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BASELINE SURVEY 2011

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BASELINE SURVEY 2011 Powered By Docstoc
					SAFE VEGETABLE CHAIN IN VIET TRI CITY, PHU THO
PROVINCE - VECO VIETNAM PROGRAMME 2011 - 2013

           BASELINE SURVEY 2011




         Sustainable Development Consulting Corporation
                B1-1, 54 Ha Dinh Bldg., Alley 85, Ha Dinh Str.,
                       Thanh Xuan Dist., Hanoi, Vietnam
            Tel./Fax: (84)(4) 6285 0771     Email: sdcc@sdcc.vn




                    September 2011
Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011



                                            TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................. 3
ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................... 4
1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 5
   1.1. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES .......................................................................................... 5
   1.2. APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY ......................................................................................... 6
   1.3. SCOPE OF THE ASSESSMENT................................................................................................ 7
2. VULNERABILITY CONTEXT ......................................................................................... 7
3. LIVELIHOOD ASSETS AND TARGET GROUPS ............................................................... 7
   3.1. LIVELIHOOD ASSETS .......................................................................................................... 7
   3.2. TARGET GROUP ................................................................................................................ 8
4. CHAIN ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................... 13
   4.1. CHAIN MAP .................................................................................................................. 13
   4.2. CHARACTERISTICS AND ACTIVITIES OF ACTORS....................................................................... 14
5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................................. 22
APPENDIX: LIST OF OFFS INTERVIEWED BY THE CT ...................................................... 24
ANNEX 1. IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORT TOOL




Sustainable Development Consulting Corporation                                                                                       2
Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011




                               ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Consultant Team would like to express its thanks to Mr. Eduardo A. Sabio,
Ph.D - VECO Regional Representative, Mr. Benoit Trudel Chain Development
Coordinator, Ms. Caroline Huyghe - Advisor on Communication and Monitoring,
and VECO staff for their enthusiasm supports in carrying out this baseline survey.

We would like to thank Ms. Nguyen Thi Den (Chain Development Facilitator) for
arrangements on the fields. Sincere thanks to local authorities of Tan Duc
Commune, Viet Tri Women’s Union, PhuTho STAS, Phu Tho Plant Protection
Sub-department, and organised family farmers for providing the Consultant Team
with data and information and sharing ideas and feedbacks for the success of this
study.



                                                               Team Leader

                                                               Chu Tuan Dat




Sustainable Development Consulting Corporation                                  3
Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011



                                    ABBREVIATIONS


            CPC                  Communal People’s Committee

            CT                   Consultant Team

            DPC                  District People’s Committee

            GAP                  Good Agricultural Practices

            GSO                  General Statistics Office

            HH                   Household

            INGO                 International Non-Governmental Organisation

            MARD                 Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development

            NGO                  Non-Governmental Organisation

            OFF                  Organised Family Farmers

            PhuTho STAS          PhuTho Standard and Consumers Association

            PPC                  Provincial People’s Committee

            PPD                  Plant Protection Sub-Department

            SACD                 Sustainable Agricultural Chain Development

            TOR                  Terms of Reference

            USD                  US Dollar

            VECO                 Vredeseilanden

            VINASTAS             Vietnam Standard and Consumers Association

            VND                  Vietnam Dong




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Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011



1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background and Objectives
In 2011 VECO Vietnam started the second phase of its six-year program on Sustainable
Agricultural Chain Development (SACD) in the Northern part of Vietnam. This program
focuses on four commodity chains, including safe vegetables in Viet Tri City, Ga Gay
sticky rice and fresh tea in Yen Lap District, Phu Tho Province and safe vegetables in
Lang Son City, Lang Son Province. VECO needs to establish a baseline situation for its
2011 – 2013 Programme for safe vegetable chain in Viet Tri City of Phu Tho Province.

The program consists of the following objectives:

    1. Economic: By 2013 sustainable agricultural chains have been realized at local and
       national levels, in which organized family farmers, male and female, benefit from
       fair trade and trade relations in order to improve their income, while maintaining
       food security.

    2. Political/Advocacy: By 2013 organized family farmers, male and female, have
       proactively advocated for the formulation of policies that are pro-farmer and pro-
       sustainable agricultural chain development at local, national and global level.

    3. Consumer: By 2013, consumer awareness has increased resulting in an increase
       in purchase of sustainable agriculture products.

    4. Institutional learning: By 2013 VECO Vietnam has learned from its experiences in
       chain development and contributed to the learning and concept development
       within Vredeseilanden.

The assignment is to carry out an in-depth baseline situation survey to have a livelihood
analysis description of target groups in 3 zones in Tan Duc Commune in Viet Tri City of
Phu Tho Province participating in chain development interventions. The survey also
includes a chain analysis of SV commodity.

VECO hired a team of consultants1 to carry out this baseline survey, although the
programme started in 2008. The output of this assignment will be used as baseline of the
second phase of the program for 2011-2013 and later for impact assessment at the end of
the second phase.

A Consultant Team (CT)2 carried out a field study in Viet Tri City of Phu Tho Province in
July 2011 to collect relevant data and information. This report presents baseline
information and chain analysis of safe vegetable chain in Viet Tri City of Phu Tho
Province.


