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					                       NEHRU ARTS AND SCIENCE COLLEGE
            DEPARTMENT OF CATERING SCIENCE & HOTEL MANAGEMENT

                                          E-LEARNING

CLASS                 : II B.SC CS & HM
SUBJECT               : FRONT OFFICE OPERATIONS – I
UNIT – 2
SYLLABUS:
Duties of Front Office personnel : Reservationists, Receptionist, Information Assistant, Front
Office Cashier, Bell Captain, Bell Boy, Conceirge, Telephone Operator, Guest Relation Executive,
Front Office Manager, Lobby Manager, Business center Coordinator, Night auditor.

Equipments used in Front Office – Information Rack, alphabetical rack, mail and key rack,
computers , billing machines, folio well, PBX, PABX, EPABX, log book.

Layout of a Front Office Counter – Manual, Semi-automated and computerized, Guest cycle.

Part – A:

1 . HOSKYNS system:

       One of the first companies to market a micro computer based on front office system in
UK.

2. ICIM – 101:

      System has HAGAS software package stands for international computer Indian
manufacturers.

3. ITEKIRA data marketed host:

       A front desk software system at small hotels up to 100 rooms.

4. HOLTECH:

       Designed a comprehensive fully integrated front and back office accounting and financing
system called CASII

5. ICIM HAGAS:

       Also offered a system called superstar for back office operation.

6. HAL:

       Hospitality and leisure system from NELCO.

7. O’PM:

       Open system

8. HMS:

       Slave system

9. Integrated Property Management System:

                                     Page 1 of 17
       FIDELLO system

10. HIS:
      Hotel Information System.



Part – B:

   1. Write the duties and responsibilities of front office manager:

1. Directs and coordinates the activities of the front office department which includes room
reservations, guest room assignments, mail and information.

2. Reports to the management and is wholly responsible for the daily functions of the front office.

3. Must understand the functions of and be able to cooperate with closely related departments
such as front office cashiers, assistant managers, credit, sales, house keeping, and service and inter
hotel reservations.

4. Meets the executives and supervisors from other departments at regular intervals to plan and
co-ordinate hotel housing activity.

5. Work closely with various conventions group secretaries to aid their planning of arrival and
guest housing.

6. Responsible along with the personnel department, for the employment and training of staffs

7. Meets with individual guests or convention group representative on problems of room
assignments price and location.

8.Both convention and non-convention reservations, controlling of open unclosed dates,
availability and conditions of rooms and suites, guest arrival patterns, control of keys, receipts and
flow of mail and messages to ensure efficient methods and liaison between department sections
and shifts.

9.Prepare reports to the management and other supervision relative to anticipate and room
occupancy, reservation pattern expected check-in and check-out.

10. Aids and promotes in carrying out hotel employee relation policies such as courtesy program
work performance records, variations, etc



2. Write the duties and responsibilities of lobby manager?.

1. Schedules the duty roaster and determines justification for man power strength

2. Handles guest complaints, and ensures that the front office has good relation with all
departments

3. Co-ordinates with various departments for effective guest handling

4. Co-ordinates with front-office (reception and information) to facilitate rooming and departure
of guests and front-office cash (to allow credits)



                                      Page 2 of 17
5. Does liaison between the travel counter, air times regarding arrival and departure of flights.
Take constant rounds at nights of all operating areas to ensure a smooth functioning

6. Co-ordinates with the security and ensures that no un-wanted happenings takes in hotel.

7. Train all staffs under him, and trainees as well.

8. Attends General Manager’s meetings

9. Completely responsible for all going-on in the lobby and operating public area and rooms and
night as well.



3. Write the duties and responsibilities of night auditors.

1. Reconcile all revenue statements from outlets with the front-office accounting machine.

2. Verify and validate front office cashiers vouchers

3. Check guest folios

4. Verify front office cashier’s report.

5. Clear cashier’s NCR machine

6. Can question front office and restaurant cashiers to ensure all transactions are accounted for.

7. Prepare a statement of bills over a specified amount

8. Preapare daily transcript.

9. Audit night receptionists room reports

10. Responsible to income accountant and chief accountant

11. Account for city ledger credit amounts

12. Co-ordinates with front office cashier and all other cashiers of revenue outlets.




4. Write the duties and responsibilities of guest relation executive?.

He or she can also be called as business manager

1. Knowledge of VIP arrival notice and identification on reservation rack according to appropriate
color code

2. Skills in preparing guests history code.

3. Knowledge of personalization policy and attitude for innovation.

4. Knowledge of where to procure relevant information.

5. Knowledge of policy and what is to be provided to VIPs.

6. Knowledge of name and address of printer.

                                       Page 3 of 17
7. Knowledge on city, hotel, entertainment and other information’s.

