In Text Citations
One Work by One Author
Walker (2000) compared reaction times
In a recent study of reaction times (Walker, 2000)
If name of author is part of narrative, cite year of
publication in parentheses
Otherwise, place name and year separated by a comma
Within a paragraph, do not include the year in
subsequent references to the study if it cannot be
confused with other studies
E.g. In a recent study of reaction times, Walker (2000)
described the method. . . . Walker also found
One Work by Multiple Authors
When a work has two authors, always cite both names
When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all the
first time. After the first citation, cite the first author
followed by et al. If in a new paragraph, include the year
in the first citation.
Exception: if two references with the same year shorten
to the same citation, cite as many authors as necessary
to distinguish among the references.
Six or more authors: cite surname of the first author
followed by et al., and year. Same exception as before.
In text, separate authors with the word “and”. In
parentheses, use an ampersand (&).
Groups as Authors
The names of groups are usually spelled out each time
they appear in a text citation. Some group authors are
spelled out the first time and then abbreviated. Make
sure the reader will be able to locate the citation in the
reference list easily.
E.g. National Institute of Mental Health. (1999).
(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1999)
E.g. University of Pittsburgh. (1993).
(University of Pittsburgh, 1993)
Works With No Author or With an
When a work has no author, cite the first few
words of reference list entry and year. Use
quotation marks around the title of an article or
chapter, italicize titles of periodical, books,
brochures, or reports.
E.g. on free care (“Study Finds,” 1982)
E.g. the book College Bound Seniors (1979)
When an author is “Anonymous”, cite the word
Anonymous followed by a comma and the date
E.g. (Anonymous, 1998)
Authors With the Same Surname
Include the first author’s initials in all text
citations even if the year of publication
R. D. Luce (1959) and P. A. Luce (1986)
J. M. Goldberg and Neff (1961) and M. E.
Goldberg and Wurtz (1972) studied
Two or More Works Within the
Order citations in the same order as reference list (alphabetically by
first author’s surname, separated by semicolons)
Arrange two or more works by the same author by publication year,
with in-press citations last
Give author’s surname once, for subsequent works, give date only
E.g. Past research (Edeline & Weinberger, 1991, 1993)
If same author and same publication date, use suffixes a, b, c, etc.
after the year
E.g. Several studies (Johnson, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c; Singh 1983)
You may separate a major citation by inserting “see also” before the
E.g. (Minor, 2001; see also Adams, 1999; Storandt, 1997)
Specific Parts of a Source
Indicate page, chapter, figure, table, or equation
at the appropriate point.
Always give page numbers for quotations!!!!!
The words page and chapter are abbreviated in
E.g. (Cheek & Buss, 1981, p. 332)
E.g. (Shimamura, 1989, chap. 3)
For electronic sources without page numbers,
use paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para.
Followed by number