1
 This team of consultants carried out the baseline survey in 2008 and mid-term impact assessment
in 2010 for VECO Programme on safe vegetable chain in Lang Son City and Cao Loc District of
Lang Son Province and tea chain Yen Lap District of Phu Tho Province.
2
  The Consultant Team comprised of Mr. Chu Tuan Dat, MSc. (Team leader), Mrs. Ngo Thi Hanh,
MSc. (Agricultural Specialist), and Mr. Truong Xuan Phong, BSc. (M&E Specialist) of SDCC.


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Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011

1.2. Approach and Methodology
The baseline survey focused on the four dimensions and five outcomes of sustainable
livelihoods of organized family farmers:

Dimensions of sustainable livelihoods:

           Economic sustainability

           Social sustainability

           Environmental sustainability

           Institutional sustainability

Outcomes of sustainable livelihoods:

           Increased and (more) secure income

           Increased degree of influence of OFF

           Reduced vulnerability

           More sustainable use of natural resources

           Improved food security

Tools used for baseline survey:

           Impact assessment tools (VECO).

           Field survey

           Interview

           Group discussions

Participatory evaluation in combination with analytical methods and techniques were
used. The CT tried to use qualitative and/or quantitative methods to specify indicators,
where appropriate.

Primary data was collected through field survey, interviews, and focused group meetings
with targeted farmers and field project staff. The CT used semi-structure questionnaires
for interviews. Focus group meetings were organised at hamlet levels to get general
information, such as preparation of seasonal plans and cost - benefit analyses of staple
crops, focusing on vegetables. A list of OFFs interviewed by the CT is presented in
Appendix.

Secondary data was gathered from VECO, local authorities, and other related agencies.
GSO data is used as formal data. In areas where GSO data is not available, data
collected from CPCs is used instead.




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Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011

1.3. Scope of the Assessment
The baseline survey focused only on Zone 1, Zone 2, and Zone 3 of Tan Duc Commune.
Fifty two households of Tan Duc Commune, including 13 HHs of Zone 1, 20 HHs of Zone
2, and 19 HHs of Zone 3, local authorities, head of agricultural cooperative, groups’
management boards, partners, sellers, and collectors, were interviewed. This baseline
was conducted using the inputs of 3 national consultants.

2. VULNERABILITY CONTEXT
Vietnam was badly hit by world financial crisis in 2008 and 2010. Inflation rates in 2008,
2009, and 2010 were 22.7%, 6.8%, and 11.8%, respectively. In 2011, the situation
became worse. Inflation rate of the first 7 months was 14.6%.

Area for safe vegetable production area in 2009 was only 4.8% of total vegetable
production in the whole country. The area, yield, and production of vegetables increased
gradually. However, area of safe vegetable production increased sharply as area in 2009
was more than double of that in 2007 (increased 108.7%).

Tan Duc Commune is situated in a monsoon tropical area with annual average rainfall of
1,512 mm, humidity of 81%, and temperature of 24.10C3. These climatological conditions
are suitable for vegetable production.

Viet Tri City is a big market for vegetables in general and SV in particular. The City has a
population of 187,282 people (2010)4 of which 53.83% are living in the inner city. The City
hosts many industrial bases and factories with 39,044 people and lot of them are non-
permanent residential workers. Furthermore, Viet Tri City has 23 big and small markets,
more than 100 restaurants and hotels, and 25 boarding schools. The demand for
vegetables is estimated at 10 – 12 tons/day, while the City can only satisfy approximately
40 – 44% of this demand. Market prices of vegetables in 2010 increased 30% in
comparison with that in 2009. On the average, SV price in 2010 was approximately 30%
higher than price of normal vegetable5.

3. LIVELIHOOD ASSETS AND TARGET GROUPS

3.1. Livelihood Assets
Tan Duc Commune is located in Viet Tri City of Phu Tho Province, which is one of the
poor provinces of Vietnam6. This commune used to be a commune of the former Ha Tay
Province (now Ha Noi). Since July 2008, Tan Duc Commune was merged with Viet Tri
City of Phu Tho Province. Tan Duc Commune is located approximately 7 km from the
centre of Viet Tri City. The commune is situated on an alluvial soil area of the Red River
just outside its dike. Natural, agricultural, and vegetable growing areas of Tan Duc
Commune are presented in Table 1.




3
 Average 2008 – 2010, Phu Tho Statistical Year Book 2010, Phu Tho Statistic Department.
4
 Phu Tho Statistical Year Book 2010, Phu Tho Statistic Department.
5
 2010 Annual Report, VECO Viet Tri.
6
 Poverty incidence of Phu Tho in 2010 was 20.3% (new standard).


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Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011

    Table 1: Natural, agricultural, and vegetable growing areas in Tan Duc Commune7

                               Land resource                   2010


                   Total area (ha)                                  454.1

                   Agricultural land area (ha)                         43

                   Vegetable planting area (ha)                        18

                   SV planting areas of OFFs (within                  8.4
                   vegetable growing area) (ha)

Although the total area is 454.1 ha, the agricultural land area is only 45 ha (9.5%) as the
area consists of mainly river and sandbar areas. Nearly half of agricultural land is planted
to SV and the other half to rice cultivation.

In 2010, the population of Tan Duc Commune was 2,800 people with 692 households; the
average family size is 4.8 persons per household, of which 51.2% is male and 48.8% is
female. Tan Duc Commune’s population belongs to the Kinh ethnic group. Poverty
incidence of the Commune by the end of 2010 was 7%8. In the past year, there was no
major epidemic that occurred on human or livestock in the area.

