4.Reading literature and writing literature review

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4.Reading literature and writing literature review Powered By Docstoc
           Writing an outline
  1. Types of outline symbols (P33)
  2. Types of outlines (P34)
         总分式—绪论/引言 (Introduction, 提出中心论点)
                本论/ 主体 (Body, 提出分论点1,2,3,利用论据,进行论证)
                结论/ 结语 (Conclusion, 总结全文,或者指出进一步研究方向)
 3. A Sample
       Lecture 4

Reading Literature and

  Writing Literature Review
        & Research Proposal
               1. Evaluation of Sources

                   2. Taking Notes
 Key Points
               3. Avoiding Plagiarism
                4.Writing a Literature Review
                   & Research Proposal
                Writing a Literature Review
                  & Research Proposal
 1. Evaluation of Sources(3.1)
 Pay attention to the author’s name, the title
 of the book and the publication information;
 Pay attention to the information which leads

  to the author’s attitude;
 Pay attention to the sources;

 Pay attention to the objectivity of the sources.

      (Robert Dees’ criteria for evaluating sources)
      When you determine
that material is reliable and useful,
 you will want to take notes on it.
2. Taking Notes (Chapter 3)
   Contents of Notes
   Tips on Note-taking
   Types of Notes
   Taking Notes on Computers
Contents of Notes(3.2)

   The content of a note includes whatever
    might be needed for the research paper.
 To   be specific, a note usually includes
    the following items:

   1.The background information;
   2. A summary of general ideas supporting the
    preliminary thesis statement;
   3. Explanatory information such as definition, a
    plot summary and bibliographical data;
Tips on Note-taking(3.3)
 Documenting Sources
 Being thorough and Concise
                                          Good enough as a
 Putting One Item on One Card            basis for work, and
                                          may be proved later

        However you take notes, set down the author’s full
        name and the complete title of the source– enough
       information to enable you to locate the source easily
                 in your working bibliography.
 Sample Note-card 1                          Heading

       Advertising as Communication

Advertising is both emotional and rational.

Martineau, Motivation in Advertising, p.139

  Documentation: supporting with documents    Body of
          引录参考文献;文献编制                         the card
Sample Note-card 2         Heading of the notes

      Definition of learning strategies
        “Learning strategies are…”
Ellis, Rod. Second Language Acquisition.
       Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997:76-77

                         Body of the card with
    Documentation        ideas, information or
Types of Notes(3.4)

There are four types of notes:
 Direct quotations

 Paraphrase notes

 Summary notes

 Combination notes
Taking Notes on Computers(3.5)
   One strategy is to write out summaries and
    paraphrases of the source by hand and to enter
    into computer files only quotations, which you
    can electronically copy into the text as you write.

 Write on the notepad before copying into
  the text if the source format is maintained;
 Be certain to save your files on your working disk
  and to keep copies of them both on paper and on
  a backup disk.
3. Avoiding Plagiarism (3.6)

3.1 What is plagiarism?(P27)
3.2 Forms of plagiarism (P28)
3.3 Tips on avoiding plagiarism (P28)
 4. Writing a Literature Review
   A literature review demonstrates the writer’s
conceptual understanding of the research topic
and his/her ability to argue for the need of the
study. This is the best place to see whether the
researcher has acquired the macro-level
organizing ability to put the relevant materials
together to develop an argument.
    Writing a Literature Review
                              Writings on a
 How?                      particular subject

   No research is carried out in a vacuum. It
must be linked with the past and the future.
   A literature review provides such contextual
Information. It :
1. describes what has been done in the field
    and what problems remain to be solved;
2. explains to what extent your study is
    different from the previous ones, what
    kind of contribution can be made to the
    existing knowledge, how the design of
    your study is growing out of the existing
    ones .
    Writing a Literature Review
Major components
   Conceptual definitions of key terms;
   An examination of the research topic in the theoretical
   A description of related studies with evaluating comments;
   A critical review of research designs including
    instruments related to your study.
   Writing a Literature Review

  After reading the literature review (1, 2, 3) ,
the readers will be naturally led to the
conclusion that your proposed study is
worth exploring.
Writing a Research Proposal

1. Requirements
2. Sample

   Develop a research topic for your thesis and
    fill out the form to get yourself ready for the
    application on April 6, 2011.

   Read Chapter 4 to
    Prepare for Lecture 5: Writing the Paper

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