldhow oneto with this Field place effective
             Educational Systems for India at every level in every field
      Representation below! Representation
                system may affect others (in the
                       same or that teachers and students at
        In In prose: “To ensure other dimensions)… each level have a
          A : STAKEHOLDERS IN EDUCATION
            To discover ensure that teachers are in each different educational
          ●prose: “Towho the real stakeholders and students at each level have a
           proper voice the educational systems SHOULD HELP to give due
        proper voice in in the educational systems SHOULD HELP to give due
            section(1)
          ● To get the ideas in education effectively WHICH TURN SHOULD
           weightstakeholdersof of all stakeholderstogetherININ TURN SHOULD
        weight to to the ideas all stakeholders WHICH in various groups, to
           ENSURE all goodissues and how OPMS different groups are properly
                     all good ideas provided by could help(14)
        ENSURE educationalideas provided by differentgroups are properly
            discuss
           integrated intoour action planning VOICE!
          B : GIVE STAKEHOLDERS THEIR PROPERWHICH
  S
  Y
                              our action planning…”               TURN SHOULD HELP
        integrated intoreal stakeholders in education haveIN real voice(2)
          ● To ensure that                                      a
  S       ●to create educational systems that meet-the real needs of those
            To give due weight to the ideas of all stakeholders students, teachers,
  T        being educated…”
            parents, others...(3)
  E        ● To ensure that all good ideas provided by different groups of people
  M
             interested in education are properly integrated into our action planning(4)
  T        ● To ensure that students at each level have a proper voice in the educational
  I          systems catering to their specific needs(10)
  E        ● To ensure that teachers at each level have their proper voice in the actual
  L
              ‘actioning’ in the educational system(13)
  I
           C : EFFECTIVE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
             To prose: “To ensure that meeting the real students at being educated
           ● In create educational systems teachers ANDneeds of thoseeach level have a
  N
  E
              and of voice in
             propersociety(5) the educational systems SHOULD HELP to give due
             A huge toeffective of such relationships can be traced through the
           ● weight number professional education courses(11)
             To develop the ideas of all stakeholders…”
           ● Field. (The elements are institutions into using OPMS for their dimensions).
             To initiate specific educational also related across different
             The more such various kinds(19)
             specific interests of real relationships are traced through the system,
           ● To implement OPMS intensively and extensively into various educational
             the better the
             institutions(20) user will come to understand the Field AND the
             To get good that it involved in designing effective teaching systems through
           ● system(s)teachers represents!
             the GSC
      1/21/2011 (c)OPMS(21)                   OPMS - General Presentation                 55
Page 2
              Our workshops demonstrate the construction and
               Field Representation: “System to develop and put into place effective
                    Educational Systems for India in considerable detail!
              applications of FR Method at every level in every field (contd.)

              D : DEVELOPING PASSIONATE, COMMITTED TEACHERS
              ● To ensure that truly passionate and committed teachers are available for
                every educational stream(6)
  S           E : PLACE OF TEACHERS IN SOCIETY
  Y           ● To provide a proper place in society for good teachers(7)
  S           ● To pay teachers well, give them the kind of rewards they really want(8)
  T
  E
              ● To provide all needed avenues for teachers to develop themselves(9)
  M           F : PRACTICAL MEANS FOR PEOPLE TO DISCUSS AND RESOLVE ISSUES
              ● To put into place, at an initial level, effective practical means for people
  T             to discuss and resolve issues(12)
  I           ● To convince people at large that the conventional mode of prose discussion is
  E
                 not effective(15)
  L
  I           ● To convince people that prose + structural graphics (p+sg) would be most useful to
  N           develop effective Action Planning on this issue(16)
  E           ● To convince people that p+sg is in fact an essential requirement for making
                real headway on this complex issue(17)
              G : CREATE OPMS EXAMPLE PORTFOLIO (for educational issues)
              ● To create a wide number of examples to get people interested in using OPMS on
                educational issues(18)
        Not shown: There are plenty of relationships to be traced here,
        too, on next part of the Field Representation…

      1/21/2011 (c) GSC                     OPMS - General Presentation                              56
     Titles of Field Dimensions:


       A : STAKEHOLDERS IN
       EDUCATION
                Here’s something     else we can do
                  with the FR: We can create an ISM
        B : GIVE STAKEHOLDERS THEIR PROPER VOICE!
                  with the TITLES of the Dimensions
                  in the Field Representation.
                  (We EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
        C : EFFECTIVElook once more at the titles…)
                                      Next slide, we illustrate the ISM
        D : DEVELOPING PASSIONATE, COMMITTED TEACHERS
                                      created with the titles of these
                                      dimensions (using a transitive
        E : PLACE OF TEACHERS IN SOCIETY
                                      relationship that’s a bit more
                                      complex than straight
                                      ‘contribution’)
        F : PRACTICAL MEANS FOR PEOPLE TO DISCUSS AND
         RESOLVE ISSUES

