Early Childhood by ewghwehws


									         Early Childhood

    Auditory Memory           Listening
  Aural Discrimination        Speaking
Letter/Sound Recognition      Matching
      Word Building        Visual Memory

                                  Auditory Memory Game

          Following Directions

Teacher gives a student a series of directions
  to follow.
Start with 2 or 3, e.g. go to the cupboard and
  get the scissors, glue and coloured paper
                                       Auditory Memory Game

              Restaurant Game
Cut out pictures of food from magazines and paste on to
Go through the cards with children naming foods.
Choose one child to be the waiter and one or more to be
Put all the food in the oven or kitchen.
Begin by ordering one item each.
The waiter has to get the right foods for the right
Later try 2 or 3 orders each.
                            Auditory Memory Game

       Repeat What I Say

Sequence of numbers, words (animals,
  places, colours, etc.), sentences.
                              Auditory Memory Game

          Add On Actions

Students sit in a circle.
1st student says snake.
2nd student says snake, sun.
3rd student says snake, sun, sausage
And so on…
                                   Auditory Memory Game

               Add On Words

Students sit in a circle.
1st student rubs their hands.
2nd student rubs their hands and nods their head.
3rd student rubs their hands, nods their head and
And so on…
                                    Auditory Memory Game

                  Simon Says
The students stand up facing the teacher – the
  teacher is Simon.
The students only copy the action if Simon says.
E.g. Simon says, “Touch your knees.” The
  students touch their knees.
“Touch your toes.” If the students touch their toes
  they sit down because Simon didn’t say.
                                 Auditory Memory Game

           On the Weekend I…
Students sit in a circle.
1st student: On the weekend I went swimming.
2nd student: On the weekend I went swimming and
3rd student: On the weekend I went swimming,
  shopping and played football.
And so on…
                                 Auditory Memory Game

          We Went Shopping…
Students sit in a circle.
1st student: We went shopping and I bought a
2nd student: We went shopping and Mary bought a
  hamburger and I bought a truck.
3rd student: We went shopping and Mary bought a
  hamburger, John bought a truck and I bought a
And so on…
                                   Auditory Memory Game

              I Went Hunting…
Students sit in a circle.
1st student: I went hunting and I got a goanna.
2nd student: I went hunting and I got a goanna and
  a kangaroo.
3rd student: I went hunting and I got a goanna, a
  kangaroo and a turkey.
And so on…
                                 Auditory Memory Game

        We Went To The Zoo…
Students sit in a circle.
1st student: We went to the zoo and we saw a
2nd student: We went to the zoo and we saw a
  monkey and an elephant.
3rd student: We went to the zoo and we saw a
  monkey, an elephant and a tiger.
And so on…
                                 Auditory Memory Game

              Add On Stories
Students sit in a circle.
1st student: One day I saw a cow.
2nd student: One day I saw a cow and a pig.
3rd student: One day I saw a cow, a pig and an
And so on…
                                   Auditory Memory Game

                   I Like…
Students sit in a circle.
1st student: I like apples.
2nd student: I like apples and football.
3rd student: I like apples, football and bananas.
And so on…
                     Auditory Memory Game

    Who Am I?

I am an animal.
I have 2 ears.
I have a tail.
People ride on me.
                                    Auditory Memory Game

             Pass The Message
Students sit in a circle.
The teacher whispers a short message to the
  student next to them.
This student passes it on to the person next to
  them and so on until the last person gets the
The last person says the message aloud.
Did the message make it around the circle
                               Auditory Memory Game

 Copying Actions Or Mimes

Start off with 2 things for a few days,
  make it easy. E.g. Switch off the
  light, go to sleep.
                                       Aural Discrimination Game

Make illustrated cards with rhymes to practice sounds
    which are similar (e.g. minimal pairs)
p/b     Puff the pipe, puff the pipe, p, p, p.
        Bounce the ball, bounce the ball, b, b, b.
c/g     Catch a cough, catch a cough, c, c, c
        Goats are giggling, goats are giggling, g, g, g.
t/d     Tell the time, tell the time, t, t, t.
        Dinner gong, dinner gong, ding dong, ding dong.
                                         Aural Discrimination Game

