Breads by wanghonghx

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 63

									BREADS
Let’s all “rise” for
the glory of it! (Chapter 22)
CAREERS IN BREAD
 Oven   tender – tends to the stationary or
  rotary ovens that bake breads, pastries,
  and other bakery products
 Baker – mixes and bakes ingredients
  according to a recipe to produce breads,
  pastries and other baked goods
 Dividing-machine attendant – tends to
  the machines that automatically divide,
  round, proof, and shape the dough into
  units of specific size and weight according
  to the work order before baking
KNOW THE WORDS
        Gluten
        Yeast
        Fermentation
        Baking soda
        Baking powder
        Batter
        Dough
        Tunnel
        Oven spring
TYPES OF BREAD
Quick     Breads   Yeast   Breads
  Short time for     Longer time
   preparing          Leaving agent
  Leavening          Yeast
   agents             Chemical

  Baking powder       reactions
  Baking soda        Gases

  Examples           Examples
SELECTION OF BREADS
Freshly  baked – bakeries,
 bakery at the supermarket,
 supermarket shelf; ready to
 serve
Brown-and-serve – partially
 baked; final browning needed
Refrigerator dough – ready to
 bake; handy
Frozen dough/baked goods –
 thawing and baking required
COST
Convenience
Preparation
Extra    costs
  Time  savers
  Loaf size
  Ingredients
  Brand
STORAGE
Store   baked   Needed
  Room            Creams
   temperature     Custards
  Freezer         Perishable
Freezer            fillings
  Temperature   Dough
  Mold growth     Freezer storage
                   Refrigerator
                    storage
                   Usage
INGREDIENTS
      Flour
      Leavening   agents
      Liquid
      Fat
      Eggs
      Sugar
      Salt
FLOUR
 Produced    from cereal
  grains
 Types
   Bread flour
   All-purpose flour
   Cake flour
 Commonalities
   Protein
   Starch
WHAT’S WITH THE FLOUR?
           Purpose
               Structure
                 Gluten
                 Gliadin

               Example of gluten
           Differences
               Strength
               Gluten
               Gliadin
DIFFERENCES OF FLOURS
   Bread flour                      Cake flour
     Largest amount of                Smallest amount of
      gluten & gliadin                  gluten & gliadin
     Strongest gluten                 Weakest form gluten
     Production of yeast rolls         formation
      & breads                         Uses
     Bread machine at home                Cake
   All-purpose flour                      Baked products

     Home baking                    Correct types needed
     Satisfactory for                 Cannot interchange
      conventionally made              Cakes with bread flour –
      yeast breads                      tough & elastic
     Weaker gluten formation          Breads with cake flour –
                                        will not support the
                                        bread
LEAVENING AGENTS
Purposes
  Produce gases
  Products rise &
   become light
Types
  Air
  Steam/water
   vapor
  Carbon dioxide
AIR & STEAM
        Produced in most
         baking products
        High
         temperatures
           Liquid ingredients
           Form steam
        Popovers    & cream
        puffs
           Mainly steam
           No other leavening
            agents
OTHER LEAVENERS
 Baking soda                 Baking powder
   Sodium bicarbonate          Contents
   Improper use                   Dry acid

      Disagreeable flavor         Acid salt

      Unattractive color          Baking soda

   Use in foods that also         Starch/flour

    use an acid                 Double-acting
   Other ingredients              Release carbon when

      Buttermilk
                                    dioxide moistened
                                   Release carbon
      Molasses
                                    dioxide when heated
      Brown sugar
                                Use recommended
      Honey
                                 amounts
      Applesauce
USE OF LIQUIDS
 Commonly        used      Other   functions
   Milk                      Moisten
   Water                     Dissolve ingredients
   Fruit juice                 Baking powder

                                Salt
 Eggs& fats
                                Sugar
 Functions
                              Leavening agents
   Hydrate the proteins
                              Convert into steam
    & starch
   Helps to form gluten
   Starches absorb &
    gelatinize during
    baking
PURPOSE OF FAT
        Primary   tenderizing
         agent
        Coats fat particles

        Separates dough
         into layers
        Leavening agent

           Forms air bubbles
            when beaten
           Fat traps bubbles
            & holds them
OTHER INGREDIENTS
   Eggs                            Sugar
       Incorporate air when            Sweetness
        beaten                          Tenderizes
       Color                           Crusts brown
       Flavor                          Brown sugar –
       Structure                        distinctive flavors
       During baking                   Moister than
         Proteins coagulation           granulated
         Elasticity                Salt
         Structure
                                        Flavor
                                        Regulates yeast & some
                                         enzymes
                                        Produces carbon
                                         dioxide too quickly if
                                         absent
MIXING METHOD #1
Biscuit    method
    Biscuits &
     pastries
    Sift dry
     ingredients
    Pastry blender
      Dry ingredients
      Fats