Main crops of Tan Duc Commune are rice and vegetables. Rice production area in 2010
was 25 ha with an average yield of 5.1 ton/ha9. The commune has a long experience of
vegetable production; in fact it has designated particular areas for vegetable production.

3.2. Target group
VECO has supported Tan Duc Commune since 2008. Zone 2 was the first zone with 43
households. By the end of 2009 and early 2010, the number of OFF members in Zone 2
increased to 83 households. From June 2010, the programme expanded to Zone 1 and
Zone 3 with 115 households. Some features of the target groups in Tan Duc Commune as
June of 2011 are presented in the Table 2.




7
 Communal reports and report of VECO Antenna Office in Viet Tri City, 2010.
8
 Report on the implementation of Socio-economic Targets in 2010 and plan for socio-economic
development in 2011.
9
 Report on the implementation of Socio-economic Targets in 2010 and plan for socio-economic
development in 2011.


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Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011


 Table 2: Elements of target groups in safe vegetable chain in Tan Duc Commune10

                                                                 Planned        Planned Area
                      Current       Current       Members
      Village                                                  Membership        Expansion
                      area (ha)     Members       Leaving
                                                                expansion           (ha)

     Zone 1                  1.84           68             0               20            1.64

     Zone 2                   4.5           83             0               15            0.54

     Zone 3                  2.05           47             0               30            1.08

     Zone 4                                   0            0               80            2.88

     TOTAL                   8.39          198             0              145            3.26

The membership of OFFs and area of SV production have increased, and the number of
households planting vegetables in the Commune stand at 541 households. As of July
2011, it is estimated that approximately 300 households are planting SV, even though
current members are only 198 households. Many farmers want to join the programme.

Living standards of OFFs in Tan Duc Commune are illustrated by property and asset
owned by family farmers in Table 3.

       Table 3: Property and asset owned by OFFs in Tan Duc Commune in 201011

                                                            (%) of        Average number
                                                           targeted           of owned
       No.      Property owned by surveyed OFFs
                                                            family        property/asset by
                                                            owned            each family

      1.        Concrete roof house                            13.512                     1

      2.        Tiled roof house                                 84.6                     1

      3.        Thatched roof house                               1.9                     1

      4.        Car                                                   0                   0

      5.        Motorbikes                                       92.3                   1.8

      6.        Bicycles                                         98.1                   1.9

      7.        Television                                       96.2                   1.1




10
  Report of VECO Antenna Office in Viet Tri City, 2010.
11
   HH interviews
12
   The other 86.5% stay in tiled or thached roof houses.


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Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011


                                                           (%) of        Average number
                                                          targeted           of owned
      No.    Property owned by surveyed OFFs
                                                           family        property/asset by
                                                           owned            each family

     8.      Telephone (landline and mobile)                      98.1                   3

     9.      Refrigerator                                         71.2                 1.1

All OFF members have access to electricity and piped water. Approximately 89% of OFFs
use drilled wells and the remaining use pipe water to irrigate SV. Approximately 96% of
households have land right certificates. Among these households, 61.5% is under the
names of both husband and wife, 32.7% is under the name of husband, and 5.8% is
under the name of wife. Due to the Land Law dated 26/11/2003, the land ownership is
changing from just the husband to both husband and wife. All OFFs have residential land
(386 m2/household on average), vegetable land (395 m2/household on average). Only
53.8% of OFFs have rice land (1,148 m2/household on average). Rice land of farmers in
Tan Duc is actually located in another commune, which is inside the dike and
approximately 7 km from Tan Duc Commune. The livestock ownership of the family
farmers is presented in Table 4.

                   Table 4: Livestock of OFFs in Tan Duc Commune13

                                                                  Average number
                                                 % of each
             TT             Livestock                              owned by each
                                                 OFF owned
                                                                    OFF (head)

            1.     Cow/buffalo                             17.3                  1.4

            2.     Chicken/duck                            67.3                 31.7

            3.     Pig                                     28.8                  7.7



Gross income of OFFs in 2010 was VND 76.4 million/year that makes the average income
per capita of 762 USD/year. This is only 65% of the national average. The shares of
income include salary (34.2%), SV production (18.4%), wages from hired labour (17.1%),
livestock (15.4%), small business (8.6%), and rice production (6.4%). Income structure of
OFFs is presented in Figure 114.




13
 Household interviews.
14
 Household interviews.


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Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011




As shown by Figure 1, the main source of income is from agricultural production
(40.1%).Gross income from vegetable production was VND 14 million/year, which
represents 18.4% of household income and 45.8% of income from agricultural production.
Income from vegetables was used for maintaining family life.

Income sources of OFFs are diversified. All OFF members have income from vegetable
production; 55.8% from salary; 53.8% from rice production, 38.5% from livestock; 25%
from small businesses; and 34.6% from hired labour (e.g. building worker, retailer, and
craftsman). Please refer to Figure 2 below15.




Expenditures of OFFs are mainly for maintaining family life (64.6%), followed by education
(12.6%), agricultural production (11.8%), others (6.9%), and healthcare (4.1%). The
expenditure structure of OFFs is presented below in Figure 316.


