Lessons 6 - Cultural variations powerpoint.ppt - Wikispaces

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					Cultural Variations in Attachment

   Describe and evaluate research into
    cultural variations in attachment.
• Did you go to nursery?
• Have you ever been looked after by an older
  brother or sister or family member outside of
  your main caregivers?
• ‘Children must remain with their mothers for the
  first six months to be fully bonded with them’ Do
  you agree with this statement?
• Do you think that the above statement is practical
  in the western world when many are working
• In Kibbutzim, communal farms in Israel, babies
  are placed in communal childcare when they are
  four days old and cared for by a nurse called a
• Feeding, changing and caring for the baby are the
  responsibility of the metapelet, the parents visit
  for around 3hrs every day
• When they are around four months old, they
  move to another nursery and continue to be
  cared for by another nurse
            Research study –
       using the Strange Situation
• Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg
• Analysed the results of 32 different studies
  using 8 different countries using Ainsworth’s
  strange situation to look at differences in
  attachment between cultures
• 2000+ babies were studied
• Babies were classified using Ainsworth’s A,B or
  C system
• See table page 62 of your textbook for results
      Main findings of the study
• Type B (secure attachments) were most
  common form in all cultures. 50% of Chinese
  attachments were secure, 75% in Britain
• Type A (avoidant attachments) were more
  common in West Germany more than any
  other culture. Very rare in Israel and Japan
• Type C (ambivalent attachments) were more
  common in Israel, China and Japan.
  But what about within cultures?
• Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg also found
  that in their 2 Japanese studies, one had no
  type A babies whereas the second had around
• Intra-cultural variation was quite high,
  similarly to Ainsworth’s findings
• SO it is important to remember that it is too
  simplistic to believe that all children are
  reared in the same way in each country
          Evaluating the study
• Give one strength and one weakness of the
  sample used in the study
• Using the information on page 63 of your
  textbook, explain the difference between
  individualistic and collectivist cultures and
  how this is an evaluative point
• Can we say that it is an ethnocentric piece of
• What is meant by meta-analysis?
  How does this information relate to
       child rearing methods?
• Research can directly relate to the methods
  that a culture uses. Following research into
  the kibbutz system in Israel; it was concluded
  that the communal sleeping aspect may lead
  to ambivalent attachments.
• Many kibbutz nurseries have now changed
  their policies and return the babies to the
  parents to sleep at night
     Plenary – eye on the exam
• What is the most common attachment type
  across all cultures?
• Give two examples of how differences in
  attachment types reflect child rearing
• What is meant by intra and inter cultural

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