MISC - Compass Publishing Japan.xls by tongxiamy


									Extensive Reading D - Word List

          WORD    PARTS                      DEFINITION                                     SAMPLE SENTENCE                         SYNONYM

Unit 1           Parts    Definition                                       Sentence                                                Synm

                          the passing of customs and beliefs from one      Most families have Christmas traditions that are
traditions       n                                                                                                                 a ritual
                          generation to another                            passed down from generation to generation.

                          poem, story, or adventure of heroic
epic             n                                                         Odyssey is Homer's epic from Greek mythology.
                          of a form of writing used for over 3 000 years
                                                                           The Sumerians developed a writing system called
cuneiform        n        until the 1st century BC in the ancient
                          countries of the Middle East
                          a large, flat block of stone with writing,       The Egyptians did not have paper so they wrote on
tablets          n
                          decoration, images, etc                          clay tablets.
                                                                           Invariably, the doctor's advice is always good, so we
invariably       adv      without exception or change
                                                                           always do what he recommends.
                                                                           The incredible trip the family took through two
incredible       adj      wonderful, fabulous                                                                                      amazing
                                                                           continents lasted six months.
                                                                           Her coach planned a strenuous workout to prepare
strenuous        adj      needing great effort                                                                                     difficult
                                                                           her for the tournament.
                                                                           The long trek between the seacoast and the
treks            n        a long, difficult journey
                                                                           mountains took months.
                                                                           All human beings are mortals and will all die one
mortals          n        subject to death
                                                                           She mourned the death of her father for many
mourn            v        to feel sad at the death of someone
                          a force or power believed to determine in        It was fate that we should meet again after all these
fate             n
                          advance everything that happens                  years.
                                                                           In order to attain great wealth, you need luck and
attain           v        to achieve                                                                                               reach
immortality      n        living or lasting forever                        The Beatles achieved immortality with their music.

mythical         adj      related to mythology                             Zeus is a mythical character.                           unreal
                                                                           The policeman thwarted a burglary by catching the
thwarted         v        to block someone from doing something                                                                    to obstruct
                                                                           thief as he was about to enter the house.
                                                                           The opposition party tried to subvert the
subvert          v        to try to destroy or weaken something
                                                                           We studied the ancient civilizations of Greece in our
ancient          adj      very old
                                                                           history class.
                                                                           Beethoven's music seems to have a negative effect
effect           n        a result                                                                                                 outcome
                                                                           on babies.
deluge           n        a heavy rain, usu. brief and sudden              The deluge caused a flooding in the village.
                                                                           My children's well being takes precedence over my
precedence       n        greater importance                                                                                       priority
Unit 2         Parts   Definition                                         Sentence                                               Synm

                                                                          His major premise for asking for a raise was that      an
premise        n       a basis for a line of reasoning
                                                                          they were going to have another child.                 assumption
                                                                          The book has been translated into 30 different
translated     v       interpret as from one language to another
                                                                          The little girl narrated the story of Snow White to
narrated       v       to tell a story in writing or speech
                                                                          her classmates.
                                                                          The delay in his arrival was due to bad weather
delay          n       a time that something is slowed or stopped                                                                wait
                                                                          The execution of the murderer will take place in two
execution      n       the act of putting someone to death
                                                                          One of his nefarious crimes was burning down the
nefarious      adj     evil                                                                                                      wicked
                                                                          daycare center.
                                                                          Her family had suffered many tragedies in the last
tragedies      n       a sad event                                                                                               disaster
                                                                          few years.
                       language in everyday use in a country or           The vernacular of that region is very different than
vernacular     n
                       region                                             the English that is taught in schools.
                                                                          The accident obscured her memory from when she
obscured       v       to confuse                                                                                                make unclear
                                                                          was a child.
                                                                          Many of America's current laws were derived from
derived        v       to get                                                                                                    to obtain
                                                                          After passing the examination, Jim acquired the
acquired       v       to gain                                                                                                   to get
                                                                          license necessary to start his business.
                                                                          The found an ancient clay tablet predating the
predating      v       to happen before something else
                                                                          Sumerian cuneiform.
                                                                          The two candidates had an intense debate over
intense        adj     strong                                                                                                    concentrated
                                                                          health care.
                       a magical spirit, originally in Arab traditional
                                                                          When she opened the box, a genie appeared and
genie          n       stories, who does or provides whatever the
                                                                          asked her what her wish was.
                       person who controls it asks
                                                                          Her mother was a celebrated author that spoke to
celebrated     adj     renowned                                                                                                  well known
                                                                          children all over the world.
endured        v       to bear                                            While in prison, she endured ridicule and flogging.    tolerate

