Kinesiological Concepts of the Ankle and Foot

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Kinesiological Concepts of the Ankle and Foot Powered By Docstoc
					                Biomechanical
Concepts of the Ankle and Foot
Bone of the Ankle
 •   Talus
 •   Tibia
 •   Distal End of Fibula
 •   Articulations
     – Distal tibfib
     – Tibiotalor
     – Fibiotalor
 • Movements at the
   Ankle
                   Bones of the Foot
•   Calcaneus
•   Cuboid
•   Navicular
•   3 Cuneiforms
•   Metatarsal
•   Phalanges
                  Articulations in the Foot
• Arches
  – Longitudinal
     • Outer
           – Calcaneus, cuboid, 4th
             and 5th metatarsals
     • Inner
           – Calcaneus, navicular,
             talus, 3 cuneiforms
             and 3 metatarsals
     • Function
  – Transverse Arches
                        Articulations in the Foot
• Arches
• Subtalor Joint (Hind Foot)
   – Underside of talus and upper
     and anterior calcaneus
   – Reinforce by the
      • 4 talocalcaneal ligaments
      • Plantar calcaneonavicular lig
   – Most inversion and eversion
     occurs here
      • Combo of movements
                     Articulations in the Foot
• Arches
• Subtalor Joint (Hind Foot)
• Mid-tarsal Joint
   – Two articulations
      • Talonavicular
      • Calcaneocuboid
• Tarsometarsal Joints
• Intermetarsal Joints
• Metatarsophalangeal Joints
       Ligaments of the Ankle and Foot
• Lateral Structures
   –   Anterior Talofibular
   –   Calcaneofibular
   –   Posterior Talofibular
   –   Distal Tibiofibular
• Medial Structures
   – Deltoid
   – Plantar Calcaneonavicular
     (Spring Ligament)
• Many intertarsal ligaments
Movements of the Foot and Ankle
• Ankle – Dorsiflexion and Plantar flexion
• Subtalor Joint
   – DF, PF, Inversion, Eversion
   – Supination = inversion + adduction
   – Pronation = Eversion + abduction
• Tarsometarsal and Intermetatarsal Joints
   – Gliding
• Metotarsophalangeal Joints
   – Flexion and extension
• Interphalangeal Joint
   – Flexion and extension
Muscles of the Ankle and Foot

             • Anterior Compartment
               – Extensor Digitorum
               – Extensor hallucis
                 Longus
               – Tibialis Anterior
               – Peroneus Tertius
               – Function
                  • DF
                  • Some Inv and Eversion
Muscles of the Ankle and Foot

             • Anterior Compartment
             • Lateral Compartment
               – Peroneus Longus
               – Peroneus Brevis
               – Function
                  • Eversion
                  • Secondary PF
Muscles of the Ankle and Foot

             • Anterior Compartment
             • Lateral Compartment
             • Superficial Posterior
               –   Gastrocnemius
               –   Soleus
               –   Plantaris
               –   Function
                    • PF
                    • Gastroc = knee flexion
Muscles of the Ankle and Foot

             • Anterior Compartment
             • Lateral Compartment
             • Superficial Posterior
               Compartment
             • Deep Posterior
               Compartment
                – Flexor Digitorm Longus
                – Flexor Hallucis Longus
                – Tibialis Posterior
Other Important Structures
          • Plantar Fascia
             – Thick connective tissue
             – Act like a bow
             – Assists in maintain the
               medial longitudinal
               arch
Muscles of the Foot and Ankle as
                      Stabilizers

• All assist in stabilizing the subtalor,
  metatarsal, intertarsal joints and arches
     Muscles around the ankle and
                   foot as movers

• Small muscle generate a lot of force
  – How?
  – Malleoli
• Supination vs Pronation Movements
• What happens at the ankle affects the knee,
  hip and back inevitably

				
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