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BREADS Let’s all “rise” for the glory of it! (Chapter 22) CAREERS IN BREAD Oven tender – tends to the stationary or rotary ovens that bake breads, pastries, and other bakery products Baker – mixes and bakes ingredients according to a recipe to produce breads, pastries and other baked goods Dividing-machine attendant – tends to the machines that automatically divide, round, proof, and shape the dough into units of specific size and weight according to the work order before baking KNOW THE WORDS Gluten Yeast Fermentation Baking soda Baking powder Batter Dough Tunnel Oven spring TYPES OF BREAD Quick Breads Yeast Breads Short time for Longer time preparing Leaving agent Leavening Yeast agents Chemical Baking powder reactions Baking soda Gases Examples Examples SELECTION OF BREADS Freshly baked – bakeries, bakery at the supermarket, supermarket shelf; ready to serve Brown-and-serve – partially baked; final browning needed Refrigerator dough – ready to bake; handy Frozen dough/baked goods – thawing and baking required COST Convenience Preparation Extra costs Time savers Loaf size Ingredients Brand STORAGE Store baked Needed Room Creams temperature Custards Freezer Perishable Freezer fillings Temperature Dough Mold growth Freezer storage Refrigerator storage Usage INGREDIENTS Flour Leavening agents Liquid Fat Eggs Sugar Salt FLOUR Produced from cereal grains Types Bread flour All-purpose flour Cake flour Commonalities Protein Starch WHAT’S WITH THE FLOUR? Purpose Structure Gluten Gliadin Example of gluten Differences Strength Gluten Gliadin DIFFERENCES OF FLOURS Bread flour Cake flour Largest amount of Smallest amount of gluten & gliadin gluten & gliadin Strongest gluten Weakest form gluten Production of yeast rolls formation & breads Uses Bread machine at home Cake All-purpose flour Baked products Home baking Correct types needed Satisfactory for Cannot interchange conventionally made Cakes with bread flour – yeast breads tough & elastic Weaker gluten formation Breads with cake flour – will not support the bread LEAVENING AGENTS Purposes Produce gases Products rise & become light Types Air Steam/water vapor Carbon dioxide AIR & STEAM Produced in most baking products High temperatures Liquid ingredients Form steam Popovers & cream puffs Mainly steam No other leavening agents OTHER LEAVENERS Baking soda Baking powder Sodium bicarbonate Contents Improper use Dry acid Disagreeable flavor Acid salt Unattractive color Baking soda Use in foods that also Starch/flour use an acid Double-acting Other ingredients Release carbon when Buttermilk dioxide moistened Release carbon Molasses dioxide when heated Brown sugar Use recommended Honey amounts Applesauce USE OF LIQUIDS Commonly used Other functions Milk Moisten Water Dissolve ingredients Fruit juice Baking powder Salt Eggs& fats Sugar Functions Leavening agents Hydrate the proteins Convert into steam & starch Helps to form gluten Starches absorb & gelatinize during baking PURPOSE OF FAT Primary tenderizing agent Coats fat particles Separates dough into layers Leavening agent Forms air bubbles when beaten Fat traps bubbles & holds them OTHER INGREDIENTS Eggs Sugar Incorporate air when Sweetness beaten Tenderizes Color Crusts brown Flavor Brown sugar – Structure distinctive flavors During baking Moister than Proteins coagulation granulated Elasticity Salt Structure Flavor Regulates yeast & some enzymes Produces carbon dioxide too quickly if absent MIXING METHOD #1 Biscuit method Biscuits & pastries Sift dry ingredients Pastry blender Dry ingredients Fats Particles form cornmeal Liquid added last MIXING METHOD #2 Muffin method Foods made Waffles Pancakes Popovers Coffee cake Measure dry ingredients Milk & melted fat Liquid mixture to dry ingredients Stir batter MIXING METHOD #3 Conventional cake method Foods Coffee cakes Breads with baking powder Cream fat & sugar together Beat eggs into creamed mixture Add combined dry ingredients Alternate between dry and liquid ingredients QUICK BREADS Mixture of flour & liquid Forms Dough Higher flour content Shape by hand Batter Pour batter Thin Pancakes Popovers Drop batter High flour content Drop by spoonful Muffins QUICK BREADS – SCIENCE Differences amongst quick breads Ingredient portions Mixing methods Formation