8. Knowledge of room status of al the hotels and procedures of instant reservations.

9. Directing guest complaints and problems are dealt with effectively to their satisfaction without
undermining the interest of management.

10. Guest enquiries are converted into significant proposals.

11. Knowledge of Indian welcome procedure.

12. Knowledge of all hotel policies, procedures, rules and systems. Guest handling skills.

13. Salesmanship.

14. Controlling personalization as prescribed is extended to ailing guest in the house.

15. Overstay is permitted in the absence of lobby manager upon request, with minimum risk to the
management.

16. Personalization letters are sent on time.

17. Diplomacy and correct tact is used in dealing with guest exceeding the limits of management
regarding their bills.

18. Personalization policy on letters.

19. Knowledge of policy regarding gifts and employees.

20. Gate passes are signed safe-guarding interests of hotel property(in the absence of lobby
manager)cars are properly checked and billing instructions checked to avoid risk to management in
the absence of lobby manager.

21. Personaliztion to VIPs to ensure good-will.

22. Guest relation ability

23. Man management.

24. Jobs which requires human co-ordination is executed smoothly because of good staff relation.

25. Human relations.

26. Complimentary fruits/flowers

27. Instant reservation of VIPs

28. Authority to permit guest few hours of stay.

29. Authority to make booking on behalf of guest.



Part – c

1. Write in details about the personal attributes of Front office staff?.

PUNCTUALITY:


                                         Page 4 of 17
It is extremely important that an operator reports for duty at last five minutes before her/his shift.
This will enable him/her to go through the handling overtaking over register before taking over
from the previous shift operator. Reporting late for duty upsets the entire working schedule and
puts into inconvenience the whole staff, particularly the operator who has to await for the next
shift to take over.

PERSONAL HYGIENE:

Operators most be particularly careful that their mouths are free from odour.This is particularly
important since the equipment is handled by more than one person. Hair should be properly
groomed and finger nails well maintained.

ACCURACY

Errors are usually caused by carelessness or misunderstanding. This results in failure in service
demanded and hence, an aggravated guest, besides the wasted efforts on the parts of the operator.
All this can be avoided by exercise of reasonable care, particularly in through connections, ringing,
listening attentively.

SPEED:

Speed is one of the important features but accuracy must not be sacrificed for speed. An
inaccurate connection, no matter how quickly made, is not what guest wants. Speed is a skilled
performance for each operation with the least possible expenditure of energy.

CO OPERATION:

Clarity when speaking on telephones is essential. In case of doubt, repeat what is understood to
the guest to ensure proper transmission of what guest had actually said. Clarity of speech is often
lost by the operator talking too fast. Always make it point to be attentive when receiving incoming
calls and the resident calls.

A SENSE OF RESPONSIBILITY ON JOB:

Irresponsibility can lead to the guest's/hotel's loss of business or equipments damage which is
irreparable.

SECRACY:

The operator should be aware of fact that the rules and regulations make it an offence, punishable
with dismissal from service, to violate the secrecy of telephonic conversations. All employees are
expressly forbidden to divulge any information's regarding communication between uses of
telephone.

MEMORY:

Developing the memory power is extremely important for any telephonic operator. The operator
has to keep in memory the house directory, important telephone numbers of the city, etc.

CONCENTRATION APPLICATION AND QUICKNESS:

Operators have to develop absolute concentration in their woksince the lack of concentration
might result in the operators delaying the process of answering call or giving proper attention to
answered call. It is also imperative that the operators apply their mind to their work, take the work
seriously as this will go a long way towards guest’s satisfaction.