15
 Household interviews.
16
 Household interviews.


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Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011




About 30.8% of OFF members invest their savings in agricultural production, and 7.7% do
have savings in banks. The OFFs are able to access different credit sources, however,
only 44.2% of OFFs borrowed moneys from banks, mainly from the Vietnam Bank for
Social Policies (56.5%) and Agriculture and Rural Development Bank (34.8%). The main
purpose of loans is for children’s education and agricultural production.

Farmers interviewed were mainly graduates of grade 7 out of grade 10 (this is the old
educational system, now the system in until grade 12). Expenditures for education
accounted for 8.7% of the total targeted families’ expenditure. All interviewed farmers
were literate. Children of school age attend schools.

Farmers mainly work on farms by themselves without external labour. Both male and
female farmers participate in production of vegetable. Female farmers were trained on
agricultural and safe vegetable production technologies, and they contribute more labour
in SV production than men. The percentage of women’s labor in SV production activities is
as follows:

    -   Land preparation:       48.1%

    -   Plantation:             71.2%

    -   Nursery:                76.9%

    -   Harvesting:             86.5%

    -   Selling:                96.2%

Men and women work together on land preparation and harvesting activities. Pesticide
application is a job for men; they also get sideline jobs outside agricultural production.

Access of information is timely and sufficient. Information related to agricultural production
is provided by group management boards, Commune People’s Ccommittee, communal
extension workers, and the city extension station.




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Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011

Health conditions were assessed to be moderate. Expenditure for healthcare accounted
for only 4.1% of total household expenditure. Distance from the commune to the City’s
General Hospital is approximately 10 km and half (50.4%) of OFF’s members are covered
by health insurance.

All households reported having sufficient food, although many OFF members have to buy
rice from the market since they do not have rice lands or their rice production is
insufficient.

4. CHAIN ANALYSIS

4.1. Chain Map
Tan Duc Commune is near Viet Tri City. With this advantage, the OFFs can sell SV
directly to customers in different markets at the Centre of the City, in Nong Trang, Van Ep,
Minh Phuong, and in some markets close to the commune (Lu and Lo markets). SV chain
map of Tan Duc Commune is presented in Figure 4.

              Figure 4: Save vegetable chain map of Tan Duc Commune17

                                           Framers/
                                          producers

               3%                                                           9%
                                          58%            30%




                    Peddlers                       Safe
                                                 vegetable
                                                   stalls




                                         Consumers                 Restaurants
                                                                  and canteens




Actors in the SV chain in Tan Duc are local people consisting of farmers/producers,
peddlers, and consumers; there are no collectors or wholesaler. Some OFF members buy
SV from fellow members and this buying happens when these families have only 10 – 15
kg of produce and needs 15 – 20 kg more make their trip more cost-efficient. The quantity
of SV that the OFF members bus depends primarily on the volume of own harvests.

Independent peddlers sell approximately 3% of the total SV production. The remaining is
peddled by farmers/producers themselves in and around Viet Tri city. Around 30% of the
SV production is marketed through the three SV stalls located at the Central Market, Nong


17
   Household interviews, group discussions, report of VECO Antenna Office in Viet Tri City in the
first 7 months of 2011, and discussions with groups’ management boards.


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Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011

Trang Market and Van Ep Market by Tan Duc Commune producers and about 9% is sold
to restaurants and canteens as regular customers.

4.2. Characteristics and activities of actors

     a. Producers

SV production groups in Tan Duc received SV production certificate for a total area of 9.7
ha: Zone 2 received SV area production certificate in 2009 for its 4.2 ha, while Zone 1 and
Zone 3 received SV area production certificate in 2010 for 5.5 ha.

Main characteristics of producers in Tan Duc Commune for the period of 2008 and 2010
are presented in Table 5.

         Table 5: Main characteristics of producers between 2008 and 201018
       Characteristics and
No.                                   2008                2009                 2010
           activities
1.     Training      class              1                  17                   30
       provided by VECO
2.     Number of trainees              43                  83                   115
3.     Training subjects          IPM (14 days      IPM (14days),        IPM (14days), SV
                                   in 3months),     SV procedure       procedure and farmer
                                 SV procedure,        and farmer      management, VietGAP,
                                     VietGAP,       management,           organic fertilizer
                                      organic          VietGAP,         treatment (1/2 of 4
                                      fertilizer        organic                days)
                                 treatment (1/2         fertilizer        Inspection and
                                     of 4 days)     treatment (1/2      supervision on safe
                                                       of 4 days)      vegetable production.
                                                                         Improvement of
                                                                       marketing capacity for
                                                                            producers
4.     Safe       vegetable            4.5                4.5                   8.4
       production    areas
       (ha)
5.     Number of         OFF           43                  83                  19819
       members
6.     Targeted hamlets              Zone 2             Zone 2        Zone 1, Zone 2, Zone 3
7.     Cropping Pattern          All year round     All year round         All year round
                                  production         production             production
8.     Safe        vegetable Pole            bean, Pole         bean, Pole bean, yard long


18
 Household interviews, group discussions, and discussions with groups’ management boards.
19
 VECO Viet Tri Antenna Office report.


