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					How can Computer Networks
Support National Grid
Initiatives?
   Tamás Máray
   Péter Stefán

   NIIF/HUNGARNET
Agenda

   From individual resources toward integrated grid
    systems.
   Computer network as a special service.
   Role of NRENs.
   Hungarian Grids.
   Layer-2 elements in the grid security architecture.
   The benefits of layer-3 techniques.
   ClusterGrid initiative.
   Conclusions.
From individual resources to the grid

   Resources used by local users:
     compute resources,

     service resources,

     special equipment,

     storage resources,

     etc.



   The goal of grid development: to join them together
    to improve their usability and to create a single,
    large (world-wide) service/resource pool.
Computer networks

   Computer networking appears in many aspects
    here:
     as a connection medium among the different
      resources (performance aspect),
     as a set of extra, “value-added”, mostly

      unexploited services (architecture point of view).
   The role of NRENs is, thus, crucial!
The role of NRENs

   Technical level: to provide the connection medium
    itself.
   Organizational level: to provide internal human
    connection among the NREN and the regional
    centers/institutions within a country or a region.
   Development strategy level: to provide competitive
    tools for the academic community to improve
    competitiveness.
The role of NRENs
The role of NRENs
Hungarian grid initiatives

   Hungarian grid initiatives can be classified into grid
    infrastructure and grid system development projects.
   Grid principles:
     To share resources with each other. Is there a
       real benefit on this?
     To provide a bridge between those institutions
       that have unexploited resources and those who
       do not have any but would really need to use
       them.
   The 2-layer grid service provider model.
Grid architecture
Grid architecture

   Layered security design from the low-level hardware
    to the application level.
   Why to use computer networking techniques?
     to improve security,

     to improve privacy and data protection,

     to improve transparency in the system,

     ease of management.
Layer-2 separation

   It came from the cluster-grid world where partially
    dedicated resources are used (PC-labs on Windows
    at day-time, and on Linux on night-time).
   Benefits:
     802.1q VLANs on Ethernet.
     It carries out low-level data flow separation.

     It prevents DHCP servers to distrurb each other.
     It aids automated booting from the day-shift to the
       night-shift operation (PXE).
   Limitations/needs:
     Secure VLANs,
     802.1q support in BIOS PXE.
Layer-3 separation

   Why to bother?
   Grid software – multiport applications.
   Difficult to protect with ordinary access lists and
    firewalls.
   Difficult to match the grid-requirements againts the
    autonomous institutions’ defense strategy.
   Possible solution: Virtial Private Networks that map
    multiport to a single port connection.
   Encryption-based: OpenVPN, IPSec VPN.
   Tagging-based: MPLS VPN.
ClusterGrid initiative

   It is a pool of 1200 PC nodes throughout the country
    involving more than 26 clusters.
   Supercomputer clusters are planned to be involved
    too.
   A rough measurement on the total compute capacity
    is about 500 Gflops.
   There are 70 users, more than 20 projects, and
    100000 jobs executed so far.
ClusterGrid initiative

   Fluctuation of grid cluster resources between the
    day-shift and night-shift operatin.
   Blue line – total; Green area – occupied.
ClusterGrid initiative

   Authentication and authorization infrastructure:
    external LDAP service.
   PKI infrastructure.
   One job – one directory mapping format.
   Web services based resource brokering.
   Hierarchical monitoring system with integrated
    weathermaps.
ClusterGrid initiative
ClusterGrid initiative
Conclusions

   The computer network is no longer considered as a
    large unknown cloud from the grid perspective.
   NRENs appear not only on the technical level, but
    on the organizational level too.
   Applications like grid helps revealing network
    bottlenecks.
   There are good experiences in NREN-driven grid
    initiatives in Hungary.

				
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