                                      Page 5 of 17
CHEERFULLNESS:

It is important for operators to be alert and cheerful while handling any call. They must be aware
of one fact, that they are only heard never seen, and hence, it is essential that an operator brings
cheerfulness in his/her voice.

CAREFUL AND POLITE:

It is not sufficient for operators to possess all other qualities if he/she is not careful and polite.
Carelessness on the part of operators might result in guest getting hazard service like getting a
number which is not required or getting wrong extensions, etc.Along with being careful the
operator must possess the quality of politeness as well. The operator very often is the first contact
with the outside public and the reputation of the hotel is linked up with the politeness or rudeness
of its operators. The operators must always maintain his/her poise and be polite to a guest even if
he is irritating.

CONCIERGE:

It is a French word and as per dictionary the word means door keeper-porter. The word also
referred to hospitality. In some hotels in India it is used in more broad sense and refers to a
person who has a desk called the desk of concierge which is the lobby of the hotel.

      Should be equipped with brochures, travel facilities information, sight seeing, shopping and
       other such things for providing assistance to the guest.
      He is required to make airlines booking, taxi booking and planning of itineraries etc, for
       guests and offers accurate and informative facts and opinion to the guests.
      Serves as guest's liaison with hotel and non hotel services.
      The role of concierge is highly visible as it involves all guest contact and diverse range of
       responsibilities from recommending facilities and services and arranging personal
       shopping, confirming travel arrangements to the coordination of guest requirements with
       all relevant departments.
      Responsible for making comparative hotel analysis.
      Makes the daily function sheet
      Maintains concierge log book
      Makes airport pickups and drop record.
      Maintains complaint record.




2. Write the duties and responsibilities of Bell desk staff’s :

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES:

      Report to bell captain
      Handle guest arrival
      Take the baggage from the car in porch/gate to the hotel.
      Place the baggage in the room, on the luggage rack.
      Under instruction from bell captain bring the baggage from the room on departure
      Check the room to ensure that the guest has left no articles in the room by mistake. Switch
       off all light and air-conditioning.
      Take the baggage and place it in car in the porch/gate.
      Distribute newspaper to guest room and selected offices.
      Provide laundry valet at night
                                      Page 6 of 17
BELL CAPTAIN:

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES:

   Supervise the lobby attendant; control the movement and activity on the lobby attendant
    control sheet.
   Take attendance and prepare staff schedules to meet exi9gencies of work.
   Reports the Assistant Manager - lobby periodically on the performance of lobby attendants,
    and at times provide information to guest.
   Handle left luggage formalities and maintain baggage check room.
   Train lobby attendant to maximize department efficiency.
   Organize and supervise check in/out baggage formalities of groups, crews, etc.
   Control the sale of postage stamps and stationery to the guests.
   Maintains records of all guests with "scanty baggage" and inform Assistant Manager -
    Lobby and front office.
   Assist security in lobby surveillance.
   Conduct daily briefing of lobby attendants.
INFORMATION ASSISTANT:

    Distribute room keys to registered guests in the hotel when arrival errand card is
    presented.
   Answer incoming calls for guests and report all messages
   Handle all guest mail, information, parcels, telegram as per laid down procedures.
   Answer all queries on house facilities and places of tourist interest.
   Keep information aids like time-table, road maps, hotel guide, etc.
   Help in paying guests.
   Maintain log for guest and staff information.
   Maintain guest rack alphabetically.
   Sell hotel facilities through trained salesmanship.
   Sign departure errand cards in acknowledgement of receipt of room key from a departing
    guest.
   Report keys are not retrieved or lost to front office manger at once.
   Maintain close contact with house keeping, engineering, lobby, food and beverages and
    other coordinating departments
REGISTRATION ASSISTANT:

