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Culture_ Creativity_ Innovation

VIEWS: 14 PAGES: 14

									Culture, Creativity, Innovation

              Ch 14
         Part 1: April 22
              Org Culture
• Framework of attitudes, values, norms,
  expectations shared among org members
• Difference between espoused and
  enacted cultures

• Common dimensions:
  – What are typical dimensions along which
    culture is measured?

• Possible to have several cultures, called
  subcultures
      Ben Schneider (SIOP ’05
           presentation)
• Distinctions betw culture and climate
• Culture concerns beliefs & values
  exemplified by how orgs behave and the
  myths/stories that perpetuate it
• Climate concerns what happens in orgs,
  meaning people attach to it, & behavior
  and attitudes that follow
                   (cont.)
• Climate has a longer history:
  – Lewin (1939) –
  – 1960’s –
  – 1975 – B. Schneider’s climate for ____
  – 2000 – Zohar –
  – Method preference?
                   (cont.)
• Culture’s history in orgs:
  – Pettigrew (1979) –
  – Deal & Kennedy (1982) –
  – Schein (1985; 1992) –
  – Frost (1991) –
  – Predominant methodology?
     Functions of Org Culture
• Provides sense of identity
• Strong cultures increase org commitment
• Clarify norms, rules to newcomers
 Fortune’s Top 100 places to work
• 2008 results:
  – 1. Google
  – 2. Quicken Loans
  – 3. Wegmen’s Foods
  – 4. Edward Jones
  – 5. Genentech
• Examples of culture:
        Deciphering Culture
• Use artifacts – observable symbols
  – Examples?
• Survey employees
  – How can this be problematic?
• Observation
• Best approach is combination
           Identifying Culture
• Goffee & Jones (98) – Double S Cube
• 2 dimensions of culture –
  – Sociability (friendliness of members)
    • Can promote creativity or can promote
      ingroup/outgroup distinctions
  – Solidarity (share understanding of tasks)
    • Can increase coordination or can promote
      ingroup/outgroup distinctions
                Types of Culture
• Cameron & Quinn’s Competing Values
• 2 dimensions of culture –
   – Flexibility vs. stability
   – Internal vs. External focus
                          Flexibility

               Clan culture             Adhocracy culture
                                                          External
Internal
           Hierarchy culture             Market culture

                          Stability
• Hierarchy – internal focus, stable; very
  efficient & reliable
     • Examples?
• Market – external focus, stable;
  competitive & productive

• Clan – internal focus, flexible; friendly &
  concerned w/ees

• Adhocracy – external, flexible; rapid
  changes, innovative
        Formation of Culture
• Impact of org founder’s personality
• Adaptation to marketplace/environment
• How is culture learned?
  – Examples?


• What is culture’s effect on performance?
  – Subtle influences:
         Changing Cultures
• What affects change in cultures?

• Strategies for merging cultures:
  – Assimilation
  – Deculturation
  – Integration
  – Separation
        Strengthening Cultures
•   Actions of leaders
•   Introduce culturally consistent rewards
•   Maintain stable workforce
•   Selection process (screen for culture fit)
•   Socialization process (mold new ees)

								
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