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Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011


       Characteristics and
No.                              2008                    2009                 2010
            activities
       species grown       yard long bean,         yard long bean,   bean, pumpkin, gourd,
                           pumpkin,                pumpkin,          pakchoi, Amaranth, Star
                           gourd, pakchoi,         gourd, pakchoi,   gooseberry, Wax gourd,
                           Amaranth, Star          Amaranth, Star    Indian          spinach,
                           gooseberry,             gooseberry,       Dolichocarpous Karri,
                           Wax      gourd,         Wax      gourd,   Chayote, Singkwa towel
                           Indian spinach,         Indian spinach,   gourd, Plate brush……
                           Dolichocarpous          Dolichocarpous
                           Karri, Chayote,         Karri, Chayote,
                           Singkwa towel           Singkwa towel
                           gourd,     Plate        gourd,    Plate
                           brush……                 brush……
9.     Average yield (all         16.8 – 18.2         22.2 – 23.6           24.9 - 27
       planted vegetables)
       (ton/ha)
10.    Prices (average of
       all         planted
       vegetables)
       (VND/kg)
       - Highest                 6,000 – 7,000      8,000 – 10,000      12,000 – 15,000
       - Medium                  3,500 - 4,000      4,500 – 5,000         5,000 - 6,000
       - Lowest                      2,000               3,000                4,000
11.    Production diary               None               None                Started
12.    Safe vegetable stalls          None             1 (Central    3 (Centre, Nong Trang,
                                                        Market)      and Van Ep Markets)
13.    Packing, label                 None               None                 None
14.    Membership cards               None           Yes (Zone 2)         Yes (Zone 2)
       used    for   selling
       products at markets
15.    Safe         vegetable         None                Yes                  Yes
       production        area
       certification
16.    Getting          safe          None               None                 None
       vegetable     product
       certified

Yield and production of SV in Tan Duc Commune has increased dramatically. Average SV
production in 2010 was 111 tons/ha/year. The programme helped OFFs to change their
practices from cultivating ordinary vegetables into SVs. OFFs exchange ideas and
information with farmers within groups and with other farmers.




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Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011

OFF members in Zone 2 have membership cards. However, the validity of these cards
expired last 31 December 2010. Some members still wear these expired name cards to
maintain trust from consumers while waiting for the issuance of new cards by the PGS
Local Coordination Committee (LCC) in early fall (September). The delay in issuing the
new cards is due partly on the late start of the second phase of the program 2011-13, and
the need for the Plant Protection Department to restructure the LCC.




Vegetable cropping schedule of Tan Duc Commune is presented in Table 6.

        Table 6: Vegetable cropping schedule of Tan Duc Commune in 201020
                                                                   Month
     Season              Vegetable
                                            1    2    3    4   5   6   7   8   9   10 11 12
Winter – spring Pumpkin                     x     x   x    x   x   x   x   x   -   -   -    -
season
                Indian   spinach,            -    -   x    x   x   x   x   x   -   -   -    -
                Dolichocarpous
                Karri

                      Chayote                -    -   x    x   x   x   x   x   -   -   -    -

                      Gourd,                 -    -   x    x   x   x   x   x   -   -   -    -
                      Singkwatowel
                      gourd, wax gourd

                      Eggplant               -    -   x    x   x   x   x   x   -   -   -    -
Summer season Yard long bean                 -    -    -   -   x   x   x   x   -   -   -    -
and autumn -
winter season Crucifer crop                  -    -    -   -   x   x   x   x   x   x   x    x

                      Star gooseberry        -    -   x    x   x   x   x   x   x   x   -    -

Winter - spring Pole bean                   x     x    -   -   -   -   -   x   x   x   x    x
season          Crucifercrop                 -    -   x    x   x   x   x   x   x   x   x    x




20
 Group discussions.


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Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011

In 2010, there were 15 main vegetable species planted by OFFs in Tan Duc Commune as
shown in Table 6. Vegetables are planted throughout the year and the different species
are planted in an alternate and overlapping way. High economic value vegetable species,
such as tomato, cucumber, sweet pepper, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, and bitter gourd
are not usually planted here21. Some OFFs have tried to plant other species but without
success.

Some OFFs constructed net houses with the support of VECO. These net houses
protected their SV from damages caused by heavy rains and insect pests. In winter
season, net houses help maintain moisture and protect vegetables from strong winds.
However, net houses are costly, as such, only well-off farmers can afford them. The
installation of sprinkler irrigation system to some OFF members helped in saving water
(more environmental friendly) and reduced labour in watering.

Farmers in Tan Duc Commune sell directly to customers. The consumption through this
channel is estimated at 58% of the total SV production of Tan Duc Commune. In addition,
Tan Duc Commune supplies daily to 11 canteens and 7 restaurants, and the consumption
through this channel accounts for 9% of the total SV production of Tan Duc Commune.
Additional information on this channel is presented in Table 7.

         Table 7: Average SV consumed through canteens and restaurants22

                                                 Average SV         Number of
                                                  supplied           supplied           Total
                                    Quantity
                                                    daily            days per       (kg/month)
                                                  (kg/day)            month

 Canteens and restaurants                   18                 10             22            3,960

Benefit – cost analysis of main safe vegetables planted by OFFs in Tan Duc Commune is
presented in Table 8.




21
   The reason for this is that planting new varieties resulted not to be successful or that OFFs are
hesitant to change their habits.
22
  Selling SV data of Tan Duc Commune from January to July 2011 and data provided by heads of
groups.