     Be informed on daily room status. Have detailed information regarding arrivals, their room
      requirements and expected departures of the day.
     Check up VIP's reservations and issue VIP amenities, voucher for fruits and flowers,
      beverages, etc. and any other special requests.
     Prepare all requests connected with pre-registration for VIP, invalids and old people.
     Handle group/prepare all records connected with pre-registration for VIP, invalids and old
      people.
     Handle group/crew registration as per laid down procedures as well as FIT.
     Maintain satisfactory part of all registration of stationery.
     Room of all arrivals using arrival errand cards.
     Constantly update room/rack information.
     Type out permanent arrival slip after registering guest and slot in racks.
     Open out guest folio without delay and transmit to front office cashier himself or send the
      GR card to cashier to open the guest folio.
     Maintain room rates absolutely current and up to date.
     Prepare room discrepancy report and ensure double check through lobby attendant.
     Work closely with information assistants.
                                   Page 7 of 17
   Give departure rooms to housekeeping promptly.
   Take all cleared rooms promptly from housekeeping.
   Take room reports or occupancy statistics.
   Sell higher priced rooms and other hotel facilities through trained salesmanship.
   Handle scanty baggage elegantly.
   Know color codes used in reception
   Know room history, namely location, kind, rate, theme, if any, and the view each room
    commands.
RESERVATION ASSISTANT:

   Courteously and promptly handle all reservations on phone, by mail, telex, cable and
    computer, etc.
   Up-date the reservation register/record in order to have updated inventory of room
    availability.
   Type out advance registration slips and maintains reservation racks and correspondence
    files and in case of computers information, updates information in computers room.
   Carry out amendments and cancellations intelligently and accurately.
   Keep availability status charts updated.
   Display reservation position on "Flash Board".
   Check on reservation stationery and keep a satisfactory par stock of the same.
FRONT OFFICE CASHIER:

    Post all guest charges and credit into respective folios.
    Settle all guest bills upon departure.
    Foreign exchange as per regulations.
    Disburse petty cash to hotel staff and authorized hotel paid outs.
    Control safety deposit lockers.
    Operate the accounting machine and be responsible for all postings in it.
    Receive and hold in safe custody all cash payments made by the guests till the account is
     rendered.
    Render account through cash envelop at the end of the shift.
    Maintain and turn in control records and reports specified by the management.
    Note telephone number reading on folios.
BUSINESS CENTRE COORDINATOR:

He/she is responsible for smooth and efficient operations of the centre and keeps up to date all
information and equipment, provides all secretarial services and all information on interpreters,
translator services up to date. He/she sees to it that all equipments are working in order. He/she
keeps the library of books, journals updated, arranged for personalized stationery for guests and
most important, keeps records of the revenue accrued from the centre's services.

He/she is responsible for providing secretarial service to the guest, such as typing, making copies,
taking dictation, etc. He/she sends and receives telex and arranges conference and meeting raise
charge vouchers for guests for the job done by the centre. He/she keeps the news printer and
bulletin board up to date and does other jobs of the centre assigned to him from time to time.



3. What are the equipment using in front office ?.

   In non-automated and semi automated properties the lay out of the front office desk is
centered on a collection of racks and specialty equipment designed to produce store, or display


                                     Page 8 of 17
front office forms. In a semi automated system, these racks are augmented by resting machines,
cash register devices and other pieces of equipment designed to facilitate Front Office tasks.

ROOM RACK:

The room rack has traditionally been considered the most important piece of office equipment. A
room rack is an array of metal file pockets designed to hold room rack slips displaying guests and
room status information. The room rack is normally recessed into the front desk counter, tilled
against the desk, or mounted below or behind the desk. When key slots are added to the room
rack, it can serve as a combination room and key rack.

In a fully automated property, the need for a room rack may be eliminated. Equivalent
information can be stored in a computer system and displayed on front desk terminal whenever
needed.

MAIL, MESSAGE AND KEY RACK:

A key rack is an array of numbered compartments used to maintain guest room keys. To minimize
the number of racks in front desk area, most hotel combines the key rack with either room rack or
the mail and message rack.

ALPHABETICAL INDEX PACK:

RESERVATION RACKS:

       Front office often use both advance reservation racks and current reservation racks. In an
advanced reservation rack slips are arranged by the guest's schedule dates of arrival and within
each day grouping, alphabetically by the guest's or group's name.