    Particles form
     cornmeal
    Liquid added last
MIXING METHOD #2
        Muffin method
          Foods made
              Waffles
              Pancakes

              Popovers

              Coffee cake

          Measure dry
           ingredients
          Milk & melted fat
          Liquid mixture to
           dry ingredients
          Stir batter
MIXING METHOD #3
   Conventional cake
    method
       Foods
         Coffee cakes
         Breads with baking
          powder
     Cream fat & sugar
      together
     Beat eggs into
      creamed mixture
     Add combined dry
      ingredients
     Alternate between
      dry and liquid
      ingredients
QUICK BREADS
        Mixture      of flour &
         liquid
        Forms
          Dough
            Higher flour content

            Shape by hand

          Batter
            Pour batter
                  Thin
                  Pancakes

                  Popovers

                Drop batter
                  High flour content

                  Drop by spoonful

                  Muffins
QUICK BREADS – SCIENCE
   Differences amongst
    quick breads
      Ingredient portions
      Mixing methods
   Formation of gluten
      Strength
      Elasticity
      Holds leavening
       gases
   Too much handling
      Overdevelopment of
       gluten
      Compact
      Tough
BISCUIT PREPARING
 Correct               Commonalities
  proportion of             Flour, salt
  ingredients               Baking powder
  necessary                 Milk, fat
 Gentle handling       Differences
 Types                     Greased cookie
   Rolled biscuits          sheet
   Dropped biscuits        Ungreased cookie
                             sheet
CHARACTERISTICS OF
BISCUITS
 High   quality               Undermixed
    Smooth, level top            Low volume
    Straight sides               Rounded top
    Crust evenly                 Slightly rounded
     browned                       crust
    Interior is creamy to        Crumbs are tender
     white
                               Overmixed
    Crumb is moist,
                                  Low volume
     fluffy, & peels off in
     layers                       Rounded, smooth
                                   top
                                  Crumb – tough &
                                   compact
MAKING MUFFINS
 Prepare quickly
 Main ingredients
     Flour
     Baking powder
     Milk
     Salt
     Eggs
     Sugar
     Melted shortening
 Varietywith other
 ingredients
 CHARACTERISTICS OF
 MUFFINS
 Highquality                Undermixed
 muffins                     muffins
  Thin, evenly               Low volume
   browned crust              Flat top
  Top is symmetrical         Coarse crumb
   but looks rough
                             Overmixed
  If broken in half
                             muffins
      Texture is uniform
                              Peaked tops
      Crumb – light &
       tender                 Pale, slick crust
                              Tunnels visible
PREPARATION OF
POPOVERS
 Golden brown                      Contents
  balloons                            Flour
                                      Salt
 Fillings vary
                                      Eggs
       Butter & jam
                                      Milk
       Creamed meats
       Vegetables                  Baking
       Combinations of savory        Hot oven for ½ of the
       Pudding, custards              cooking time
                                      Steam expansion
                                      Lower temperature to
                                       prevent over-browning
                                    Opening the oven
                                     door during baking
CHARACTERISTICS OF
POPOVERS
High    quality        Insufficient
  High volume           baking
  Golden brown           Collapse when
  Crispy                  removed from
                           oven
  Interior
      Slightly moist     Exterior soft
      Not raw            Interior doughy
MAKING CREAM PUFFS
 Golden brown    Fillings   include
 Hollow shell      Pudding & custard
                    Ice cream
 Crispy walls
                    Whipped cream
 Uses
                  Elongated    cream
  Desserts
  Appetizers
                  puffs
  Main dish
                    Custard
                    Éclair
BASICS OF MAKING CREAM
PUFFS
   Ingredients      Baking
     Flour            Hot oven for steam
     Water            Reduction of
     Fat               temperature
                          Exteriors
     Eggs
                           overbrowning
   Puff paste
                          Set of interiors

                     Opening the door
                       Puffs do not set
                       Steam condenses
                       Puffs collapse when
                        removing from oven
CHARACTERISTICS OF CREAM
PUFFS
   Proper preparation             Too much liquid
     Good volume                    Fat oozes out
     Brown, tender crust            Water & fat heated
     Interior                        together
          Hollow
                                     Puff paste is cooked
        