Teacher holds a tissue near their mouth.
Students see how the tissue moves, e.g. p/b. puff/bounce.
Give each student a tissue to practice pronunciation when
  a new sound is introduced or when you are working on
  minimal pairs.
Variation: Use a candle flame (in a still room). Watch it
  flicker for c, p, th, h, ch. It stays still for b, d, g, j.
Feel the breath on their hands when they say p, t, c, h, th.
Use a mirror on a cold day. Watch it cloud up for p, t, h, th,
                                 Aural Discrimination Game

                 Posting Box

Make 2 slits in a box for posting picture cards.
Eg. Paste a picture of a ‘pipe’ above one slot
  and a ‘ball’ above the other slot.
Postman gives children ‘p’ and ‘b’ pictures to
  post in the right slot.
                            Aural Discrimination Game

       Stand On The Letter

Small chalkboards with letters written
  on them spread out on the floor, e.g.
  p, b, f, v.
The teacher picks 2 students to run and
  stand e.g. the first sound of the word
                             Aural Discrimination Game

        Run To The Letter

Put large letters around the room, e.g. d,
  t, th.
Teacher calls a word, e.g. tap.
Students run to the letter that is the
  initial sound.
                               Aural Discrimination Game

  Find The One That Is Different

Teacher reads a list of words e.g. pipe, pool,
  fun, pretty.
Students listen quietly, then call out the
  different word.
                             Letter / Sound Recognition Game

         Make The Letter Shape
•   With playdough
•   With biscuit dough
•   Fingerpainting
•   String
•   Paint it with glue and throw sand on it
•   Counters, stones, sticks
•   Trace a letter on a student’s back
                        Letter / Sound Recognition Game

         Walk The Letter

Blindfold a student.
Draw a big letter on the ground,
Walk the student around it and they tell
  you what the letter is.
                        Letter / Sound Recognition Game

          Feeling Letters

Make letters from string, pipe cleaners or
  electrical cord and paste onto card.
Pick 2 students to close their eyes and
  hand them each a letter to feel.
                              Letter / Sound Recognition Game

                      I Spy

Teacher can start, ‘I spy with my little eye
  something beginning with s”.
Students look around the room, taking turns they
  say a ‘s’ word.
The first to spy and say the ‘s’ word has the next
                              Letter / Sound Recognition Game


Make cards with a word and picture on one side
  and initial sound on the other.
When students are familiar with the initial sounds,
  place cards picture down.
Pick 2 students.
“Who will be first to find – e for egg?”
                             Letter / Sound Recognition Game

               Memory Game
Make pairs, one with words and picture, the other
  with initial sound.
Make picture cards a different colour from the
  letter cards.
Suggest starting with 6 – 10 pairs.
Place cards face down.
Students take turns to turn up 2 cards, one of each
  colour. If it is a pair, they keep it and have
  another turn.
                              Letter / Sound Recognition Game

                Pass The Card
Students sit in a circle.
A letter is passed around.
When the music stops the one holding the letter
   says the sound and thinks of a word starting with
   the sound.
If right they keep the card and another letter is
   passed around.
                             Letter / Sound Recognition Game

            Chalkboard Races

Can be played with teams, pairs or the whole
Teacher calls out a sound, e.g. ‘m’ (or the first
  sound in moon).
Students run to the chalkboard and write ‘m’ as
  quickly as they can.
                          Letter / Sound Recognition Game

            Spin The Bottle

Students take turns to spin
The student says the sound the bottle
  points to and gives a word starting with
  the sound.
                              Letter / Sound Recognition Game

                 Sound Snap
            Letters / Words / Diagraphs

Deal out all cards (52 cards, 4 of each kind).
Students put their cards in a file face down and
  take turns to turn up a card and add to 1 of 2
When 2 cards the same are face up students
  should shout the sound, not call snap.
                                   Letter / Sound Recognition Game