           G : CREATE OPMS EXAMPLE PORTFOLIO
               (for educational issues)



1/21/2011 (c) GSC                  OPMS - General Presentation            57
  ISM created from ‘Dimensions of Education Field
  Representation’                             The explanatory and
                                                clarificatory power of the FR is
    C: EFFECTIVE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS            huge – but one has to use it
                                                regularly to understand its
                                                value to help us understand
                                                our systems…
      We can also create ISMs using the elements within each
  E: ● Proper PLACE OF TEACHERS IN SOCIETY
      of the Dimensions of the Field Representation – this
  D: ● DEVELOPING PASSIONATE, COMMITTED
      enables us to explore within each Dimension or aspect of
        TEACHERS
      the system(s) under consideration
      (Illustrated, next slide)
B: GIVE ALL STAKEHOLDERS THEIR PROPER VOICE!


                                                 “should help provide stimulus for”
F: PRACTICAL MEANS FOR PEOPLE TO
    DISCUSS AND RESOLVE ISSUES



G: CREATE OPMS EXAMPLE PORTFOLIO                        A: DEFINE STAKEHOLDERS
    (for educational issues)                               IN EDUCATION

 1/21/2011 (c) GSC            OPMS - General Presentation                             58
              ISM from elements in Dimension B: “Give
            Stakeholders Their Proper Voice!”
 To ensure that real stakeholders in education have a
 real voice in the system


  To ensure that all good ideas provided by different
  groups of people interested in education are
  properly integrated into our action planning



● To ensure that teachers at each level have their proper
voice in the actual ‘actioning’ in the educational system             “should contribute”

● To ensure that students at each level have a proper voice
in the educational systems catering to their specific needs
● To enable all stakeholders (parents, management, others)
have their proper voice



  To give due weight to the ideas of all stakeholders…



  1/21/2011 (c) GSC                     OPMS - General Presentation                         59
        Why all this ‘structuring’?
        • Each such ‘structuring’ exercise enables us
            better understand the relationships within the
            system(s) under consideration

        • Better understanding of the relationships between
          elements (and dimensions) of the system leads us
          to better understanding of system behaviour

        • Better understanding of system behaviour helps us
          to design better systems or to improve the systems
          we already have




1/21/2011 (c) GSC              OPMS - General Presentation     60
              We show again that quite complex Field
                Representation: The ‘One Page
                Management System’ (OPMS).




1/21/2011 (c) GSC            OPMS - General Presentation   61
      Fundamental                      Any Mission – individual, organizational
       Dimensions                                    or societal

                    The ‘SYSTEM TIE-LINE’ provides us a practical means to show
                    how elements in various Dimensions may impact on the Mission
                    and on the THINGS TO DO in our Action Planning’ – e.g. how do
                        It’s a BARRIERS impact on the activities to be
                    the various ‘MODEL OF MODELS’ –
                    performed to accomplish the Mission?, etc, etc…
                      comprised of ALL the elements
                                     Subsystems -
                                     below arising
                    and ALL the models System during
                                        any formalization
                    Claim: This is actually aMission.
                         the course of Tie Line
                     of the practical means people have
                     been using over millennia to tackle
                          their complex problems…


  As noted,OPMS is in fact a formalization of the intuitive
 way that we have been solving our problems over millennia

1/21/2011 (c) GSC                     OPMS - General Presentation                   62
 Useful background:

                       OPMS is designed to help
         It does involve a sizable amount of work formally to
           create apeople do ‘qualitative problemMission –
                     comprehensive OPMS for any
                    solving’ – to help them arrive at
                       but the benefits are huge!
                            a clear and correct
                     understanding of we do NOT
           In a great many instances,the systems need
            to create the full OPMS for a Mission – just
                              they work with!
           starting to use the process will bring about all
                    OPMS in perfectly our
                OPMS weensures that with all
               the claritytiesneed to act effectively…
                     quantitative models when
                    the sound quantitative tools
                       that we them would be
                      we makehave available!
                      accurate AND effective



1/21/2011 (c) GSC            OPMS - General Presentation        63
More useful background:
                      Good ideas are very ‘slippery’ and
                      difficult to work with

                      All too often, they just disappear from the mind,
                      leaving behind only a thought or vague regret that
                      there was something worthwhile to do still
                      remaining undone …
                       At other times, one just cannot get hold of the
                       needed resources to DO what’s needed to
                       start., and one gives up on the idea…


                      There are any number of reasons why ideas fail.
                      Here is a way to ensure your ideas will really get
                      going…

                     The ‘One Page Management System’
                                  (OPMS)
 1/21/2011 (c) GSC                   OPMS - General Presentation           64
More useful background:

                 To handle any idea effectively, one needs to understand clearly
                        and effectively act on the following simple fact:

                        Every idea is dependent on
                          a host of other ideas!.
                        The OPMS is designed to enable you to handle
                                      that crucial fact!