                                                                          The representative said she was conducting a
                       a maneuver to gain advantage or to disguise
ploys          n                                                          survey, but it was just a ploy to sell me life         a trick
                       one's true intent
                                                                          Some criminals are incorrigible and will spend their
incorrigible   adj     not able to behave correctly
                                                                          lives in prison.
                                                                          Rather than helping the cause, the politician hinder
hinder         v       to slow the progress of something                                                                         to impede
                                                                          it by giving false information.
devises        v       to create                                          He devises a different plan to get rich every day.     to develop
Unit 3          Parts   Definition                                    Sentence                                                   Synm

portion         n       a small piece or section of a larger thing    He gives a portion of his salary to charity.
                                                                      Do you believe in a divine force that controls all
divine          a       heavenly, related to a godly force
                                                                      The house was easy to find because of the precise
precise         adj     accurate                                                                                                 exact
deity           n       a god or goddess                              Zeus was a Greek deity.
                                                                      In the middle ages, warfare was commonly carried
archer          n       a person who shoots arrows                                                                               a bowman
                                                                      out by archers.
                                                                      The village chief sent his warriors to fight against the
warrior         n       a fighter                                                                                                soldier

chariot         n       a two-wheeled vehicle drawn by horse          Roman soldiers used chariots during their battles.

permanent       n       meant to last, forever or for a long time     The scar was permanent reminder of the accident.           everlasting

                                                                      It was the father's duty to work and provide for his
duty            n       responsibility                                                                                           obligation
                                                                      This memo clarifies the company's employment
clarifies       v       to make clear                                                                                            explain
                                                                      The essence of the debate is over who should have
essence         n       the central point of a subject
                                                                      custody of the baby.
                                                                      His reluctance to get married showed his fear of
reluctance      n       concern or fear about doing something                                                                    hesitance
                                                                      This plan entails the cooperation of all the
entails         v       to make necessary                                                                                        require
identical       adj     exactly alike                                 James and John are identical twins.
                                                                      The literature provided enlightenment on the
enlightenment   n       an explanation
                                                                      surgery she was going to have.
perceive        v       to understand                                 She said my message was difficult to perceive.             comprehend
                        to succeed in understanding something often   Even after 30 minutes of explanation, he still wasn't
grasp           v
                        complex                                       able to grasp the information.
based           v       to make or form a base or foundation for      My decision is based on the facts of the case.
                                                                      The president was not concerned about the welfare
gain            n       a profit                                      of the students; his only concern was for his
                                                                      personal gain.
                                                                      The big jacket constrained him from being able to
constrained     v       to limit                                                                                                 control
                                                                      play effectively.
Unit 4          Parts   Definition                                      Sentence                                                Synm

bard            n       a poet                                          William Shakespeare is a bard.
                        a song or poem that tells a story, or a slow
ballads         n                                                       Lionel Richie sang many ballads.
                        love song
                        to combine two or more things in order to       To improve efficiency of the company, they
integrated      v                                                                                                               mix
                        become more effective                           integrated many of the departments.

