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Clauses & Kinds of Sentence Structures (4) A clause is a • Group of words that has its own subject and verb. Two types of basic clauses: Independent clause and Subordinate clause Independent clause: • has a subject and a verb and can stand by itself as a complete sentence. Example: 1. The reporter shouted. 2.Jerusalem is a relatively small city in area. A subordinate clause has • a subject and a verb, but cannot stand by itself as a sentence. It is only part of a sentence. Examples:1. When the phone rang 2. Since the country was divided. An adjective clause is a • subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun. Most adjective clauses begin with relative pronouns: that, which, who, whom, or whose. Adverb clause is a • Subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. They answer where? When? In what manner? To what extent? Under what condition? Or Why? They begin with coordinating conjunctions: After, although, as, as if, as long as, because, before, even though, if, in order that , since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, while. A simple sentence consists of • A single independent clause. Example: 1. The siren sounded. 2. Art and archaeology reflect and explain Jerusalem’s history. A compound sentence consists • Of two or more independent clauses. Example: The population of Israel is approximately 4,700,000, but only 8 percent of the people live in rural areas. A complex sentence consists • Of one independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Examples: 1. When the fog lifted, we continued our trip. 2. The person who will speak last is my sister. A compound-complex sentence • Consists of two or more independent clauses and one or more subordinate clauses. Example: As he was leaving for school, Larry remembered to take his lunch, but he forgot the report that he had finished the night before.
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