Presented by Elisabeth McKechnie
Mabie Law Library
A.k.a The BlueBook, A Uniform System of Citation
◦ 18th Edition is current.
IN COMMON USE IN THE U.S.
CALIFORNIA STYLE MANUAL
◦ Law Review Citation
◦ Federal Litigation
◦ Where Authorized by Local Rule
California Style Manual
◦ California Litigation
WHEN DO I USE THEM?
Citations to cases and other authorities in
all documents filed in the courts must be
in the style established by either the
California Style Manual or The Bluebook:
A Uniform System of Citation, at the
option of the party filing the document.
The same style must be used consistently
throughout the document.
Cal. Rules of Court, Rule 1.200
◦Cal. Rule of Court 8.204:
…Brief writers are encouraged
to follow the citation form of
the California Style Manual
(4th Ed., 2000)
EVEN IF ALLOWED,
SHOULD YOU USE BLUEBOOK IN
CA SUPREME COURT?
USING BLUEBOOK IN
“…The BLUEBOOK requires the use and citation of
traditional printed sources unless
(1) the information cited is unavailable in a traditional
printed source; or
(2) a copy of the source cannot be located because it is so
obscure that it is practically unavailable.
Only in those two cases should citation be made to the
electronic source alone.
DON’T CITE ONLINE SOURCES
What is a pocket part?
22 U.S.C. section 2567 (Supp. I 1983).
[Date is the SUPPLEMENT’S date]
RULE 12.3.1(e): “Cite material appearing in
supplements (including pocket parts) according to
CITING TO A PAPER
◦ In the Federal system, the official reporter for the
Supreme Court is the United States Reports (or U.S.C).
Unofficial reporters are the Supreme Court Reports (or
S.Ct. ) or United States Supreme Court Reports
(Lawyer's Edition) (L.Ed.). Each is by a different
i.e.: International Shoe v State of Washingtion,
326 U.S. 310, 66 S.Ct. 154, 90 L.Ed. 95 (1945).
United States Reports----Offical Reporter
Supreme Court Reports---Unofficial Reporter
Lawyers’ Edition-----------Unofficial Reporter
OFFICIAL AND UNOFFICIAL
United States Reports (official): U.S.
Supreme Court Reports: S.Ct.
United States Supreme Court Reports (Lawyers’ Edition): L.Ed.
Federal Appeals Court
Federal Appendix: F.App’x
Federal District Court
Federal Supplement: F.Supp
LIST OF FEDERAL REPORTERS
Pre-U.S. Reports, Supreme Court cases
Named for the Court Reporter who compiled the notes that
Vols. 1-4 Dallas (Dall.) 1790-1800 (U.S. Reports vols. 1-4)
Vols. 1-9 Cranch (Cranch) 1801-1815 (U.S. Reports vols. 5-13)
Vols. 1-12 Wheaton (Wheat.) 1816-1827 (U.S. Reports vols. 14-25)
Vols. 1-16 Peters (Pet.) 1828-1842 (U.S. Reports vols. 26-41)
Vols. 1-24 Howard (How.) 1843-1860 (U.S. Reports vols. 42-65)
Vols. 1-2 Black (Black) 1862-1862 (U.S. Reports vols. 66-67)
Vols. 1-23 Wallace (Wall.) 1863-1874 (U.S. Reports vols. 68-90)
Available at Westlaw in SCT-OLD; and HeinOnline’s U.S. Reports
California Supreme Court Cases:
Auto Equity Sales v. Superior Court, 57 Cal.2d 450, 20
Cal.Rptr.32, 369 P.2d. 937 (1962).
Daniel v. Weigum, 190 Cal. App. 2d 620, 16 Cal. Rptr.
Official Reporter: California Appellate Reports, 2nd
Unofficial Reporter: California Reporter
Regional Reporter: Pacific Reporter (covers multi-
states;currently CA Supreme Court cases only).
CALIFORNIA LEGAL REPORTERS
International Shoe v. State of Washington,
326 U.S. 310, 66 S.Ct. 154, 90 L.Ed. 95
66 S.Ct. 154, 90 L.Ed. 95 are Parallel Citations
for the SAME CASE.
May be required by local rules; Courtesy to
other counsel and the Court…
SAMPLE FEDERAL CASE CITATION
INTERNATIONAL SHOE v STATE OF WASHINGTON
(PLAINTIFF or First Party) (DEFENDANT or 2nd Party)
326 U.S. 310 (1945)
Vol. # Reporter Starting Date of
HOW TO READ A
Another Example (Fed. Appellate):
United States v MacDonald, 531 F.2d 196, (4th Cir.
United States v MacDonald, 531 F.2d
(Case Title) Vol# Reporter
196, (4th Cir. 1976).
starting page deciding court, date of decision
FEDERAL APPELLATE CASES
In the Federal system, the official code is
the United States Code (cited U.S.C.).
However, the U.S. code is published every
6 years. Two unofficial codes are more
commonly used: United States Code
Annotated (cited U.S.C.A.), published by
West and the United States Code Service
(cited U.S.C.S.) published by the Lawyers'
Cooperative Publishing Company
Bluebook Rule 12.2.1(a)
◦ Cite statutes currently in force in the current
official code or its supplement. Otherwise, cite
a current unofficial code or its supplement, the
official session laws, privately published session
laws (U.S.C.C.A.N.), a widely used computer
database, a looseleaf service, an Internet
source or a newspaper— in that order of
◦ …federal laws enacted after the most recent
USC, should be cited to an unofficial code…
CITING TO THE U.S.C
United States Code citation (Rule 12.3.1):
Title 42 U.S.C. 435 (2007)
(title #) (Reporter name) (page #) (date of code editn)
Title 42 U.S.C.S. 435 (Lexis-Nexis 2008) (United States
Title 42 U.S.C.A. 435 (West 2008) (United States Code
Contain the same statute, but USC may not be
Citation of Federal Statutes
WHAT TO DO IF
YOU STILL CAN’T