         Moist, tender dough
          strands
   Failures
     Mostly underbaking
     Collapsing when
      removed from oven
     Interior moist &
      filled with dough
      strands
MICROWAVING QUICK
BREADS
             Successful types of pastries
                 Nut bread
                 Muffins
                 Coffee cake
                 Corn bread
                 Biscuits
             Reheating
               Pancakes
               Waffles
             Do NOT microwave
               Cream puffs
               Popovers
INTERMISSION
YEAST BREADS
 Popular   activity
    Weekly
    Increasingly
     popular
    Bread machines
 Without   machines
    Brown-and-serve
    Cool rise breads
    Frozen dough
YEAST
 Microscopic cells            Compressed yeast
 Yeast + sugar = ethyl            Fresh, moist cells
  alcohol + carbon                 Cake form
  dioxide                          Perishable
       Chemical reaction      Active dry yeast
       Fermentation               Dried
   Forms                          Granules
       Compressed             Fast-acting yeast
       Active dry                 High active
       Fast-acting                Smaller granules
WHY TO USE YEAST
         Leavens the bread
         Use specified amount
           Too much yeast
                 Rises too quickly
                 Undesirable

                     Flavor
                     Texture

                     Appearance

               Too little yeast
                 Lengthens
                  fermentation time
                 Longer to rise
YEAST ACTIVATION
   Temperatures affect
    yeast cells
     Too high – kills cells
     Too low – stops/slows
      activity
   Distinctive
    temperatures
     Dissolving yeast into
      liquids
        105° to 115°

     Combining with
      other ingredients
        120° to 130°
STORAGE OF YEAST
 Availability
     Foil packets
     Glass jars
 Unopened    dry yeast
  – cool, dry place
 Opened jars –
  refrigerate
 Fast-acting yeast
     Small quantities
     Use promptly
INGREDIENTS NEEDED
          Flour

          Liquid

          Salt

          Yeast

          Sugar

          Possibly  fat & eggs
          Proportions vary
           little between
           traditional
           preparation & bread
           machine
PURPOSE OF FLOUR
      + liquid +
 Flour                   Wholewheat/non-
 kneading = gluten        wheat flours
   Supports carbon            Oat
    dioxide                    Rye

   Byproduct of yeast         Multi-grain


 Bread  flour –           Lowest amount of
                            gluten
  highest amount of
                           Denser loaf
  gluten
                          Combination        flours
 All-purpose flour –
                           Production of more
  high amount of            gluten
  gluten                   Allow for rising
USING LIQUIDS
 Water
 Potato water

 Milk
     Softer crust on bread
     Stays fresher longer

   Other types – adding
    flavors & nutrients
     Buttermilk
     Fruit juice
     Yogurt
     Applesauce
USAGE OF SALT
       Regulates  the
        action of yeast
       Inhibits the action
        of certain enzymes
        in flour
       Without added salt
           Sticky
           Hard to handle
           Look moth-eaten
OTHER NEEDED INGREDIENTS
 Sugar                       Eggs
   Influence browning,         Flavor & richness
    flavor & texture            Color
   extra food for yeast        Improved structure
      Rise faster
                                Part of the liquid
      Too much – too long       ingredients
       to rise
                              Other
 Fat
                                  Raisins
   Tenderness                    Nuts
   Required for bread
                                  Herbs & spices
    machines
                                  Add flavor & variety
   Normally solid fat
                                  Lengthen rising
                                   times
MIXING METHOD #1
   Traditional
     Yeast dissolved in
      warm water (105° to
      115°)
     Remaining ingredients
         Liquid
         Sugar

         Salt

         Fat

         Some flour

       Rise twice
         1 – after mixing
          ingredients
         2 – shape & rise again
MIXING METHOD #2
        Fast-acting yeast
        Yeast with flour & dry
         ingredients
        Liquid & fat heated
         (120° to 130°)
        Warmed ingredients
         to dry ingredients
        Knead dough

        Cover & rest 10
         minutes (replaces 1st
         rising)
        Shape & allow to rise
MIXING METHOD #3
 Mixer   method
   Active dry or fast-
    rising yeast
   Starts like one-rise
   Electric mixer – add
    warmed ingredients
   Stir remaining flour
 Advantages
   Ingredients blend
    easily
   Develops gluten
   Shortens kneading
    time
MIXING METHOD #4
        “No knead” method
        Stirring creates
         gluten
        Advantages
          Less flour
          Thinner mixture