 1/21/2011 (c) GSC                    OPMS - General Presentation                  65
    is all this accomplished?
HowHere is what the OPMS helps you do:

 •Grab hold of all good ideas available about the problem or
 issue – continuingly
•Grab unique modeling
This hold of all good ideas available!tool enables you to create
 • Record and those ideas!              Idea Generation tools
Record (and clarify) clarify the ideas generated - continuingly
    a powerful ‘model of models’ to integrate all
                   Well known
                                the right management science
   • Put the ideas together inand used inkind of usable order –
                    These during any Mission
             that’s doneare powerful modeling tools
   continuingly – create effective action planning
                                         One Page Management System
    Integrate everything to create a (invented by the late John N. Warfield)
                                        • environmental reality Modeling
   • Modify ideas to reflect the Interpretive Structural –
    picture of a together into
   Put the ideastrue system! an                          (OPMS)
   continuingly Plan!
   effective Action
                               • Field Representation Method
             Not at all known to conventional management science
                                    that might come up -
   • Integrate every relevant issueknown to conventional
                          Not much
   continuingly                management science



1/21/2011 (c) GSC             OPMS - General Presentation                      66
                         OPMS Process Deliverables -
               details of how are handled in in our workshops
 • Identification of an agreed Mission – relating to an
    individual or group
 • all of ideas covering the simple idea of finding out
AndLists ofthis starts with various aspects of the Mission how
 ‘factor A’ “CONTRIBUTES TO” ‘factor B’, and so on …
      OPMS™ an agreed Action Plan to accomplish the
 • Initiation ofLearning & Application Programs:
    Mission ‘Insight’ (Starters)
      • OPMS
 • Practical means to overcome BARRIERS, DIFFICULTIES
      • OPMS ‘Action Planning’ (For Junior to Middle Level )
      • OPMS WEAKNESSES and avail Senior Level )
    THREATS,‘Collaborate’ (For Middle toof OPPORTUNITIES
      • OPMS ‘Mentor’ (For Senior Why
 • Reports to monitor ‘What & Level)– Who – When - How
      • Facilitator Training (for consultants) -
    Much’
         5 Days + 3 months project work + 5 days
 • Design of all needed sub-systems: marketing system,
      • OPMS™ software
    planning system, information systems – whatever the
      • OPMS Spin-offs
      • Customised versions required
    subsystems that may be of OPMS for the Mission!
 • Significant enhancement of attitudes, behaviour and
    performance of individuals at each level
1/21/2011 (c) GSC              OPMS - General Presentation      67
           For more information about OPMS, contact:
           Sampath Menon, General Manager,
           Resource Development Center,
           Hyderabad: 500082
           Tel.: +91-9642484928
           sampath.menon@rdcenter.net




1/21/2011 (c) GSC          OPMS - General Presentation   68
                    Thank you!




1/21/2011 (c) GSC     OPMS - General Presentation   69
     Logically, we are able to justify adding elements, in      specific,
           Interpretive positions to our (ISM) three-element
         appropriate Structural Modelingstartingis based on a
    graphical structure (as we’ve done in the past few slides) because
           SINGLE transitive relationship running right through
    the relationship “CONTRIBUTES TO” is transitive, which means
                                  the model.
                               the following:

         If ‘A’           ‘B’,
                                                                            Back
         and if ‘B’                ‘C’,
         then ‘A’ MUST                           ‘C’
         (where ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’ are elements and              stands for
         the specific transitive relationship under consideration)

    Models constructed using huge impact –through
     Mistaken ideas are has the above rulein
          This simple idea easily corrected would be
         regard to construction of these models
         logically quite consistent AND, further, the
         Actually seeing these process (assuming,
       regular use of thisgraphical models helps the of
       course, of to their interpretation. processes!
        as welleasily perceive basic desire to correct
                   there is a thetheir thought ISM is
   construction as even very large models would also be
         people                   logical inconsistencies
   quite that may be embedded inthe transitivity of the single
            the best way available toideas)
          efficient because of
                 one’s own mistaken ensure
                 effective Action Planning
          relationship used in each such structure.
1/21/2011 (c) GSC                 OPMS - General Presentation                 70
                                                                 Back




   To work hard                                  To work smart

                                                           X               X
                    “could contribute”                                  “may not
                                                           X               X
                                                                        contribute
                                                           X                X
   To work smart                                  To work hard




1/21/2011 (c) GSC                OPMS - General Presentation                         71

				
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