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   39th UKRA Conference
    11th – 13th July 2003
   University of Cambridge
      Homerton College
      IN THE 21   ST CENTURY:

Reading as a set of interrelated
 social and cultural practices.
   Pat Smith & Margaret Zeegers
         University of Ballarat
                Luke & Freebody 2000

• code-breaker (How do I crack this?)
• text participant (What does this mean?)
• text user (What do I do within the here and
• text analyst (What does all this do to me?)
• ‘Pooh plunged into the water, seized the bottle, and
  struggled back to his feet again. “Bother!” said Pooh, as
  he opened it. All that wet for nothing. What’s that bit of
  paper doing?” He took it out and looked at it. “It’s a
  message,” he said to himself, “that’s what it is. And that
  letter is a ‘P’, so it’s a very important Message to me, and I
  can’t read it. I must find Christopher Robin or Owl or
  piglet, one of those Clever Readers who can read things,
  and they will tell me what this Message means. Only I
  can’t swim. Bother!” ‘
                       (A.A. Milne, Winnie-the-Pooh, 1927, p.123)
Read this paragraph. Be ready to answer some
• ‘”Eth exten four pacherts will manimex three
  spectas of dinger crapites. The three spectas of
  dinga crapites which will be manimexed are;
• 1. Thaw eth ding esod:
• 2. Who eth ding spoleved; and
• 3. Thaw cheaters od ot tureen sheet dinger
  crapites. Sith pachert manimexes dings sa edoc-
  karebers.’ (After Ken Goodman)
          Text code breakers
• They attend to visual information and to
  non-visual information to decipher text
• Word attack skills; phonological
  perceptions, discriminations and predictions
  to crack the code
• Know the patterns and conventions of print
• Use IT skills
• Decipher visual/pictorial symbols

Facilitate and transfer code breaking skills
   through a systematically orchestrated
   teaching and learning cycle.
Related classroom practices include
1. Modelled reading
2. Guided reading
3. Independent reading
   Objectives related to literacy.

• To consolidate students’ knowledge and skills
  related to research
• To consolidate and extend students’ knowledge
  and skills related to report and persuasive texts
• To develop students’ knowledge and skills related
  to conducting WWW searches
• To nurture students’ sense of purpose in research
  and reporting of outcomes.
         Modelled Reading 1
• Review skills in using library catalogues,
  shelf skimming and scanning, and text
• Review students’ access procedures for
  entering WWW
• Review search engines and where and how
  to find them
              Searching the WWW
• We then went about researching on the net initially typing in McLibel ...
and a whole lot of stuff came up !!!!
• This one also mentions use of
   their toys
one is a useful one to focus on the potential to buy corporate citizenship
• We tried to ensure that the sources of information were as reputable
   as we could ascertain. We didn't want to lose out creditability just
   because we'd tapped into some fringe stuff.
• This web site sets some of the background for the current ads that
   focus on the 'real' food
• Search
 Mad cow: news+sci+pics
 Google +Lycos+Yahoo
• News Services
 Science news+Ticker
 NY Times+W.Post
 World+US papers
 Meat News; Braakman
         Modelled Reading 2
• Demonstrate searches in regard to topic
• Demonstrate searches in relation to another
  aspect of topic
• Demonstrate different kinds of searches and
  their impact on search results
• Demonstrate and discuss search results
• Demonstrate skimming, scanning, culling
  and book marking of search results
              Guided reading
• Practising what has been previously modelled.
• Shift the focus to a new aspect
• Have students gather information and take notes in
  library and back in classrooms.
• Allow for mediating conversation especially about
  code breaking practices used to locate
• Each side jointly drafts and composes text
         Independent reading
• Students continue to work in groups
  cooperatively at computer terminals
• Explore relevant sites
• Provide opportunities for students to visit
  local public library.
• Collate information into reports as
  previously modelled and guided
• Build up debate argument from research.
                     Guided reading

•   McDonald's is "bad" (2001). This group’s focus was the
    affirmative side
•   Guided reading: Discussed some of their initial ideas and planned out
    what they saw as some key issues I.e. to look at how McDonald's
    worked and the type of 'food' they provided!);who would be the people
    who would be wanting to present a 'different' side of McDonald's and
    why they wouldn't bother searching McD's sites. The teacher was
    aware that McDonald's had a court case in the UK in 1999 and they
    talked about how that could demonstrate how McD's operated and how
    it represented their ability to be either customer-focused or corporation-
•   Printed off reports, sorted into useful group and used these for Guided
    and Independent Reading.
Text participants make meaning from texts. They can:
1. Retrieve literal meanings
2. Draw inferences
3. Interpret
4. Construct figurative meanings
5. Evaluate text
6. Make links to prior knowledge and experience
7. Read pictures and other kinds f visual images across
    print, IT and other media
   Text Participants and related practices in modelled,
            guided and independent reading