INFORMATION RACKS:

       Information is an index of in-house guests, by both last name and room number. It is
commonly used to assist front office employees with proper routing of telephone calls, mails,
messages and visitors inquiries. The information rack normally consists of aluminum slots
designed to hold guest information slips. Thus slots can be arranged early to fit the immediate
needs of the hotel.

FOLIO TRAYS:

       The file holder, for guest accounts in order of room number in non-automated and semi-
automated properties guest folios are stored in front office folio tray or folio bucket and arranged
by guest room number.

       A second folio tray is normally located in the hotels accounting office. The second storage
location contains the folios of departed guests whom the hotel is directly billing or who settled the
account by debit card.

COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM:

       In a computerized Front office, there is little need of folio since folios are stored
electronically, not in printed form. However folios may be printed in advance of check out of
those guests expected to deport.

ACCOUNT, POSTING, MACHINE:



                                      Page 9 of 17
Semi-automated hotels that allow guests to make charge purchases to room accounts use an
account posting machine, to post, monitor and balance these charges. A posting machine normally
provides

   A standardized means of recording transactions.
   A legible statement of guest accounts.
   A basic for cash and deferred payment
   An analysis of department sales activity
   An audit trail of charge purchase transactions.
VOUCHER RACKS:

         After a voucher has been used to support the posting of a transaction, it is stored for
verification during the audit. Vouchers are normally filed for future, reference in a voucher rack
located near the posting machine.

CASH REGISTER:

       A front desk cash register is used to record cash transactions and mountain cash balance.
The front office cashes is primarily responsible for its operation and contents. Cash registers can
use a mechanical, electro mechanical or computer based mode of operation. Key on a cash register
may perform a variety of operations including

   Recording the amount of transaction
   Recording the affected departments
   Recording the type of transaction
   Recording the identity of cashier
   Correcting to take and computing change for a transaction
SUPPORT DEVICES:

       In addition to the racks, registers and machines often front in the front office some pieces
of support equipments are also possible.

CREDIT CARD IMPRINTER:

      An imprinter is used to press a credit card voucher against a guest’s credit card. Imprinters
may be manual or electric

MAGENTIC STRIP READER:

       It is one which reads the data magnetically encoded and stores on the magnetic tape strip
on the back of credit card and wires this data to accredit verification service.

TELEWRITER:

      The operator of a typewriter writes with a pen like styles on a specially designed surface.
The hand written message written on this surface is displayed on a similar device located elsewhere

TIME STAMP:

        Folios, marks and other front office paperwork are inserted to a time stamp device to
record the time and date. This recording can be very important in establishing a chronology of
events.

SECURITY MONITOR:


                                     Page 10 of 17
 Closed-circuit television monitors allow front office employee or security personal to monitor
security and safety throughout the hotel from a central location.

WAKE UP DEVICES:

A non automated wake up device is typically a specially designed clock which allows multiple
alarms setting to remind front desk agents or telephone operators to place wake up calls.

TELEX:

       International travelers are likely to make reservation by means of a telex network
connection. The caller directs a message from a telex machine to the hotels telex machine. A
returns telex is used to confirm the reservation.

SELF REGISTRATION/CHECK OUT TERMINALS:

       Fully automated hotels may provide self registration and check out terminals for the guests.
Their terminals do not eliminate the need for front desk agents but can free them to attend to
other hotel duties, enhancing guest service.

PBX, PABX, EPABX

        Basically there are two types of telephone equipments; there are (1) The PBX (Private
Branch Exchange) and (2) PABX (Private Automatic Branch Exchange). There are various types
of PBX’s for example, 3+9, 5+20, 10+50, etc. This means that there are 3, 5 and 10 main lines
and 9, 20, 50 extensions respectively. The EPBX has the advantage of being cheaper than the
PBX, and hence can be used in small organization where the PABX would prove economically
less viable.