            First Sound Team Race
Make 2 sets of picture / word cards on different coloured
  card each set with one word that starts with each initial
  sound being taught, e.g.
Set 1 might have – house, fox, snake, thongs, shop,
Set 2 might have – hat, fire, sock, thumb, shoes, church.
This is enough for 2 teams of 5 students each.
Teams line up.
Teacher gives Team A one card each from Set 1.
Team B gets one card each from Set 2.
The teacher calls out a sound, e.g. ‘s’.
The 2 students holding ‘s’ words have to race to the finish
                             Letter / Sound Recognition Game

                 Tic Tac Toe
Letter cards are placed face down.
Students chant as one student taps each card in
   turn with a ruler:
“Tic, tac, toe, here I go. Where I land I do not
When the rhyme ends the student turns over the
   card they last tapped.
If they can say the sound and give a word starting
   with the sound they keep the card. If not they
   turn it back.
                            Letter / Sound Recognition Game

           Picture / Letter Bingo
Students have cards with 6, 8 or 9 letters in
Teacher has picture cards.
Teacher shows and says e.g. ‘house’.
The students with the letter ‘h’ on their cards,
  cover it with a counter.
First one with all squares covered says, “BINGO”.
Variation: Students have cards with pictures in
  squares. Teacher has letter cards and calls the
  sound (not letter name).
                                   Letter / Sound Recognition Game

Make cards with pairs, one with word and picture, other
    with initial letter. Suggest 16 to 20 pairs.
Shuffle cards.
Deal 3 cards each.
Students take turns to ask, “Do you have a ‘w’ for window?”
    or “Do you have something beginning with ‘w’?”
If they do then they give the card to the student, if they do
    not then they say ‘fish’.
As they make pairs students put them down beside them.
Played in small groups.
                        Letter / Sound Recognition Game

      Dice and Board Game

Board has words in the squares.
Students have to give the first sound of
   the word they land on.
If they can’t, move back 1 space.
If they can, they move forward 1 space.
                                    Letter / Sound Recognition Game

Make 2 packs of cards, each pack a different colour, 1 for
   the teacher with 1 of the initial sounds (including sh, ch,
The other pack for the students can have several of each
   initial sound.
Deal out one pack to the students.
They place their cards face up in front of them.
Teacher holds other pack and reads out the sound or says
   a word beginning with the sound.
Students with that sound turns the card face down.
First will all their cards turned down is the winner.
                        Letter / Sound Recognition Game

         Barrel Of Letters

Letters are placed in a barrel and passed
  around (plastic magnetic letters are
Students take turns to feel a letter, say
  the sound and take it out.
                           Letter / Sound Recognition Game

       Pick Out The Right Word

Teachers write 3 unfamiliar words on the board.
Students have small boards or paper.
The teacher says one of the words.
Students have to identify the word by the first
   sound and write the correct word.
If they are right, give a tick.
                             Word Building Game

     Word Building With Cards

Teacher says a word.
Students take turns to pick out the letters
  and put them in order.
Can be played in teams with team members
                                      Word Building Game

                 Leave Face Up
Make a pack of letter cards with 4 of each vowel, 6
   ‘t’ cards, 6 ‘n’ cards, 3 ‘p’ cards, 2 ‘m’ cards, 2 ‘x’
   cards and one of each other letter.
Put all the cards in a pool face down.
First student turns up 3 cards.
If they don’t make a word leave the first 3 cards
   face up and the next student turns up 1 card.
If they can make a word they keep the cards.
Next student turns up enough cards to make sure
   there are at least 3 cards face up.
                               Word Building Game

           Find The Letters
2 rows of students, 1 pool of letter cards.
Teacher sounds out a word.
One student from each team races to
  make the word and read it.
                                   Word Building Game

                 Ladder Game
Make a pack of cards with spelling words.
Students take turns to read a card – if correct they
   put their word on the bottom rung of the ladder.
Next student reads the bottom word and takes
   another card.
If they can read it they put it on the second rung.
If they can’t read it the teacher reads the word,
   puts it back in the pack and shuffles.
And so on…
                                   Word Building Game

