Anatomy and Histology of The Cardiovascular System

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					Anatomy and Histology of The
   Cardiovascular System
         Irma Savitri
         Anatomy of The Heart
• The heart:
  – Surrounded by the pericardial cavity
  – Pericardial cavity: lined by pericardium
     • Fibrous pericardium
     • Serous pericardium:
        – Parietal layer
        – Visceral layer (epicardium)
  – Coronary sulcus: marks the boundary between the
    atria and the ventricles
        Anatomy of The Heart (2)
•   Myocardium: Bulk of the heart
•   Endocardium: Inner surfaces of the heart
•   Epicardium: Covers the outer surface
•   Blood flow - RA to RV via AV valve.
    – AV valve: bounded by three cusps of fibrous tissue
      braced by the chordae tendineae, which are
      connected to papillary muscles
       Anatomy of the Heart (3)
• Blood flow: RV – pulmonary valve - pulmonary
  trunk – left + right pulmonary arteries – left +
  right pulmonary veins – LA – left AV valve – LV –
  aortic valve – ascending aorta – systemic circuit.
• Valves: permit blood flow in only one direction,
  preventing regurgitation of blood.
• Connective tissues of the heart and the cardiac
  skeleton: support the heart’s contractile cells and
Heart Valves
       Anatomy of the Heart (4)
• Coronary circulation: meets the high oxygen
  and nutrient demands of cardiac muscle cells.
• Coronary arteries
• Coronary veins
• Coronary sinuses
Anatomy of the Blood Vessels
     The Aorta and its Branches
• Ascending aorta
  – Right and left coronary arteries
• Arch of the aorta
  – Brachiocephalic trunk
     • Right common carotid artery
     • Right subclavian artery
  – Left common carotid artery
  – Left subclavian artery
   The Aorta and its Branches (2)
• Thoracic aorta
  – Pericardial arteries
  – Bronchial arteries
  – Esophageal arteries
  – Mediastinal arteries
  – Posterior intercostal arteries
  – Subcostal arteries
  – Superior phrenic arteries
   The Aorta and its Branches (3)
• Abdominal aorta
  – Inferior phrenic arteries
  – Celiac trunk
     • Common hepatic artery
     • Left gastric artery
     • Splenic artery
  – Superior mesenteric artery
  – Suprarenal arteries
  – Renal arteries
   The Aorta and its Branches (4)
• Abdominal aorta (cont.)
  – Gonadal arteries
     • Testicular arteries
     • Ovarian arteries
  – Inferior mesenteric artery
  – Common illiac artery
     • External illiac artery
     • Internal iliac artery
 Veins of the Systemic Circulation (1)
• Coronary sinus
• Superior vena cava
• Inferior vena cava
Veins of the Systemic Circulation: Head
               and Neck
• Internal jugular vein
• External jugular vein
• Vertebral veins
    Veins of the Systemic Circulation:
               Upper Limbs
• Superficial:
   – Cephalic veins
   – Basilic veins
   – Median antebrachial veins
• Deep:
   –   Radial veins
   –   Ulnar veins
   –   Brachial veins
   –   Axillary veins
   –   Subclavian veins
            Veins of the Systemic
•   Brachiocephalic vein
•   Azygos vein
•   Hemiazygos vein
•   Accessory hemiazygos vein
     Veins of the Systemic Circulation:
           Abdomen and Pelvis
•   Inferior vena cava
•   Common illiac veins
•   Internal illiac veins
•   External illiac veins
•   Lumbar veins
•   Gonadal veins
•   Renal veins
•   Suprarenal veins
•   Hepatic veins
   Veins of the Systemic Circulation:
              Lower limbs
• Superficial:
  – Great saphenous veins
  – Small saphenous veins
• Deep:
  – Posterior tibial veins
  – Anterior tibial veins
  – Popliteal veins
  – Femoral veins
Histology of the Cardiovascular
         Cardiac Muscle Tissue
• Compared with skeletal muscle fibers: shorter
  in length, less circular in transverse section
• Branching
• One centrally located nucleus, occasionally
• Ends of cardiac muscle fibers: irregular
  transverse thickenings of the sarcolemma 
  intercalated disk
       Cardiac Muscle Tissue (2)
• Intercalated disk:
  – Contain desmosome
  – Gap junctions: allow action potential to conduct
    from one muscle fiber to its neighbour
• Mitochondria: Larger, more numerous
• Cardiac and muscle tissue - same arrangement
  – Actin and myosin
  – Bands, zones, Z disc
      Cardiac Muscle Tissue (3)
• Wider T tubule, less abundant
• One T tubule per sarcomere is located at the Z
• Smaller SR – smaller intracellular reserve of
  calcium ion.
 Histology of the Blood Vessels (1)
• The walls of arteries and veins contain three
  – Tunica intima
  – Tunica media
  – Tunica externa
 Histology of the Blood Vessels (2)
• Artery:
  – Elastic
  – Muscular
  – Small
• Vein:
  – Large
  – Medium
  – Small
Large Artery
Large Vein
 Muscular artery and medium vein
Muscular artery   Medium artery and vein
 Histology of the Blood Vessels (2)
• Capillaries:
  – Continuous
  – Fenestrated
  – Sinusoid
• Blood flow: regulated by precapillary sphincter
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