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         Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011



                                        Table 8: Benefit - cost analysis of main SV species in Tan Duc Commune in 201023
                                                                                                                                                              Singkwa
                                             Crucifer                        Star                        Wax          Indian     Dolichocarpous     Chayote
     Item            Unit      Bean crop                    Amaranth                      Pumpkin                                                              towel        Gourd       Eggplant
                                              crop                        gooseberry                    gourd        spinach          Karri          buds
                                                                                                                                                               gourd
                                             Cải các                                                                  Mồng                          Ngọn su   Mướp
                               Đậu cô ve                    Rau dền        Rau ngót        Bí ngô       Bí đao                      Rau đay                                  Bầu         Cà tím
                                              loại                                                                     tơi                            su      hương

Input              1000 VND

- Varieties                         4,050       2,700            203          18,900         3,375        2,025        3,645              1,458      18,900          -            -               -
- Fertilizer                       25,043       8,087          4,050          15,795         5,238       11,340        1,350              1,350      18,225      2,970        2,970           8,546
- Lima                              1,620       1,620          2,700           1,620         1,620        1,620            -                  -           -          -            -               -
- Pesticides                          270         135              -               -           270          270          135                135         270        270          270             270
- Foliar
                                      270               -             -               -             -            -      135                   135         -             -           -              -
fertilizer
- Bamboo
                                   18,900               -             -               -             -    18,900              -                  -    18,900     18,900       18,900                -
stick
- Labour                           54,000      21,600         17,280          64,800        79,920       43,200       32,400             32,400      79,920     43,200       43,200          64,800
                     1000
Total inputs                      104,153      34,142         24,233         101,115        90,423       77,355       37,665             35,478     136,215     65,340       65,340          73,616
                    VND/ha
Growing
                     Month         3.5 - 4      2 -2.5             2                  8             4        3               4                 4          4           3            3              6
period

Yield               (kg/ha)        30,400      26,000          8,100           9,800        26,000       26,000       28,160             28,160      50,000     18,440       28,700          45,600
                     1000
Selling price                           8              6           6              15                8        5               5                 6          8           8            4              5
                    VND/kg
                     1000
Total output                      243,200     156,000         48,600         147,000       208,000      130,000      140,800            168,960     400,000    147,520      114,800      228,000
                    VND/ha
                     1000
Net return                        139,047     121,858         24,367          45,885       117,577       52,645      103,135            133,482     263,785     82,180       49,460      154,384
                    VND/ha

                      %            57.2%       78.1%          50.1%           31.2%        56.5%        40.5%         73.2%              79.0%       65.9%      55.7%       43.1%            67.7%




         23
             Focused group discussions and interviews

         Sustainable Development Consulting Corporation                                                                                                                                 18
Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011


Among the main SV species, the most profitable species in descending order were
dolichocarpous karri, crucifer crops, Indian spinach, eggplant, bean (snap and pole),
chayote bud, pumpkin, singkwa towel gourd, amaranth, gourd, wax gourd, and star
gooseberry. Average simplified gross margin percentage of these SV was 58.2%. OFF
members in Tan Duc Commune can produce 4 crops per year.

      b. Safe vegetable stalls

In 2010, VECO in coordination with PHUTHOSTAS assisted the Tan Duc Commune in
finding locations and hiring stalls in Central, Nong Trang, and Van Ep Markets. Details of
these stalls are presented in Table 9.

              Table 9: Stalls in Central, Nong Trang, and Van Ep Markets24

                                 Maximum                                                  Sold
                        Area                                             Payment
No.       Market                  number           Rental cost                           quantity
                        (m2)                                              status
                                 of sellers                                            (kg/month)

1.      Central            53            10              1,007,000        Not yet         6,139
                                                        VND/month         applied

2.      Nong Trang         28              6                3,000        On-going         5,338
                                                   VND/person/day

3.      Van Ep               8             2              180,000        On-going         1,936
                                                        VND/month

The stalls are run by selected OFFs, who have enough quantity of SVs to sell daily. These
households buy additional SVs from their neighbours when they do not have sufficient
volume to sell. The stalls marketed approximately 30% of the total SV production of Tan
Duc Commune. Table 10 presents the volumes sold by these three stalls.

       Table 10: SV selling quantity at Central, Nong Trang, and Van Ep Markets25

                                                    Central           Van Ep         NongTrang
                  SV quantity
                                                    Market            Market           Market

SV sold by each OFF daily (kg/day)                   30-35             45-50             30-40

Produced by sellers’ families (%)                      90               100               100

Bought from other OFFs (%)                             10                0                 0




24
  Interviews of stalls’ sellers, report of VECO Antenna Office in Viet Tri City from January to July
2011, and data provided by heads of groups.
25
  Interviews of stalls’ sellers, report of VECO Antenna Office in Viet Tri City from January to July
2011, and data provided by heads of groups.


Sustainable Development Consulting Corporation                                                    19
Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011

At the first stage from August to December 2010, VECO assisted the Tan Duc Commune
to get exemption of the rental fee for the first year at Central Market with Viet Tri
authorities. Rental costs of stalls in the other 2 markets were supported by the City. The
city Economic Department helped OFFs to get business licence and food safety and
hygiene certificate. Since January 2011, rental costs of stalls in Nong Trang and Van Ep
Markets are paid by sellers. OFFs have not paid rental cost of stall at the Central Market
as it is under negotiation for exemption in 2011.

The CT visited OFFs’ stalls at the Central, Nong Trang, and Van Ep Markets. The
locations of these stalls in markets are quite convenient for customers. The CT noted that
the operation of the stall here is not efficient because retailers and farmers from other
commune sit in front of the stall, so that customers have difficulties accessing the SV stall
of Tan Duc Commune. Consequently, only 4 OFF sellers stay in the stall, the other OFF
sellers had to stand in front of the stall to sell their SV to customers more easily and were
able to compete with market retailers and pedlers.