PBX:

  1. The number of extensions are limited
  2. Changing the calls made by the guests are to be calculated by the operator
  3. Service connection also given as the extensions only, there by minimizing the number of
     extensions to guest rooms.
  4. Internal and outside calls are to be connected by the telephone operators there by causing
     additional work load on them.
  5. The traffic and the work load cannot be streamlined.
PABX:

  1. A large number of extensions can be connected
  2. Individual meters for each extension are provided.
  3. The separate connections do not minimize the extension connection since there are given
     no separate working digits
  4. The guests/executives can dial an internal extensions and outside calls straight without
     going to operator.
  5. The traffic and workload on operators can be streamlined.
EPABX :( Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange)

   This system is a modern system where many functions such as call transfer, call barring, call
   monitoring, fixed time call, conferencing facility, D.N.D., wake up call facility, etc, are
   available. The system requires very little space as compared to manually operated system.

IRIDIUM:

Another most modern telephone communication system used these days.

                                    Page 11 of 17
4. What the uses of computer in hotels and write down the software which is using for
   hotel.

        The development of EDP (Electronic Data Processing) and its application to hotel
industry, particularly to the front office, has been slow and cautions. First it was thought that
several hotels might share a common processing facility. Later, time sharing plans were advocated
with each centre transmitting data to a computer centre. Neither if these ideas are materialized.
Now the generation mini computers have brought EDP to the use of hotel industry.

       First means of computer input was “punch cards”. In this system the date was recorded on
cards. The cards were then fed into one of the several machines. The equipment then reproduces
other cards by using the machines readable code of these cards. Then it sorted the data by the
categories and collated the cards to print out the restructured data. Hotel actually did not get into
this phase of computers evolution.

       Today computers store in memory both the program it process and the data being
processed. The information is held in electronic or magnetic memory rather than on cards or
paper tape. The storage is in CPU, the main frame of externally.

       Online system is best for tasks that immediate attention and where time factor is critical.
E.g. For task such as transient ledger billing, credit checks, room request by walking inn, etc,

       In offline time factor is not critical e.g. for tasks such as city ledger billing, advance
reservations, registration cards analysis, guest history, pay bills, inventory, etc.

        Computer, apart from being used as a replacement for man power and solving the filling
problem, can also help in making a guest feel more cherished at the time of arrival and stays as it
will help the clerk by knowing his name, his habits, birthday, like and dislikes and can help in
ensuring future visits

Some computer companies and their system used in India.

1. HOSKYNS system:

       One of the first companies to market a micro computer based on front office system in
UK.

2. ICIM – 101:

      System has HAGAS software package stands for international computer Indian
manufacturers.

3. ITEKIRA data marketed host:

       A front desk software system at small hotels up to 100 rooms.

4. HOLTECH:

       Designed a comprehensive fully integrated front and back office accounting and financing
system called CASII

5. ICIM HAGAS:

       Also offered a system called superstar for back office operation.

6. HAL:

                                       Page 12 of 17
       Hospitality and leisure system from NELCO.

7. O’PM:

       Open system

8. HMS:

       Slave system

9. Integrated Property Management System:

       FIDELLO system

10. HIS:
      Hotel Information System.

11. Back Office System:

       Host, Maxell

12. Personal/finance/Inventory System:

       APCL, OASIS, APGL, ICOMMS, FACT, ICOBCHS

13. Central Reservation System:

       NORTH, GDS, SABRE, ITT, SHERATON, GALLILEO, SPIRIT, AMADEUS.

FIDELIO:

        Fidelio hotel management system is completely integrated system package designed to
maximize the efficiency of the hotel. This is highly flexible system, its uniform and user friendly
interface means that hotel employees can learn that system easily.

The Electronic Billing Machines:

         The development of computerized hotel has taken place alongside that side of computer
itself. With the improvement in both reliability and size of the adding machines. Once again, the
principles were same as for a manual system, but with the added advantage that a limited memory
is available. The piece of equipment was really a number of adding were still reliant on the
operator to hit correct keys, and punch in correct amounts, i.e. accurately transcribe information
from dockets to the keys of the machine.



LOG BOOK:

        To ensure that all front office employees are aware of important events and decisions that
have occurred during previous work shifts a log book may be kept of the front desk. A front
office log book is typically a journal in which notes of unusual events, guest complaints or requests
and other relevant are recorded for reference during sub sequent shifts. Before beginning their
front desk agents should review the log book to become aware of any current activity for example,
a guest maintenance or house keeping services as well as potential problems.