                        a military action in which forces surround an   During the siege, the military barred all foods from
siege           n
                        area and prevent supplies from entering         entering the compound.
chronicle       v       to record                                       This book chronicles the life of Hemmingway.            recount
                                                                        He tried to bargain with the store owner, without
bargain         v       to ask for a lower price                                                                                haggle
                                                                        much success.
                                                                        After winning five straight tournaments, he felt he
invincible      adj     too strong or smart to be beaten
                                                                        was invincible.
                                                                        My neighbor is very truculent and unpleasant to be
truculent       adj     unpleasant and tending to argue a lot
formidable      adj     strong, difficult to defeat                                                                             daunting

                                                                        The committee gathered many petitions to stop the
petitions       n       a legal request for action by a court
                                                                        business from moving into their neighborhood.

defeats         v       win a victory over                              The defeated the enemy after a lengthy battle.          to beat
                                                                        When they opened the trunk of the car, they found
corpse          n       a lifeless human body                                                                                   a cadaver
                                                                        a corpse.
                                                                        After relinquishing his rights as a parent, the many
relinquishing   v       to give up, hand over                                                                                   to surrender
                                                                        left the country.

cunning         n       careful deception                               We need a bit of cunning if we are to win the battle.   slyness
                                                                        The massacre of the village inhabitants caused a
massacres       n       the brutal killing of many people or animals                                                            slaughter
                                                                        major exodus from its neighboring villages.
                                                                        She has keen a wit and understands all her subjects
wits            n       intelligence                                                                                            acumen
                                                                        very quickly.
                        describes something that has lots of parts      It took quite a bit of concentration to understand
labyrinthine    adj
                        and is therefore confusing                      the book's labyrinthine plot.
                                                                        My uncle had an unsavory reputation, so none of
unsavory        adj     unpleasant
                                                                        his family members attended his funeral.
                                                                        Using your brains may be an effective way of staving
staving         v       to stop something bad from happening
                                                                        off the onset of Alzheimer's disease.
                                                                        The mother enticed her children to get good grades
entice          v       to attract                                                                                              to persuade
                                                                        by offering them money.
Unit 5         Parts   Definition                                       Sentence                                                 Synm

                                                                        Albert Einstein had a genius for understanding
genius         n       a special ability
                                                                        A sense of doom gripped the children after the           an unhappy
doom           n       a terrible fate
                                                                        gunman had entered the building.                         end
                                                                        After the man entered the women's restroom
unwittingly    adv     unintentionally                                  unwittingly and saw the women talking, he causally       accidentally
                                                                        walked back out.
                                                                        After the final preparations are over, he will embark
embarks        v       begin a journey, venture, or new activity                                                                 begin
                                                                        on a six month journey through Asia.
prevails       v       to win, triumph                                  Truth always prevails.
                                                                        Space exploration has become a focus for many
exploration    n       a journey of discovery                                                                                    a search
                                                                        While her son was missing, she suffered great
torment        n       great mental or physical pain                                                                             agony
                                                                        The author had unknowingly plagiarized many of his
unknowingly    adv     not aware of a particular situation or problem
                       saying disrespectful things about God,
blasphemy      n                                                        Long ago, people were killed for blasphemy.
                       religion, or anything sacred
                                                                        After David had slain the giant, he was welcomed
slain          v       killed                                                                                                    murdered
                                                                        warmly by the villagers.

oracle         n       a wise person who tells the future               The ancient Greeks referred to oracles for advice.       a soothsayer
                       the power to have an effect on people or         He was very influential in the field of genetic
influential    adj                                                                                                               affecting
                       things                                           engineering.
                                                                        Although the companies are all in the same
discrete       adj     a distinct identity or existence                                                                          separate
                                                                        buildings, they are all discrete entities.
early          adj     before the expected time                         He went to bed very early yesterday.
                       to do something that shows that you are          The judge ordered the teenagers to 60 hours of
atonement      n                                                                                                                 compensation
                       sorry for something bad that you did             community service as atonement for their crimes.
                                                                        People that live in poverty only dream of attaining
prosperity     n       a good economic period
                                                                        prosperity in the future.
                                                                        His dominance in the field of tennis span over 10
span           v       an amount of time                                                                                         stretch
                                                                        His mother was a legendary tennis player in the
legendary      adj     famous                                                                                                    renowned
                                                                        The goal of classical education is to develop rhetoric
rhetoric       n       the art of using words well
                                                                        in its students.
                                                                        The husband preferred antique, but the wife
contemporary   n       of today                                                                                                  modern
                                                                        preferred contemporary furniture.
Unit 6        Parts   Definition                                      Sentence                                                Synm