of gluten Strength Elasticity Holds leavening gases Too much handling Overdevelopment of gluten Compact Tough BISCUIT PREPARING Correct Commonalities proportion of Flour, salt ingredients Baking powder necessary Milk, fat Gentle handling Differences Types Greased cookie Rolled biscuits sheet Dropped biscuits Ungreased cookie sheet CHARACTERISTICS OF BISCUITS High quality Undermixed Smooth, level top Low volume Straight sides Rounded top Crust evenly Slightly rounded browned crust Interior is creamy to Crumbs are tender white Overmixed Crumb is moist, Low volume fluffy, & peels off in layers Rounded, smooth top Crumb – tough & compact MAKING MUFFINS Prepare quickly Main ingredients Flour Baking powder Milk Salt Eggs Sugar Melted shortening Varietywith other ingredients CHARACTERISTICS OF MUFFINS Highquality Undermixed muffins muffins Thin, evenly Low volume browned crust Flat top Top is symmetrical Coarse crumb but looks rough Overmixed If broken in half muffins Texture is uniform Peaked tops Crumb – light & tender Pale, slick crust Tunnels visible PREPARATION OF POPOVERS Golden brown Contents balloons Flour Salt Fillings vary Eggs Butter & jam Milk Creamed meats Vegetables Baking Combinations of savory Hot oven for ½ of the Pudding, custards cooking time Steam expansion Lower temperature to prevent over-browning Opening the oven door during baking CHARACTERISTICS OF POPOVERS High quality Insufficient High volume baking Golden brown Collapse when Crispy removed from oven Interior Slightly moist Exterior soft Not raw Interior doughy MAKING CREAM PUFFS Golden brown Fillings include Hollow shell Pudding & custard Ice cream Crispy walls Whipped cream Uses Elongated cream Desserts Appetizers puffs Main dish Custard Éclair BASICS OF MAKING CREAM PUFFS Ingredients Baking Flour Hot oven for steam Water Reduction of Fat temperature Exteriors Eggs overbrowning Puff paste Set of interiors Opening the door Puffs do not set Steam condenses Puffs collapse when removing from oven CHARACTERISTICS OF CREAM PUFFS Proper preparation Too much liquid Good volume Fat oozes out Brown, tender crust Water & fat heated Interior together Hollow Puff paste is cooked Moist, tender dough strands Failures Mostly underbaking Collapsing when removed from oven Interior moist & filled with dough strands MICROWAVING QUICK BREADS Successful types of pastries Nut bread Muffins Coffee cake Corn bread Biscuits Reheating Pancakes Waffles Do NOT microwave Cream puffs Popovers INTERMISSION YEAST BREADS Popular activity Weekly Increasingly popular Bread machines Without machines Brown-and-serve Cool rise breads Frozen dough YEAST Microscopic cells Compressed yeast Yeast + sugar = ethyl Fresh, moist cells alcohol + carbon Cake form dioxide Perishable Chemical reaction Active dry yeast Fermentation Dried Forms Granules Compressed Fast-acting yeast Active dry High active Fast-acting Smaller granules WHY TO USE YEAST Leavens the bread Use specified amount Too much yeast Rises too quickly Undesirable Flavor Texture Appearance Too little yeast Lengthens fermentation time Longer to rise YEAST ACTIVATION Temperatures affect yeast cells Too high – kills cells Too low – stops/slows activity Distinctive temperatures Dissolving yeast into liquids 105° to 115° Combining with other ingredients 120° to 130° STORAGE OF YEAST Availability Foil packets Glass jars Unopened dry yeast – cool, dry place Opened jars – refrigerate Fast-acting yeast Small quantities Use promptly INGREDIENTS NEEDED Flour Liquid Salt Yeast Sugar Possibly fat & eggs Proportions vary little between traditional preparation & bread machine PURPOSE OF FLOUR + liquid + Flour Wholewheat/non- kneading = gluten wheat flours Supports carbon Oat dioxide Rye Byproduct of yeast Multi-grain Bread flour – Lowest amount of gluten highest amount of Denser loaf gluten Combination flours All-purpose flour – Production of more high amount of gluten gluten Allow for rising USING LIQUIDS Water Potato water Milk Softer crust on bread Stays fresher longer Other types – adding flavors & nutrients Buttermilk Fruit juice Yogurt Applesauce USAGE OF SALT Regulates the action of yeast Inhibits the action of certain enzymes in flour Without added salt Sticky Hard to handle Look moth-eaten OTHER NEEDED INGREDIENTS Sugar Eggs Influence browning, Flavor & richness flavor & texture Color extra food for yeast Improved structure Rise faster Part of the liquid Too much – too long ingredients to rise Other Fat Raisins Tenderness Nuts Required for bread Herbs & spices machines Add flavor & variety Normally solid fat Lengthen rising times MIXING METHOD #1 Traditional Yeast dissolved in warm water (105° to 115°) Remaining ingredients Liquid Sugar Salt Fat Some flour Rise twice 1 – after mixing ingredients 2 – shape & rise again MIXING METHOD #2 Fast-acting yeast Yeast with flour & dry ingredients Liquid & fat heated (120° to 130°) Warmed ingredients to dry ingredients Knead dough Cover & rest 10 minutes (replaces 1st rising) Shape & allow to rise MIXING METHOD #3 Mixer method Active dry or fast- rising yeast Starts like one-rise Electric mixer – add warmed ingredients Stir remaining flour Advantages Ingredients blend easily Develops gluten Shortens kneading time MIXING METHOD #4 “No knead” method Stirring creates gluten Advantages Less flour Thinner mixture 2 rising times 1st in mixing bowl 2nd after spreading into baking pan YEAST BREAD - SCIENCE Requires formation Carbon dioxide Gluten Increases Carbon dioxide Dough rises Mixing & kneading Volume in bread Gluten develops Successful bread Framework Measurement Traps carbon dioxide Kneading Controlled temperatures Pan size Baking temperatures KNEADING Needed in methods Traditional One-rise Mixer Develops gluten How to Press with palms of heels ¼ turn Fold Smooth & elastic (8 to 10 minutes) THINGS TO AVOID Too much flour – stiffness Roughness Beginning Sticky Hard to handle Ending Matting Tearing FERMENTATION Warm resting Carbon dioxide place allows for rising Yeast feasts on How to tell if risen sugar enough Alcohol Double finger Carbon dioxide method Fermentation 2 fingers into dough Alcohol Indent remains – finished evaporates VARIATIONS IN FERMENTATION Kind & amount of yeast Temperature of room Optimum 80° to 85° Too warm Too quickly Rises too fast Kind of flour PUNCHING THE DOUGH After 1st rising Releases carbon dioxide How to Firmly push fist into dough Fold edges towards center Turn over Some need 2nd rising SHAPING THE DOUGH Suggestions After shaping Sharp knife into Place into greased portions loaf pan Rest 10 minutes Brush with egg Easier to handle whites, and shape shortening, etc. Cover with clean cloth & finish rest of dough Rising Warm, draft free Doubled BAKING YEAST BREADS Variations Reduction of Kind of loaf temperature Size of loaf (overbrowning) Need hot oven Immediately remove During baking from pans Cool thoroughly Gas cells expand Set Slicing Become rigid Storing Oven spring 1st 10 minutes Rapid growth CHARACTERISTICS OF YEAST BREADS High quality Rises too long Large volume Large, over-expanded Smooth, round top cells Surface browned Top sunken & Sliced overhanging sides (mushrooms) Fine & uniform Coarse texture Crumb tender Elastic Crumbly Springs back Not enough rising Under-baked or over Large cracks on sides worked Compact texture Low volume Carbon dioxide leaks out ULTIMATE NEW YORK PIZZA (Click on pizza for a short video) TIME-SAVING TECHNIQUES Fast-rising yeast – rising time cut ½ One-rise – saves rising time Mixer method – speeds blending & shortens kneading time Batter method – eliminates kneading entirely CONVIENCE METHODS Cool-rising dough Freezer dough Slow rising in Mix & knead refrigerator Freeze before or after Mix ingredients & knead shaping Let rest, shape & put Storage in freezer – up to into pan 1 month Cover & put into Thaw, shape, rise, & refrigerator bake 2 to 24 hours Refrigerator dough Slow rising in refrigerator Shape after refrigeration 2 to 24 hours Shape, rise, & bake BREAD MACHINES Advantages Too moist – loaf Fastest collapses during Easiest baking Follow owner’s Too dry – small, manual compact loaf Dough Weather consistency conditions Quality of bread Texture of dough during 1st kneading Soft ball, sticky to touch MICROWAVING YEAST Defrost dough Rise & bake allowed Lacks crispness & brownness Batter breads – no crust YEAST BREAD VARIATIONS Combining white Toppings flour Butter Whole wheat flour Poppy seeds Rye flour Sesame seeds Cornmeal Caraway seeds Additions Shape into rolls Dried fruit Nuts Herbs Cheese THE END QUESTIONS? COMMENTS? CONCERNS?
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