Reform Judaism
        Conservative Judaism
       Neo-Orthodox Judaism
Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism
A - History

Started between 1810 and 1820
Started by Israel Jacobson
Popularized by Abraham Geiger who
 expanded Jacobson’s ideas

              Israel Jacobson
Reform Judaism
A - History – Why did it start
 Many Jews were converting
 10% in Germany, 50% in Berlin
 Only option was to be Orthodox or convert
 Reform was a new option
 Lets Jews participate in a
  secular culture and
  still be Jewish

            Abraham Geiger
Reform Judaism
B - Torah
God and Humanity
interacting with each other
Ongoing process –
  doesn’t end
Individual must decide
  which commandments
  to follow, which are        still
Reform Judaism
C - God
Concept of God up to the individual
God ranges from a “puppet master” to a
Reform Judaism
D - Services
 A lot of music (first time instrumental music since
  destruction of 2nd Temple.)
 A lot of English
 Shorter services than
  Conservative or
 Men and women
Reform Judaism
D – Services continued
Men and women sit together
Rabbi or Cantor – male female gay or
Boys and girls can read Torah, have
 bar/bat mitzvah
Men and boys don’t
 always wear kippot
 or tallitot
Reform Judaism
E - Shabat
 Not Shomer Shabbas
 Celebrate Shabat
 Kabbalat Shabat
 “Revised version”
  Use electricity
Reform Judaism
F – Women’s role
Egalitarian – women are viewed exactly
 the same as men are
Reform Judaism
G – Intermarriage
 The Rabbi’s may perform intermarriage
 It’s going to happen – we can’t stop it
 Need to make sure these couples feel welcome
  and can still be Jewish
 Patrilinear and Matrilinear descent
 Either parent can be Jewish
  and the children are Jewish.
Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism
A - History
Founded by Zecharias Frankel
 Middle of 19th Century
Thought Jews needed a middle road
 between Orthodox and Reform

        Zecharias Frankel
Conservative Judaism
B - Torah B - Torah
 God wrote the Torah

 It was changed as it was copied
  and recopied by people

 Only the community as a whole,
  (the rabbis) can make changes

 Determine which laws
  people follow
Conservative Judaism
C - God
It is up to the individual but God is
 definitely and active presence
Conservative Judaism
D - Services
 No instruments
 Men and women sit together
 Some English, mostly Hebrew
 Male of female Rabbi
 Girls and boys can read Torah
 Both have Bar/bat Mitzvah
Conservative Judaism
E - Shabat
Shomer Shabas
Can drive for
 religious reasons
Conservative Judaism
F – Women’s Role
Women and men are
Can do all the
 same things
Conservative Judaism
G - Intermarriage
Rabbis will not perform
 an intermarriage
Matrilinear descent
Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
A - History
Founded in the mid 1800’s

Samson Raphael Hirsh

Knew Judaism had to change

But only within strict guidelines
 set by Torah
Orthodox Judaism
B - Torah
Everything in the Torah
is inspired by God

Nothing can be
Orthodox Judaism
C - God
God is a force
 who can influence or
 act upon humanity
Orthodox Judaism
D - Services
 Men and women sit
 No English
 Services include every
 prayer
 Only boys can read Torah
  Only boys Bar mitzvah
 With congregation
 Girls Bat mitzvah with women only minyan
 Rabbi must be a man
 Does not face congregation
Orthodox Judaism
E - Shabat
Shomer Shabbos
Orthodox Judaism
F - Women’s Role
Focus on the home and family
  Cook shabat dinner
  Keep kashruth
Orthodox Judaism
G - Intermarriage
Will not perform intermarriage
Matrilinear descent only

To top