             Not Enough Chairs
Make 2 identical sets of letter cards, with different
  coloured card.
All students have a letter.
Teacher calls a sound, e.g. ‘s’.
Those 2 students holding ‘s’ cards have to change
One without a chair has to try to beat them and get
  a chair.
                          Word Building Game

        Team Spelling

3 in each team.
Teacher calls a word.
Each person writes one letter of the
First team to finish the word wins.
                             Word Building Game

           Word Jigsaws

Make flash cards of spelling words with a
  small picture after the word.
Cut the word into 2 (between the first and
  second letters) e.g. c | at.
Students remake words.
                           Word Building Game

Students write a word on a piece of
Postman distributes letters (spelling
Students have to read their letters
  (words) from the postman.
                                 Word Building Game

          Stepping the Letters

Each student gets a flashcard.
One student is ‘it’ and calls out the letters.
If your word has the letter in it, you can take a
   step forward (2 of the same letter = 2 steps).
First to reach the end is ‘it’.
                                 Word Building Game

                   I Know It

Students take turns taking a word / sound card and
   sounding it out.
If they can’t work it out the card stays face up.
If the next student knows the word they say it and
   have their turn
Can use sounds or spelling words.
                              Word Building Game

           What’s Missing

Make a word with single letter cards.
Sound out the word.
Cover with a cloth.
Remove one letter.
Students tell what letter/sound is missing.
                                Word Building Game

               Posting Race
2 teams.
Many cards and matching set for teacher.
Cards are dealt out to 2 teams.
Each takes a card from their teams pile.
Teacher says a word.
Student holding the word puts it in the box and
  takes another.
First team to use all cards wins.
                                 Word Building Game

                 Lucky Spot
Base card with 16 spaces.
Letter or word cards are placed in the squares.
Students take turns to throw a ring.
If it lands in a square, student says the sound /
    word and keeps it.
A new card is placed in the square.
If the ring lands on a line, the student reads 2
    cards (sound / word). If on intersection – 4
                                          Word Building Game

                       Hop A Word
Letters on a grid on the floor.

                   b          c           d

                   s          a           n

                   p          h           t

Children hop from letter to letter to spell out a word.
                                 Word Building Game

   Board Spelling Competition
2 teams.
Teacher says a word.
Teams take turns to send 1 person to write it on
    the board.
If not right other team has a turn.
Keep score.
                                   Word Building Game

            Guess The Word

Teacher or 1 team puts dashes for each letter of a
Other students guess the letters.
If the letter is in the word then write it in.
Can have 10 wrong guesses.
                                              Word Building Game

        Families (Old Maid / Monster)
Make a pack of cards with 4 of each word family (at least 10 sets of
Make 1 different word, e.g. monster.
Deal out 5 or 7 cards.
If they have any 2 or 3 in the same word family they put them down.
These can be added to later.
Students make fans with the cards and hold them so others can’t see
     the cards.
The next student picks a card.
If it is in the same family as what is in front of them, or if they can
     begin a new word family they can add the card.
If they get the monster card they put it in the card fan and hope the
     next students will pick it.
Loser is the monster.
                                       Word Building Game

                 Blending Game
Each student has a card like a bingo card with endings
    word families in the 6 squares, e.g. _at, _in.
Students take turns to turn up a letter card which are in a
    pool face down.
If a student picks up a letter card which makes a word on
    the bingo card, then they put the card in the square.
If not they put it back in the pool.
First with all words complete is the winner.
                                    Word Building Game

           Face Up, Face Down
Make 2 different coloured packs, 1 pack with endings of
    word families, 4 or 6 of each ending.
The other pack has single letters to make words.
Put the ending cards face down.
Put the letter cards face up.
A counter or block is thrown onto face down cards.
If the student can make a word with the ending and any
    face up letter they keep the cards.
                                  Word Building Game

              Phonic Strips

Make large blank card with 2 slits in it to pull
  through a word card from left to right, so that
  the first letter is seen first.
Students should sound the letters as they
                                    Word Building Game

                Word Wheels
Make 2 circles of firm cardboard.
Put a pin through the centre to allow the top wheel to
On the top wheel write a letter.
Cut a little window next to the letter.
On the bottom circle write a number of word endings to
  make words when they appear in the window.
                                  Word Building Game