                                                                      Education and 10 years of experience are requisites
requisite     adj     a requirement                                                                                           a necessity
                                                                      for the position.
                                                                      Tom was not trying to stop progress; he was merely
merely        adv     only, nothing more than                         suggesting changes that could improve the               simply
prominent     adj     well-known and respected                        June is a prominent politician in her country.
attribute     v       quality of a person or thing                    He attributes his good looks to his mother.
                      something that causes a fall from power or a    The downfall of the president's reign was attributed
downfall      n
                      high position                                   to his lack of experience.
                                                                      He sustained several broken bones from his skiing
sustains      v       to suffer                                                                                               endure
wounds        n       a cut, puncture                                 The wounds from the dog bite healed very slowly.

                                                                      The battle between the two countries occurred over
battle        n       a struggle                                                                                              conflict
                                                                      their rights to the island.
                                                                      After waiting for two hours, she eventually got tired
eventually    adv     in the end
                                                                      and went home.
                                                                      The couple wanted a divorce and there was no way
circumvents   v       to find a way around                                                                                    avoid
                                                                      to circumvent it.
hero          n       a person admired for bravery or great deeds     The hero of the story was a five year old boy.

                      an impressive act, showing strength, courage,   Graduating from university in three years was a
feats         n                                                                                                               an exploit
                      or unusual ability                              great feat!
related       v       connected by blood or marriage                  She was related to jimmy Carter.                        linked to
                                                                      Her company employs ex-convicts; she believes in
employs       v       provide paid work to people                                                                             to hire
                                                                      giving a second chance.
                                                                      The contrasts in the two art pieces shows the
contrast      n       comparison between two objects
                                                                      techniques of the old and the modern.
                                                                      He doesn't believe in technology and still uses
archaic       adj     old and useless                                                                                         antiquated
                                                                      archaic ways to conduct business.
                                                                      Blending the two programs produced a much more
blending      v       to mix together
                                                                      effective system.
                                                                      After finding a lump on her shoulder, she
underwent     v       to experienced                                  underwent numerous test to find out what was
                                                                      causing it.
                      someone who does not believe in a religion      The pages(오타?) in town worship the sun and the
pagan         n
                      with a single god                               moon.
                                                                      He is regarded as an expert in the field of
regarded      adv     virtually, regarded
Unit 7        Parts   Definition                                        Sentence                                                Synm

                      the national assembly that makes or changes
Parliament    n                                                         Her uncle was an important member of Parliament.
                      laws in some countries, such as Great Britain
                                                                        She was rewarded for her intense effort with a full
rewarded      v       to give an award to someone                                                                               compensated
                                                                        scholarship to Harvard.
                                                                        She was awarded a government grant to study art in
grant         n       money given for a specific purpose
                      a strange habit or characteristic that is seen
foibles       n                                                         Our foibles can be distracting to others.
                      as harmless and unimportant
                                                                        The 9th grader's behavior typified that of his
typified      v       to characterize                                                                                           represent
speculate     v       to guess about                                    We can only speculate how the story will end.           guess
                      a piece of fiction that is longer than a short    Animal Farm is a famous novella that many
novellas      n
                      story, but shorter than a novel                   American high school students are required to read.
                      a dangerous disease that spreads very fast        In some parts of the world, plagues still kills many
plague        n                                                                                                                 affliction
                      and kills its victims quickly                     people.
                                                                        The children amuse themselves by watching
amuse         v       to please                                                                                                 delight
                      a journey to a place which is considered
                                                                        Many Muslims try to make a pilgrimage to Mecca at
pilgrimage    n       special, and which you visit to show your
                                                                        least once in their life.
                                                                        The queen was very upset because her son had
ordinary      adj     common, regular                                                                                           plain
                                                                        married an ordinary girl.
                                                                        The new movie was designed to appeal to young
designed      v       intend for a certain goal or purpose

shrine        n       a religious place that honors a person or saint   There are many Shinto shrines in Japan.