  Pedlers and farmers of other commune sit in       A seller of OFFs sell SV in front of her stall at
     front of OFFs’ stall at Central Market                        Central Market


In Nong Trang Market, four OFF members were selling SVs. The management here is
better. Customers can directly access to the stall to buy SVs.




          Stall at Nong Trang Market                            Stall at Van Ep Market




Sustainable Development Consulting Corporation                                                     20
Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011

At the time of visit, nobody operated the stall at Van Ep Market. This is a small market and
not so many customers around. The CT noted that the sizes of stalls in the 3 markets are
suitable with the markets and the development of SV in Tan Duc Commune at present.
SV production marketed through stalls is significant and they help to promote SV and Tan
Duc Commune SV products to consumers.

      c. Peddlers

Peddlers are in Central, Nong Trang, Van Ep Markets and other markets in Viet Tri City.
They either have fixed places or move from places to places. They pay entry fees to sell.
They buy SV directly from Tan Duc Commune’s producers and sell to consumers.
Peddlers require approximately 45 – 50 kg/day representing only 3% of the total SV
production of Tan Duc Commune26.

      d. Customers

Customers are local people, such as government officials, businessmen, and workers.

PhuthoSTAS, the City Women’s Union, and Economic Department have actively
promoted the production and consumption of safe vegetables of Tan Duc Commune
through workshops, field visits, and discussions between producers and consumers. In
2008, PhuthoSTAS organised 7 workshops and forums to build trust of consumers on SV
products of Tan Duc Commune, involving a total of 399 participants, majority of which
were women27:

      -   Two forums on SV were organised on 18/3/2009 and 14/10/2009 with 90 and 54
          participants, respectively.

      -   Workshop on SV for health of consumers was organised with 63 participants.

      -   Three workshops on enhancing consumers’ awareness on SV were organised in
          different precincts with the total of 182 participants.

      -   A workshop providing information on nutrition and community health and
          disseminate sustainable agricultural products to women was organised.

Furthermore, Tan Duc Commune has promoted the production and consumption of SV
through television (2 reports of 10 minutes each), radio (10 times of 30 minutes each),
website, Phu Tho Newspaper, posters, and leaflets. The Women’s Union in coordination
with Viet Tri Economic Department opened a SV stall to introduce SV products of Tan Duc
Commune at Hung Vuong Market Festival. PhuthoSTAS organized visits to SV production
plots in Tan Duc Commune for consumers.

Many consumers have become aware on the benefits of consuming SVs and the
detrimental effects of eating unsafe vegetables. Consumers are willing to pay 20 – 30%
more for SVs. In order to get more trust from consumers, SV products of Tan Duc


26
  Report of VECO Antenna Office in Viet Tri City from January to July 2011 and data provided by
heads of groups.
27
     Discussions with groups’ management boards and report of PhuthoSTAS on 29/10/2009.


Sustainable Development Consulting Corporation                                              21
Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011

Commune should have a trademark, SV certificate, and packaged with logo for easy
recognition by consumers.

5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclusions
In Vietnam, SV production has been promoted in the last few years and the areas of SV
has substantially increased. Climatic and geographic conditions in Tan Duc Commune are
suitable for SV production and Viet Tri City is a big market for SVs. Farmers in Tan Duc
Commune have a long tradition for growing vegetables. Local governments and lined
agencies have supported SV production in the commune. Rice produced in Tan Duc
Commune is considered as food for the households whereas SV is mainly considered as
cash crop.

Although this is a baseline, VECO has supported Tan Duc Commune in developing SV
since 2008. The programme has gained lot of achievements. Three farmer groups were
established and another group is to be established in 2011. The number of OFFs has
increased together with the production area. SV yields, production, and quality have been
enhanced.

Poverty incidence of the commune is low and has declined gradually. Income of OFFs is
mainly from agricultural production, in which SV production contributes 45.8%. Income
sources of OFFs are diversified and all OFF members have sufficient food. Living
standard of OFFs in Tan Duc Commune is gradually getting better with SV production
contributing to this change.

The chain of SV in Tan Duc Commune is simple. There is no collector, wholesaler, or
trader. Farmers/producers mainly sell their SV by themselves. The production scale is
small and fragmented, so that it is difficult for actors to develop in a more professional
way.

Yield of SV between 2008 -2010 increased 32%. In 2010, OFFs planted 15 different SV
species. Price of SVs is 30% higher than that of ordinary vegetables of the same types.
SV products of OFFs are sold at stalls in Central, Nong Trang, and Van Ep Markets which
market 30% of the total SV production. The stalls are operating quite well at Nong Trang
and Van Ep market but there are some difficulties in the Central Market. Many consumers
in Viet Tri City know about SV products of Tan Duc Commune.

Coordination among beneficiaries, local authorities, programme’s partners, and VECO is
good. Local partners are actively involved in the programme. However, involvement of the
existing agricultural cooperative with SV OFFs is very little. Women in Tan Duc Commune
actively participate in SV production and they are trained on production technologies.
They are also represented in management boards of OFFs, and can access and control
their family income.