       2    rising times
          1st in mixing bowl
          2nd after spreading
           into baking pan
YEAST BREAD - SCIENCE
 Requires   formation      Carbon    dioxide
   Gluten                    Increases
   Carbon dioxide            Dough rises

 Mixing   & kneading         Volume in bread

   Gluten develops         Successful   bread
   Framework                   Measurement
   Traps carbon dioxide        Kneading
                                Controlled
                                 temperatures
                                Pan size
                                Baking temperatures
KNEADING
 Needed     in methods
   Traditional
   One-rise
   Mixer

 Develops    gluten
 How   to
   Press with palms of heels
   ¼ turn
   Fold
   Smooth & elastic (8 to 10
    minutes)
THINGS TO AVOID
        Too  much flour –
         stiffness
        Roughness
            Beginning
              Sticky
              Hard to handle

            Ending
              Matting
              Tearing
FERMENTATION
 Warm     resting      Carbon  dioxide
  place                  allows for rising
 Yeast feasts on       How to tell if risen
  sugar                  enough
     Alcohol               Double finger
     Carbon dioxide         method
     Fermentation          2 fingers into dough
 Alcohol                   Indent remains –
                             finished
 evaporates
VARIATIONS IN FERMENTATION
 Kind   & amount of
  yeast
 Temperature of
  room
    Optimum 80° to 85°
    Too warm
      Too quickly
      Rises too fast


 Kind   of flour
PUNCHING THE DOUGH
         After 1st rising
         Releases carbon
          dioxide
         How to
             Firmly push fist
              into dough
             Fold edges towards
              center
             Turn over
         Some    need 2nd
         rising
SHAPING THE DOUGH
 Suggestions            After   shaping
    Sharp knife into        Place into greased
     portions                 loaf pan
    Rest 10 minutes         Brush with egg
    Easier to handle         whites,
     and shape                shortening, etc.
                             Cover with clean
                              cloth & finish rest
                              of dough
                             Rising
                               Warm, draft free
                               Doubled
BAKING YEAST BREADS
 Variations              Reduction of
     Kind of loaf         temperature
     Size of loaf         (overbrowning)
 Need hot oven           Immediately remove

 During baking
                           from pans
                          Cool thoroughly
     Gas cells expand
       Set                   Slicing
       Become rigid          Storing
     Oven spring
       1st 10 minutes
       Rapid growth
CHARACTERISTICS OF YEAST
BREADS
   High quality                      Rises too long
       Large volume                      Large, over-expanded
       Smooth, round top                  cells
       Surface browned                   Top sunken &
       Sliced                             overhanging sides
                                           (mushrooms)
         Fine & uniform
                                          Coarse texture
         Crumb tender

             Elastic
                                          Crumbly
             Springs back            Not enough rising
   Under-baked or over                   Large cracks on sides
    worked                                Compact texture
       Low volume
       Carbon dioxide leaks out
ULTIMATE NEW YORK PIZZA




      (Click on pizza for a short video)
TIME-SAVING TECHNIQUES
 Fast-rising  yeast –
  rising time cut ½
 One-rise – saves
  rising time
 Mixer method –
  speeds blending &
  shortens kneading
  time
 Batter method –
  eliminates
  kneading entirely
CONVIENCE METHODS
   Cool-rising dough                Freezer dough
       Slow rising in                 Mix & knead
        refrigerator                   Freeze before or after
       Mix ingredients & knead         shaping
       Let rest, shape & put          Storage in freezer – up to
        into pan                        1 month
       Cover & put into               Thaw, shape, rise, &
        refrigerator                    bake
       2 to 24 hours
   Refrigerator dough
     Slow rising in
      refrigerator
     Shape after refrigeration
     2 to 24 hours
     Shape, rise, & bake
BREAD MACHINES
 Advantages                Too  moist – loaf
   Fastest                  collapses during
   Easiest                  baking
 Follow owner’s            Too dry – small,
  manual                     compact loaf
 Dough                     Weather
  consistency                conditions
   Quality of bread
   Texture of dough
    during 1st kneading
   Soft ball, sticky to
    touch
MICROWAVING YEAST
       Defrost dough
       Rise & bake
        allowed
         Lacks
          crispness &
          brownness
         Batter breads –
          no crust
YEAST BREAD VARIATIONS
 Combining         white    Toppings
 flour                           Butter
     Whole wheat flour          Poppy seeds
     Rye flour                  Sesame seeds
     Cornmeal                   Caraway seeds
 Additions                  Shape   into rolls
     Dried fruit
     Nuts
     Herbs
     Cheese
  THE END
QUESTIONS?


COMMENTS?


CONCERNS?

								
To top