5. Explain about the guest cycle operation in front office :
                                     Page 13 of 17
      The main function of front office department is to facilitate guest transactions and services.
Therefore the operation of the front office department is lr5gely determined by the type and
number of guests transactions which take place during the different stages of a guest’s stay.

A typical hotel stay can divided into four distinct phase namely

       Pre-arrival
       Arrival
       Occupancy
       Departure
These four phases constitute the guest cycle, as shown in figure. In each phase of cycle there are
certain standard transactions which occur between the guest and hotel.

We can see from the cycle that, there are different types of guest’s transactions and services which
are involved in the different places of guest cycle. These are listed below.

      Reservation
      Check in and registration
      Mail and information
      Uninformed service and baggage handling
      Telephone calls and messages
      Handling guest accounts
      Checkout and bill settlements.




                       Baggage Handling                   Reservation
                       Transportation
                       Bill settlement
                        Check out



                                 Departure      Prearrival




                                 Occupancy       Arrival




                  Currency Exchange                        Doorman * Porters

                  Safe Deposit                             Registration

                  Maintaining Guest                        Room Assignment
                                      Page 14 of 17
                  Accounts                                 Issuing of Keys

                  Mail and Information                     Baggage
        Most of these services and transactions are handled by the front office department.



PRE-ARRIVAL: during the pre-arrival stage, the guest chooses a hotel to patronize.

This choice can be affected by a variety of factors, including previous experiences with the hotel,
advertisements, and recommendations, from others, the hotel’s location, and preconceptions
based upon the hotel’s name or chain affliction. A guest’s choice may also be influenced by ease of
making reservations and the reservation agent’s description of the hotel and its facilities, room
rates and amenities. The attitude, efficiency, and knowledge of the front office staff may influence
a caller’s decision to stay at a particular hotel.

        A reservation agent must be able to respond quickly and accurately to requests for future
accommodation. The proper handling of reservation can be critical to the success of lodging
property. Efficient procedures will also allow the reservation agents more time for attention to
detail and opportunity to market hotel services.

        If a reservation can be accepted as requested, the reservation agents create a reservation
record. The creation of reservation record initiates the hotel guest cycle. It enables the hotel to
personalize guest service and appropriately schedule needed staff and facilities. Confirmation of a
request allows the hotel to verify a guest’s room request and personal information, and assures the
guest that his/her needs will be addressed. Pre-registration activities –such as specific room and
rates assignment for guest who have not arrived yet and creation of guest folios – may also be
possible based on information collected during reservation process.

         An effective reservation system helps maximize room sales by accurately monitoring room
availabilities and forecasting room revenue. By analyzing reservation information, the front office
management can develop and understanding of hotels reservation patterns. Data collected during
the reservation process becomes especially useful in subsequent front office functions. Perhaps
the most important outcome of a reservation however, is having a room available when guest
arrives.

ARRIVAL: The arrival stage of guest cycle includes and room functions. When the guest arrives
at the hotel, he/she establishes business relations through the front office. It is the staff’s desk to
clarify the nature of guest-hotel relationship and expectations of hotel and the guests.

       The front office desk agent should determine the guest’s reservation status before
beginning the registration process. Pre-registration activities may have already taken place for
guests who have made reservations. Walk in guests; on the other hand, present an opportunity to
front desk agents to sell guest rooms. To do this the front desk agent must know the hotel’s
products thoroughly and describe them positively. Registration will not occur is not convinced of
the value of renting a particular hotel room.

        A registration record, completed either as part of pre-registration activity or check-in, is
essential to efficient front office operation. A registration record include information about the
guest’s intended method of payment, the planned length of stay, and any special guest’s needs as a
roll away bed, a child’s crib, or a preferred room location. These data enhances the front office’s
ability to meet a special guest’s needs, forecast room occupancies, and settle guest accounts
properly. At check out, the guest’s registration card may also be used as primary source of creation
of a guest history records.



                                     Page 15 of 17
       Registration information is used in the assignment of a room and rate of each guest. Room
and rate assignment also depends upon a effective room status system which allows front desk
agents to determine room status and rate availability. The front desk must learn of changes in the
house keeping status of a room as soon as possible to allow maximization of room sales.