host          n       person in charge of a social or other event       The host was very busy serving all her guests.
                      a person who travels a long way to visit a holy   The pilgrims traveled for over 20 days before they
pilgrims      n                                                                                                                 explorer
                      place                                             reached the famous shrine.
                      unusual or special and therefore surprising
remarkably    adv                                                       The little girl remarkably survived the 20 feet fall.
                      and worth mentioning
                                                                        The family sued the doctor for malpractice when the
malpractice   n       wrong treatment by a professional
                                                                        daughter died.
                                                                        The president decided to step down because of the
treachery     n       betrayal                                                                                                  disloyalty
                                                                        treachery of his cabinet members.
                      feeling and showing love and duty to God          She is very pious; she attends church every Sunday
pious         adj
                      and religion                                      and Wednesday.
                      a type of humorous play filled with ridiculous    The farce about the unemployed shoe salesman was
farces        n
                      situations                                        very funny.
Unit 8           Parts   Definition                                         Sentence                                                  Synm

                                                                            The video showed how the man was brutalized by
brutalized       v       to treat someone in a cruel and violent way                                                                  demoralize
                                                                            the police.
                         a central idea or main pattern, such as in daily
theme            n                                                          The theme of the movie was about loyalty.
                         life, an artistic work, or another area
                         to force someone out of his or her home            After the death threats on his life, he took his family
exile            n
                         country                                            and went into exile in France.

                                                                            The repercussions of getting bad grades was that he
repercussions    n       a reaction to something esp. bad events
                                                                            was grounded from his computer for a month.
                                                                            The reception of the soldier back in his hometown
overwhelmingly   adv     very great or very large                                                                                     flood
                                                                            was overwhelmingly positive.
                                                                            He was an acclaimed athlete that had completed in
acclaimed        adj     public congratulations                                                                                       praise
                                                                            two summer Olympics.
                         the part of society, universities, that is
academia         n                                                          He spent more than 40 years in academia.
                         connected with studying and thinking
                         when people are peaceful and agree with each
                                                                            There was great harmony between the siblings in the
harmony          n       other, or when things seem right or suitable                                                                 accord
                                                                            Park family.
                                                                            Loss of a father is a recurring theme in Spielberg's
recurring        adj     to happen many times or to happen again                                                                      constant
                         the first public performance of a play or any      The two sisters went to the premiere of Will Smith's
premiere         adj                                                                                                                  debut
                         other type of entertainment                        movie.
                                                                            He holds the distinction of being the only person
distinction      n       excellence                                         from the university to win the prestigious
outspoken        adj     saying clearly what one thinks                     She is very outspoken about civil rights.                 frank
                         a person who reviews and gives opinions
critic           n                                                          My aunt is the food critic for our local newspaper.
                         about art, music, film, etc
tyrannical       adj     unjustly cruel, harsh, or severe                   She left her home to escape her tyrannical father.

                                                                            The new political party replaced the regime of kings
regimes          n       government, system of ruling
                                                                            and queens.
                                                                            Christians are still persecuted in many countries
persecuted       v       to treat people unjustly or cruelly                                                                          abuse
                                                                            The employees negotiated a new contract with their
negotiate        v       to reach an agreement through discussion                                                                     to work out
                                                                            One faction of the political party was very
factions         n       a group of people within a larger group                                                                      bloc
                         physical abuse that causes great pain and          The prisoners were not tortured during their
tortured         v
                         mental anguish                                     captivity.
                                                                            She had an uneasy feeling about her husband's trip
uneasy           adj     nervous                                                                                                      worried
                                                                            to the jungle.
Unit 9         Parts   Definition                                       Sentence                                                 Synm

explosion      n       a blowing apart with force                       The gas leak in the building caused a big explosion.     a blast