Letters instead of numbers.
Students write down letters they ring on the
   Hookey board.
First to make a word from their letters is the
                                  Word Building Game

           Word Making Rolls

Use a cardboard roll from inside wrapping paper or
  toilet roll.
Make moveable syllable strips with letters to make
  words as they are turned.
Students can take turns to make a word for the
  others to read.
                                Word Building Game

       Making Word Races
Letter pool in the centre with many cards of
  each letter.
Teacher chooses 2 students, and says a word.
Students race to find the letters and make the
                                  Word Building Game

           Find Your Partner

Hand out word / picture cards to students on 1
  side of the classroom.
Hand out letters to students on the other side.
When the teacher says “Go!”, students race to
  find their partner.
                                  Listening Game

               Who Am I?
Teacher chooses one student to come out and
  cover his/her eyes.
Teacher points to another student who calls,
  “Who am I?”
The student guesses who called out.
                                  Listening Game

            Little Red Hen

One student goes out.
Teacher chooses 6 chickens.
All students cover their mouths but only the 6
   chickens start peeping.
Student comes back in and finds the 6 chickens.
                                  Listening Game

          Who Is Tapping?

Choose a student.
Choose some students to tap with a pencil on
   the floor behind their back.
First student needs to guess which student is
                                         Listening Game

            What Is In The Tin?
Good to have a tin with a clear plastic lid.
Name the things which could be put in the tin.
Students close their eyes while the teacher puts
  something in the tin and shakes the tin.
Start with things that are quite different, e.g. rice,
  paper clip, eraser, soap.
Variation: 2 tins – same or different – which tin has
  more in it.
                                   Listening Game

      What Am I Tapping On?

Name the things which can be tapped on e.g. tin,
  wood, stone, box.
Students close their eyes.
Teacher taps something.
Children guess the item being tapped.
                                          Listening Game

               Clapping Rhythms
Start with easy ones – 3 sounds build up to 8.
To think of different rhythms, think of the names of
    children’s stories or rhymes, e.g. The Three Bears,
    The Three Little Pigs, Humpty Dumpty, Little Miss
    Muffet, Hey Diddle Diddle, Little Red Riding Hood
    (familiar to students).
Clap the rhythm of the title.
If the students have difficulty copying, tell them the word
    you are thinking of.
                                 Listening Game

         Follow The Bell

Blindfold one student.
The blindfolded student has to follow the
   student with the bell in and out of the
   other students (they must stay still),
   otherwise use chairs.
                            Listening Game

    Whispering Sounds

All the students close their eyes.
The teacher picks someone to whisper.
Everyone covers his/her mouth.
Another student has to find them.
                               Listening Game

        Imitating Sounds
Different sounds are produced by the
   teacher – loud sounds and soft sounds –
   wind, animal noises, car noises.
Students copy the sound.
Teacher asks if they are soft sounds/noises
   or loud sounds/noises.
                             Listening Game

 What Can We Hear?
Everyone closes their eyes and
  sits quietly for a minute.
Children take turns to tell what
  sounds they could hear.
                               Listening Game

 Who Is Humming The Tune?

One student goes outside while the teacher
  chooses one student to hum a tune.
When the student returns everyone hums one
  note, but one hums the tune.
The student has 3 guesses.
                                          Listening Game

•   Put your hand up when you hear the drum.
•   Respond to changes in music, e.g. shake hands fast
    for fast music, slow for slow music, shakes them up
    high for high music and low for low music.
•   Change actions with changes in tune, as in folk
•   Walk in a circle, turn and walk in the other direction
    when the music changes.
•   Movement to music – walk slowly when the music is
    slow, fast when it is fast. Learn to respond to the
    music, e.g. march, skip, walk, gallop, jump, run,,
    shake, be a robot/fairy/giant.
                         Listening Game


Freeze when the music stops.
Anyone who moves is out.
                                          Listening Game

