LEGAL CITATION _ ABBREVIATIONS

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					          LEGAL
        CITATION
Presented by Elisabeth McKechnie
Mabie Law Library
   BLUEBOOK
      A.k.a The BlueBook, A Uniform System of Citation
       ◦ 18th Edition is current.




IN COMMON USE IN THE U.S.
CALIFORNIA STYLE MANUAL
   Bluebook
    ◦ Law Review Citation
    ◦ Federal Litigation
    ◦ Where Authorized by Local Rule


   California Style Manual
    ◦ California Litigation




WHEN DO I USE THEM?
CALIFORNIA
   Citations to cases and other authorities in
    all documents filed in the courts must be
    in the style established by either the
    California Style Manual or The Bluebook:
    A Uniform System of Citation, at the
    option of the party filing the document.
    The same style must be used consistently
    throughout the document.

    Cal. Rules of Court, Rule 1.200



CALIFORNIA PLEADINGS
 ◦Cal. Rule of Court 8.204:
  …Brief writers are encouraged
  to follow the citation form of
  the California Style Manual
  (4th Ed., 2000)

EVEN IF ALLOWED,
SHOULD YOU USE BLUEBOOK IN
CA SUPREME COURT?
USING BLUEBOOK IN
   CALIFORNIA
CITATION BASICS
  RULE 18:
   “…The BLUEBOOK requires the use and citation of
    traditional printed sources unless
   (1) the information cited is unavailable in a traditional
    printed source; or
   (2) a copy of the source cannot be located because it is so
    obscure that it is practically unavailable.

   Only in those two cases should citation be made to the
    electronic source alone.




DON’T CITE ONLINE SOURCES
   What is a pocket part?

   22 U.S.C. section 2567 (Supp. I 1983).
                  [Date is the SUPPLEMENT’S date]

RULE 12.3.1(e): “Cite material appearing in
supplements (including pocket parts) according to
Rule 3.1(c).”


      CITING TO A PAPER
         SUPPLEMENT
◦ In the Federal system, the official reporter for the
  Supreme Court is the United States Reports (or U.S.C).
  Unofficial reporters are the Supreme Court Reports (or
  S.Ct. ) or United States Supreme Court Reports
  (Lawyer's Edition) (L.Ed.). Each is by a different
  publisher.

i.e.: International Shoe v State of Washingtion,
326 U.S. 310, 66 S.Ct. 154, 90 L.Ed. 95 (1945).

United States Reports----Offical Reporter
  Supreme Court Reports---Unofficial Reporter
  Lawyers’ Edition-----------Unofficial Reporter



   OFFICIAL AND UNOFFICIAL
          REPORTERS
   Supreme Court
        United States Reports (official): U.S.
           Supreme Court Reports: S.Ct.
           United States Supreme Court Reports (Lawyers’ Edition): L.Ed.

   Federal Appeals Court
        Federal Reporter:F.2d
        Federal Appendix: F.App’x
        (unpublished cases)

   Federal District Court
        Federal Supplement: F.Supp




LIST OF FEDERAL REPORTERS
   Pre-U.S. Reports, Supreme Court cases
   1790-1834---OLD!
   Named for the Court Reporter who compiled the notes that
    created them:

Vols.   1-4 Dallas (Dall.) 1790-1800 (U.S. Reports vols. 1-4)
Vols.   1-9 Cranch (Cranch) 1801-1815 (U.S. Reports vols. 5-13)
Vols.   1-12 Wheaton (Wheat.) 1816-1827 (U.S. Reports vols. 14-25)
Vols.   1-16 Peters (Pet.) 1828-1842 (U.S. Reports vols. 26-41)
Vols.   1-24 Howard (How.) 1843-1860 (U.S. Reports vols. 42-65)
Vols.   1-2 Black (Black) 1862-1862 (U.S. Reports vols. 66-67)
Vols.   1-23 Wallace (Wall.) 1863-1874 (U.S. Reports vols. 68-90)

Available at Westlaw in SCT-OLD; and HeinOnline’s U.S. Reports
  collection.



           FEDERAL “NOMINATIVE”
                REPORTERS
California Supreme Court Cases:
Auto Equity Sales v. Superior Court, 57 Cal.2d 450, 20
 Cal.Rptr.32, 369 P.2d. 937 (1962).

Appellate Cases:
Daniel v. Weigum, 190 Cal. App. 2d 620, 16 Cal. Rptr.
 27 (1964)

Official Reporter: California Appellate Reports, 2nd
 Series
Unofficial Reporter: California Reporter
Regional Reporter: Pacific Reporter (covers multi-
 states;currently CA Supreme Court cases only).
CALIFORNIA LEGAL REPORTERS
Full Citation:
International Shoe v. State of Washington,
326 U.S. 310, 66 S.Ct. 154, 90 L.Ed. 95
(1945).

66 S.Ct. 154, 90 L.Ed. 95 are Parallel Citations
 for the SAME CASE.

May be required by local rules; Courtesy to
 other counsel and the Court…


PARALLEL CITATIONS
             SAMPLE FEDERAL CASE CITATION

    INTERNATIONAL SHOE v STATE OF WASHINGTON
   (PLAINTIFF or First Party) (DEFENDANT or 2nd Party)


326         U.S.            310            (1945)
Vol. #      Reporter       Starting        Date of
                            Page#          Opinion


         HOW TO READ A
           CITATION
Another Example (Fed. Appellate):

United States v MacDonald, 531 F.2d 196, (4th Cir.
 1976).

United States v MacDonald, 531     F.2d
(Case Title)            Vol#      Reporter

196,                 (4th Cir. 1976).
starting page   deciding court, date of decision




FEDERAL APPELLATE CASES
   In the Federal system, the official code is
    the United States Code (cited U.S.C.).

   However, the U.S. code is published every
    6 years. Two unofficial codes are more
    commonly used: United States Code
    Annotated (cited U.S.C.A.), published by
    West and the United States Code Service
    (cited U.S.C.S.) published by the Lawyers'
    Cooperative Publishing Company



Statutes-Federal
   Bluebook Rule 12.2.1(a)
    ◦ Cite statutes currently in force in the current
      official code or its supplement. Otherwise, cite
      a current unofficial code or its supplement, the
      official session laws, privately published session
      laws (U.S.C.C.A.N.), a widely used computer
      database, a looseleaf service, an Internet
      source or a newspaper— in that order of
      preference.
    ◦ …federal laws enacted after the most recent
      USC, should be cited to an unofficial code…




     CITING TO THE U.S.C
United States Code citation (Rule 12.3.1):

Title 42 U.S.C. 435 (2007)
   (title #) (Reporter name)   (page #) (date of code editn)

  Title 42 U.S.C.S. 435 (Lexis-Nexis 2008) (United States
    Code Service)

  Title 42 U.S.C.A. 435 (West 2008) (United States Code
    Annotated)
     Contain the same statute, but USC may not be
    updated.




Citation of Federal Statutes
 WHAT TO DO IF
YOU STILL CAN’T
   FIND IT?

				
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