                                                                        Many young people are not interested in reading
literary       adj     related to literature and writing
                                                                        literary magazines.
                       a difficult time or task using much effort and
struggle       n                                                        The struggle for power led the country to its demise.    conflict
                       the ideas or meanings expressed in a speech      The content of the movie was inappropriate for
content        n                                                                                                                 subject matter
                       or piece of writing                              children.
                       prejudice or unfairness against people of one    Despite its effort for multiculturalism, racism still
racism         n
                       race by those of another                         exists in America.
                                                                        The immigrant family had a difficult time finding
subsequently   adv     occurring or coming later or after               work in America; subsequently they returned to
                                                                        their own country.
                       written language in its ordinary form rather     Many people find it easier to read prose than
prose          n
                       than poetry                                      poetry.
                       accepting things as they are in fact and not
                                                                        Although the book was fiction, the book's portrayal
realistic      adj     basing decisions on unlikely hopes for the                                                                practical
                                                                        of historic events was very realistic.
                                                                        The compensated her hard work by giving her a
compensated    v       to pay something
                                                                        brand new car.
                                                                        Her paintings portrayed several objects that were
futuristic     adj     very modern                                                                                               advanced
                                                                        very futuristic.
                                                                        Her mother is an avid tennis player; she plays three
avid           adj     keenly dedicated                                                                                          enthusiastic
                                                                        hours every day.

prolific       adj     creating a lot of work                           He is a prolific writer; he writes two books a year.     productive
                       the land outside a city or town with trees,      She prefers living in the countryside, where she can
countryside    n
                       farms, and few houses                            breathe fresh air.
                                                                        since no one can determine the stock market,
speculative    adj     based on a guess and not on information                                                                   risky
                                                                        therefore, all money invested in it is speculative.
                       person who believes that women should have       My sister is a feminist and refuses to get married
feminist       n       the same rights, opportunities, and treatment    because she believes marriages diminishes a
                       as men                                           women's worth.
excel          v       to do very well                                  She excels in every subject in school.
                                                                        Driving through the thick fog was a surreal
surreal        n       strange, dreamlike                                                                                        unreal
                       to accept the fact that a person has a           Her aunt is recognized as a leader in the civil rights
recognized     adj
                       particular position or quality                   movement.
                       a person who acts as a diplomatic                The conference was attended by diplomats from 50
diplomats      n                                                                                                                 envoy
                       representative of a nation                       different countries.
                                                                        The president received harsh criticism for not
harsh          adj     causing pain or irritation
                                                                        responding to the hostage situation quickly.
Unit 10             Parts   Definition                                       Sentence                                                Synm

vast                adj     wide in area                                     My father owns a vast piece of land in Alaska.          immense
                                                                             His interest in music tended towards classical and
tended              v       to lean, incline toward in attitude
                                                                             The school preserved the founder's memory by
preserved           v       to guard, protect from harm or change                                                                    safeguard
                                                                             erecting a statue of him in front of the school.
                                                                             The demise of the Roman Empire was largely due to
largely             adv     mostly, to a great degree                                                                                mainly
                                                                             the fact that it got too big for itself.

                                                                             The students had taken their teacher for granted
taken for granted           to accept without question or objection          and did not realize everything she did until they had   assume
                                                                             a substitute teacher fill in for her.
gain                v       to obtain, acquire                               Students gain a lot of knowledge from school.           to get
                                                                             Most divorces are usually preceded by several years
preceded            v       to come before                                                                                           appear earlier
                                                                             of marital conflict.

                            to think of something as better than it really   The students idealize their teacher, even though he
idealize            v
                            is                                               is not often thought of very highly by his peers.