       When assigning guestrooms, the front desk agent must also be aware of the characteristics
of rooms in each room category. Hotel rooms’ types can range from a standard single room to a
luxurious suite room. Differences between rooms within the same category generally lie in their
furnishings, amenities, and location within the property.

       Once it is determined that a guest will be accommodated, the guest’s method of payment
become a important concern. The registration plays an essential role in the guest accounting cycle
by gathering information concerning payment for service referred. Whether the guest will use
cash, a check, a credit card or any alternative method of payment, the front office should make
measures to ensure eventual payment. A proper credit check at the outset of a transaction greatly
reduces a potential for subsequent problems. If a guest’s credit rating to be found poor, extreme
care and tact should be exercised in denying the guest’s request for credits.

        After the establishment of a method of payment, the registration is complete, and the guest
is issued a key and begins occupancy. The guest may be given a room key and map of the property
and allowed to proceed to the room without assistance, or a uniformed service person may be
assigned to show a guest room. When the guest arrives at the room and accepts it, the occupancy
stage of the cycle begins.



OCCUPANCY:             Throughout the guest cycle, the front office represents the hotel to the
guest. This role is especially important during the occupancy stage. As the center of the front
office activity, the front office desk is responsible for coordinating guest services. Front office
guest service may include providing the guest with information, equipment, supplies or services.
The front office’s response to requests should be timely and accurate to maximize guest
satisfaction. A concierge is often employed to offer special attention to such need.

         A major front office objective-during occupancy and all other phases of the guest cycle –is
to satisfy guest needs in a way that will encourage a return visit. Essential to this objective is the
establishment of sound guest relations. Guest relation depends on clear, constructive
communications between front office, other hotel departments and divisions, and the guest. If a
guest has a complaint, the hotel must know of it in order to resolve it. Front desk agents should be
attentive to complaints and try to seek a resolution satisfactory to both guest and hotel.

       Another primary front office concern during occupancy(and indeed, to some extent,
throughout all stage of guest cycle)is security .security topics likely to apply to front office
employees include the protection of funds and valuables, and key control, surveillance safe
deposit, lost and found, and emergency procedures.

        The occupancy stage of guest cycle also produces a variety of transactions affecting guest
and hotel financial guests. Most of these transactions will be processed according to the front
office account posting and auditing procedures.

        The largest single guest account charge is usually for the guest room itself. Additional
expenses may be charges at the guest account if the guest establishes acceptable credit at the front
desk during arrival stage. Goods and services purchased from the hotel’s restaurant, bar, room
service, telephone, garage, valet service, gift shop and other revenue outlets may be charged to
                                     Page 16 of 17
guests accounts. Many hotels limit the amount which guest can charge their accounts. Guest
accounts may be carefully and continually monitored to ensure that the limit is not exceeded.

       It is not important to periodically review and verify the accuracy and completeness of the
front office accounting records. The night audit process is intended to fulfill this need. In hotels
with computerized accounting systems, this phrase may not be strictly accurate, since the audit can
be conducted at any time during the day. Some computerized properties choose to call the audit
the front office audit or update. However even though computerized properties can perform the
audit any time, they nonetheless almost invariably follow tradition and do it at night.

        Regardless of how or when it is performed, room charges are posted to the guest accounts
as part as the audit routine. In addition, charges posted to guest accounts are verified, the accounts
are balanced and checked against credit limits, discrepancies in room status are resolved, and
operating reports are produced.

DEPARTURE:

       The fourth phase of guest cycle is departure. Both the guest services and guest accounting
aspects of the guest cycle are completed during this phase. This final element of guest service is
checking the guest out of the hotel and creating a guest history record. The final element of guest
accounting is settlement of guest’s account.

      At checkout the guest receives an accurate statement of account for settlement, returns the
room keys, and departs from the hotel. Once the guest has checked out, the room’s status is
updated and housekeeping department is advised.

        Other primary concerns of the front office during check out are determining whether guest
was satisfied with the stay and encouraging the guest to return to the hotel (or nay other property
in chain). Obtaining new customers is generally more expensive than retaining old ones, because
of the resources that must be devoted to attracting new guests. A satisfied guest is more likely to
return.




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