• Discuss prior knowledge of text types (genres),
  text structure and language appropriate to text
• Help students to anticipate and select appropriate
  reading strategies
• Engage students in a range of activities to explore
  and express their meanings and responses eg Book
  circles, Read and retell. DRTA, KWL, semantic
  webs, debates.
• Always greener: environmental policy

                          McD’s Sauce
• Use texts in social and personal situations to
  achieve purposes
• Interact with others about texts
• Participate in reading events
• Select texts to suit reader purpose
• Adjust reading strategies to suit text type
  and readers purpose.
               A text user
1. As a text code breaker, are you able to
   decipher the text? What does the word
2. As a text participant, what meaning did
   you make from the text?
3. As a text user, what is the purpose of the
           You are what you eat.
• McDonald's: Mad Cow Worries May 21, 2003
• Chicago - Shares in major hamburger chains like McDonald's
  fell sharply after Canada said it had confirmed a case of mad
  cow disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy(BSE). The
  fatal brain-wasting disease has never been detected in U.S.
  cattle, but a case so close to the U.S. border scared investors.
  Mad cow caused sharp declines in beef consumption in Britain,
  Continental Euro and Japan after outbreaks there in recent
  years. A similar disease in humans is contracted by eating
  tainted meat from infected animals. The human variant of the
  disease, known as Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, has killed more
  than 100 people in Britain and Europe in recent years.
• John Glass, an analyst with CIBC World Markets, said even
  though Canada is not a major market for McDonald's, "this is a
  serious issue, because you're not dealing facts, you're dealing in
        Readers as text analysts
• Reflect on a text’s ideological meanings
• Interrogate texts
• Detect a text’s position
• Take a position-accepting, rejecting, or challenging a
  text’s position
• Recognize and talk about opinion, bias and point of
  view in texts
• Construct alternative positions to those in texts
• Recognize and describe ways in which a text is crafted
                     Palm notes 1
                 » That McDonald’s is ‘bad’
1 Introduction. According to the Oxford dictionary to be bad
  means having undesirable qualities; being harmful, wicked or
  evil. I want to show that in fact McDonalds is all of these.
2 In a recent court case in England, McDonalds was shown to be
  very ‘bad’. The judge ruled that McDonalds was ‘bad’ in lots of
  ways. These ways included that:McDonald’s exploits children
  because they are more susceptible to advertising, pressuring
  their parents into going to McDonald’s.
• McDonald’s marketing has pretended that their food has a
  nutritional benefit that it can not match (it’s actually high in fat
  and salt, etc.) McDonald’s is responsible for animal cruelty
• McDonald’s pays low wages, helping to keep wages down in
  food service
                      Palm notes 2
3    McDonald’s uses children
•    McDonald’s has a worldwide budget for promotion and
    advertising of $2 billion pa..
•   They aim their advertising at children.
•   In their “Operations Manual” they say that ‘because children like
    Ronald McDonald and he likes McDonald’s, then children will
    like McDonald’s too’.
•   Children nag their parents to go to McDonald’s, to collect toys
    and to play in the playgrounds.
•   Parents agree because it keeps the kids quiet. There is always
    a McDonald’s store - no matter where they are going.
                       Palm notes 3
4 McDonald’s is not good food      Show poster –
• McDonald’s meal is high in fat, salt and sugar
• The other meals is low in fat, salt and sugar but high fibre, water,
  vitamins and minerals
• McDonald’s public relations staff actually said that “We don’t sell
  nutrition and people don’t come to McDonalds for nutrition”
5 McDonald’s causes animal cruelty
• McDonald’s produced a statement on cruelty to animals.
• But they say they only do this in some countries and that the cost of the
  animal product is much more important than the animal’s quality of life.
• McDonald’s buy battery eggs because they cost 50% less than free
• Suppliers to McDonalds have been shown to have chickens laying
  eggs in cages 5 to a cage, each with less than an A4 piece of paper for
        Social critical literacy
• They act on what they have learned
• They are attention grabbers in the attention
  economy (Lankshear 2003).
• They use literacy to make a difference.
                 Mad About You

Mad About You - A documentary about the mad cow and man question
Daniele Tabellini, Francesco Buso

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