rejected            v       to refuse, not accept                            The committee rejected most of the proposals.           to decline
                                                                             There is a movement in the state to improve the
movement            n       a political or social cause
                                                                             academic standards of the schools.
                                                                             Before founding his own company, Bill was
                            to have someone work or do a job for you
employed            v                                                        employed as a manager for a very large construction
                            and pay them for it
verisimilitude      n       likelihood; probability                          The booked verisimilitude.
                                                                             In the aftermath of the fire, the community came
aftermath           n       the bad result                                                                                           consequence
                                                                             together to support the victims.
                                                                             Her awareness of the political system gave her an       consciousnes
awareness           n       having knowledge
                                                                             advantage in her government class.                      s
massive             adj     huge                                             The massive earthquake destroyed 3,000 homes.           great
                            organization from higher to lower by rank,       He rose very quickly through the company's
hierarchy           n
                            social status, or function                       hierarchy to become its president.
                                                                             When she recounted her tragic childhood, the
tragic              adj     very sad, often involving death and suffering
                                                                             entire audience started to cry.
                                                                             The corruption in the country discouraged many
corruption          n       illegal, immoral or dishonest behavior           foreigners from doing business with the domestic
                                                                             Due to her sickness, she found it difficult to focus
focus               v       to center one's attention on                                                                             concentrate
                                                                             on her work.
                                                                             The protagonists is a wealthy woman who is
protagonists        n       the leading character in a play or novel
                                                                             banished from her town.
Unit 11          Parts   Definition                                     Sentence                                                  Synm

                                                                        The pottery they discovered was preserved for over
millennia        n       a period of 1000's years
                                                                        two millennia.
                                                                        The speaker's speech was very concise, but it was
concise          adj     said in few words with much meaning                                                                      succinct
                                                                        very challenging.
                         a person of great learning, usually in a       The gathering was for international scholars who are
scholars         n
                         particular subject                             experts in the field of biochemistry.
                         a large, flat block of stone with writing,
tablet           n                                                      The Egyptians wrote on clay tablets.
                         decoration, images
                         a type of paper invented in ancient Egypt,
papyrus          n                                                      The Egyptians also wrote on papyrus.
                         made from a tall water plant

delineated       v       to describe in specific detail                 It is important to delineate every point in a contract.
                         a specific type of literature, art, or music   In order to study for the college entrance exam, you
genres           n
                         grouped according to a style or subject        need to read from different genres.
                         a type of literature based upon the author's
fiction          n                                                      Fiction is her favorite genre.                            not true
                         imagination as opposed to true stories

                                                                        The wardrobe and music was wonderful, but the
plot             n       the main story in a novel or play                                                                        story line
                                                                        plot in the movie was difficult to understand.
sublime          adj     the very best                                  We spent a sublime vacation in Thailand.                  wonderful
                                                                        There is a linear relationship between the man's
linear           adj     direct                                                                                                   connected
                                                                        character and his upbringing.
rhythm           n       a regular beat                                 The conductor keeps the rhythm for the orchestra.
                         the repetition of the same sound usually at    The sentence "Happy Henry hurries to his hut" uses
alliteration     n
                         the beginning of words                         alliteration.
                                                                        He was determined to get straight A's and studied
determined       adj     of strong will                                                                                           resolute
                                                                        six hours a day.
                         to give emphasis or special importance to      The teacher stressed the importance of practicing
stressed         v
                         something                                      every day.
evolved          v       to develop                                     Education has evolved in the past 50 years.               to change
                         a part of a word as determined by vowel
syllable         n                                                      The word "brother" has two syllables.
                         sounds and rhythm
                                                                        She is primarily concerned with the welfare of her
primarily        adv     mainly, first of all                                                                                     mostly
                                                                        family and not her work.
varied           adj     different kinds                                The store offers varied kind of candles.
                         a machine that prints books, newspapers or     The invention of the printing press allowed for
printing press   n
                         magazines                                      many books to be published.
Unit 12      Parts   Definition                                   Sentence                                                Synm