             Musical Instruments
Have different musical instruments.
Get children used to them.
Close eyes.
Teacher plays an instrument.
“Which instrument was I playing?”
Hand out different musical instruments to different
    groups of children.
Teach them to play in turn, e.g. shakers the first line of
    the song, clap sticks the second, triangles the third
    line, drums the last.
                                      Speaking Game

Doggy, Doggy, Who’s Got The Bone?
One student is chosen to be doggy and hides his/her
Teacher points to a student to steal the bone from the
     middle of the circle.
All sit in a circle with hands behind their backs and
     chant, “Doggy, doggy, whose got your bone?
     Someone stole it from your home. Wake up doggy.”
The student has 3 guesses to find the bone.
                                      Speaking Game

            Queenie, Queenie

One student is Queenie.
She/he stands out the front with his/her back to the
   rest and throws the ball over his/her shoulder.
Students put their hands behind their backs and
   chant, “Queenie, Queenie, who’s got the ball?
   Are they big or are they small?”
Queenie has 3 guesses.
                                           Speaking Game

            Who Took The Cookie?
Students sit in a circle.
Everyone covers their eyes and puts their hands out.
Teacher puts the cookie in a student’s hand.
Student hides the cookie.
Class: Who took the cookie from the cookie jar?
1st Child: Juanita took the cookie from the cookie jar.
Juanita: Who me?
Class: Yes you!
Juanita: Not me (she shows her empty hands)
Class: Then who stole the cookie from the cookie jar?
2nd Child: Elton took the cookie ….(until thief is caught).
                                 Matching Game

     Base Board Match-Up

Children match up small cards of images /
    sounds / words to a base.
Variation: Have small cards face down – take
    turns to try and match with base.
                                 Matching Game


Make letter dominoes.
Deal out 5 dominoes each.
Children take turns to build on to either end
    by matching.
                                     Matching Game

                Snap / Grab
Deal out all the cards.
Each student takes a turn to put a card in the
   middle pile.
When 2 same letter / picture / word cards are on
   top of each other, grab the pile or call “Snap”.
The aim is for one student to have all the cards.
                              Matching Game

       Copy The Word

Make picture cards with words written
Make single letter cards.
Students make / copy the word using the
   letter cards.
                                Visual Memory Game

         Who Has Changed?

Students sit in a line.
One student goes out.
Two students swap places or one moves to a new
Build up to 3 moves.
Student comes back in to work out who has
    changed and put everyone back in the correct
                            Visual Memory Game

      What Has Moved?

Students sit in a circle.
Place objects in a line.
Name the objects.
Children take turns to close eyes.
Teacher swaps 2 or more things around.
What has moved?
                                   Visual Memory Game

            What Is Missing?

Place objects or picture cards in the centre of the
Name the objects / pictures.
Students take turns to close their eyes.
Teacher removes something – starting with 1
    item and building up to 8.
Student says what is missing.
                                  Visual Memory Game

               Same Order

Teacher puts 4 to 6 objects in a line.
Name the objects.
Mix up the objects.
Children put them in the original order.
                                 Visual Memory Game

         Who Has Changed?
One student goes out.
Two students swap places or one moves to a new
Build up to 3 moves.
Student comes back in to work out who has
    changed and put everyone back in the correct
                                    Visual Memory Game

               Memory Game
Start with a pack of cards with 6 pairs of matching
     pictures / words / sounds.
Build up to 15 pairs.
Cards are placed face down.
Students take turns to turn up 2 cards.
If they are a pair, the student keeps them and has
     another turn.
       How to print out the cards
1.   Select print from File
2.   If you are wanting to print in
     black and white (to print on
     coloured paper or card) you
     will need to make sure the
     Colour/grayscale is on
     grayscale. Then print as
3.   For a full colour print (to
     print on white paper or
     card) on a colour printer,
     make sure the
     Colour/grayscale is on
     colour. Then print as
How to print out the cards (cont)
1.   Select Handouts from Print
2.   Select 2 from Slides per
3.   If printing back to back,
     click on Properties
4.   Select Flip on long edge
     from 2 Sided Print
5.   If printing in colour, select
     Colour (Auto) from Output

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