The potential for development of SV in Tan Duc Commune is limited as total vegetable
planting area is only 18 ha. Moreover, farmers plant SV in gardens nearby their houses
and this may cause adverse impacts on health of farmers due to accumulative application
of chemical fertilisers and production inputs, and intensive farming system (4 crops/year).




Sustainable Development Consulting Corporation                                          22
Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011

It is difficult to upscale and produce SV in a more professional way with larger area and
bigger quantities as farmers plant SV in their garden.

Recommendations

    -   Assist OFFs growing high economic value SV species, such as tomato, sweet
        pepper, cucumber, broccoli, cauliflower, and bitter gourd.

    -   Provide OFFs with technical trainings in production of high economic value
        species and herbs.

    -   Promote the development of net houses and sprinkler irrigation systems.

    -   Assist issuance of membership cards to all OFF members. It is suggested that the
        validity of the membership cards should be 2 years.

    -   Assist in developing trademark of SV for Tan Duc Commune to distinguish the
        product from other vegetables.

    -   Assist OFFs in making SV production plans to stabilise production and provision of
        larger quantity of the same type of vegetables.

    -   Assist in developing collectors and finding traders or wholesalers for SV products
        of Tan Duc Commune.

    -   Assist in establishing agricultural input shop at the commune to supply good
        quality seeds, fertilisers, and plant protection products to farmers.

    -   Continue assistance in promoting SV of Tan Duc Commune to consumers in Viet
        Tri City.

    -   Assist getting certificates for SV products of Tan Duc Commune.

    -   The programme may consider assisting another commune (to be identified) with
        more potentials for SV commodity development.

Most of the recommendations above are already part of the program 2011-13 and being
implemented at the time of the study.




Sustainable Development Consulting Corporation                                         23
     Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011



                    APPENDIX: LIST OF OFFS INTERVIEWED BY THE CT


                                                                                  Year of
                                                                                  joining
No.           Interviewee             Hamlet     Commune City/District Province
                                                                                   VECO
                                                                                programme

1      Mrs. Dao Thi Khich             Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2010

2      Mrs. Nguyen Thi Van            Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2010

3      Mrs. Nguyen Thi Hai            Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2010

4      Mrs. Cao Thi Lieu              Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2011

5      Mr. Nguyen Xuan Tri            Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

6      Mrs. Nguyen Thi Oanh           Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

7      Mrs. Nguyen Thi Vuong          Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2011

8      Mrs. Cao Thi Thoi              Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

9      Mrs. Nguyen Thi Huu            Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2010

10     Mr. Le Van Cuong               Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

11     Mrs. Cao Thi Khai              Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2011

12     Mrs. Nguyen Thi Thuy           Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

       Mrs. Nguyen Thi Quynh
13                                    Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009
       Mai

14     Mrs. Tran Thi Soi              Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

15     Mrs. Tran Thi Lam              Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

16     Mr. Truong KhacThinh           Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

17     Mrs. Luu Thi Thong             Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

18     Mrs. Nguyen Thi Su             Zone 3       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

19     Mrs. Vu Thi Liem               Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

20     Mrs. Nguyen Thi Thom           Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

21     Mr. Ha Tien Sinh               Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

22     Mrs. Do Thi Duong              Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009



     Sustainable Development Consulting Corporation                                       24
     Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011


                                                                                  Year of
                                                                                  joining
No.           Interviewee             Hamlet     Commune City/District Province
                                                                                   VECO
                                                                                programme

23     Mr. Luu Van Bang               Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

24     Mrs. Luu Thi Tich              Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

25     Mrs. Nguyen Thi Vinh           Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

26     Mr. Luu Quang Tuong            Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

27     Mrs. Tran Thi Tinh             Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

28     Mr. Ta Kim Thuong              Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

29     Mrs. Luu Thi Suc               Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

30     Mr. Do Khac Bon                Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

31     Mr. Nguyen Van Do              Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

32     Mr. Ta PhucThoan               Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

33     Mrs. Nguyen Thi Hai            Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

34     Mr. Do Thi Thuy                Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

35     Mr. Cao Viet Thanh             Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

36     Mr. Nguyen Hong Dien           Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

37     Mr. Nguyen Van Sung            Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

38     Mr. Nguyen Van Son             Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2010

39     Mrs. Nguyen Thi Lich           Zone 2       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

40     Mrs. Nguyen Thi Tai            Zone 1       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

41     Mrs. Du Thi Hoang              Zone 1       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

42     Mrs. Le Thi Quang              Zone 1       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

43     Mr. Le Hong Dinh               Zone 1       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

44     Mrs. Nguyen Thi Hao            Zone 1       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2010

45     Mrs. Vu Thi Tuat               Zone 1       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2010

46     Mrs. Nguyen Thi Dat            Zone 1       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2010

47     Mrs. Do Thi Hot                Zone 1       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2010


     Sustainable Development Consulting Corporation                                       25
     Safe Vegetable Chain in Viet Tri City - Baseline Survey 2011


                                                                                  Year of
                                                                                  joining
No.           Interviewee             Hamlet     Commune City/District Province
                                                                                   VECO
                                                                                programme

48     Mrs. Ta Thi Sung               Zone 1       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

49     Mr. Nguyen Quoc Tuan           Zone 1       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2008

50     Mr. Nguyen Van Minh            Zone 1       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

51     Mr. Luu Manh Cuong             Zone 1       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009

52     Mrs. Le Thi Que                Zone 1       Tan Duc          Viet Tri   PhuTho   2009




     Sustainable Development Consulting Corporation                                       26

				
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