unique       adj     one of a kind                                His idea was very unique; no one else thought of it.    singular
                                                                  We can only speculate what he did over the
speculate    v       to guess about
                     to describe someone or something in a        The president's wife was portrayed in a negative
portrayed    v                                                                                                            to characterize
                     certain way                                  light in the media.
                                                                  The exhibit at the museum will last for three more
exhibit      n       a display                                                                                            a show
                                                                  The noble class is usually made up of kings, queens
noble        n       a member of the nobility
                                                                  and their families.
                     a person who reviews and gives opinions      The critics gave a very positive review of the movie
critics      n                                                                                                            reviewer
                     about art, music, film, etc                  Charlotte's Web.
deemed       v       to consider                                  The mayor is deemed to be a very honest man.            to believe
                                                                  We have to find purpose and joy even in mundane
mundane      adj     referring to the events of everyday living                                                           commonplace
                                                                  It is important to meditate on noteworthy ideas and
noteworthy   adj     important                                                                                            significant
                                                                  positive thoughts.
                                                                  The firefighter ran valiantly into the raging fire to
valiantly    adv     bravely                                                                                              boldly
                                                                  save the little girl.
                                                                  Her children are very important to her; her life
revolves     v       to have as a focus
                                                                  revolves around them.
marlin       n       a large fish                                 After six days at sea, the old man caught a marlin.
                                                                  Initially, she was very fond of the gentleman; then
initially    adv     at the beginning
                                                                  she found out his true character.
                                                                  After she was sentenced to life in prison, she walked
dignified    adj     with a formal, serious, and calm manner
                                                                  in a dignified manner to her cell.
enormous     adj     very huge                                    An enormous fish swallowed Jonah.
                     any of various types of boats small enough
skiff        n                                                    A skiff can be powered by ores or sails.
                     for sailing or rowing by one person

adversary    n       an opponent                                  The two teams in the competition are adversaries.       a foe

utterly      adv     completely                                   She was utterly exhausted after an eight hour walk.     totally

futile       adj     useless                                      Hard work without a vision or purpose is futile.        unsuccessful
carcass      n       the body of a dead animal                    Vultures like to feed on the carcass of deer.
Unit 13         Parts   Definition                                      Sentence                                                Synm

                                                                        Her husband travels extensively because he is a
regional        adj     related to a region or geographical area                                                                district
                                                                        regional director for a major computer company.

                        believing that people are only interested in    She is so cynical that she only thinks people
cynical         a                                                                                                               mocking
                        themselves and are not sincere                  volunteer because it makes them look good.
                        to refuse because of the feeling that someone
                                                                        He wanted to quit his job because he disdained
disdained       v       or something deserves no attention or                                                                   contempt
                                                                        working with his boss.
                                                                        The core of the couple's problem is that they do not
core            n       the center of anything
                                                                        communicate effectively.
evoke           v       elicit                                          The movie evoked a feeling of sadness in me.
                        to lead something such as an attack or a        She spearheaded a campaign to stop the alcohol
spearheaded     v                                                                                                               lead
                        course of action                                company from coming into town.
                                                                        Before she become famous, she had written
numerous        adj     Many
                                                                        numerous books that never got published.
                        of the order of events as they happen over      The book gave a chronicle description of the events
chronological   adj                                                                                                             sequential
                        time                                            that led to war.
                        the ability of a person to pronounce words      It is important for politicians to have clear diction
diction         n                                                                                                               eloquence
                        clearly                                         so that they can articulate their message.

arduously       adv     difficult                                       She had arduously climbed over the mountain.            tiring
                                                                        As a child, her mother immersed her in classical
immersed        v       to become absorbed in                                                                                   to delve into
                                                                        The company made several wrong assumptions
assumptions     n       a belief that something will happen,                                                                    supposition
                                                                        about the market and lost a lot of money.
                                                                        The aristocratic family held parties that were
aristocratic    adj     a class of people who hold high social rank
                                                                        attended by many dignitaries.
                                                                        When faced with conflicts, most people do not look
inward          adj     toward the inside
                                                                        inward but point their fingers at others.

                                                                        After hearing about the accident, she was
devastated      v       to destroy completely
                                                                        devastated to learn that her father was injured.
                                                                        Many people risked their lives to fight for abolition
abolition       n       the stopping of something by law                                                                        prohibition
                                                                        of slavery.
                                                                        We like to eat at that restaurant because of its
ambiance        n       southern culture and ambiance
                        to think about continually and be bothered      The memory of the kidnapping haunted the girl for
haunted         v
                        by continually                                  years.
elaborated      v       give more detail                                The president elaborated on his religious beliefs.      explain
                        to succeed in understanding something often     The chemistry concepts were very difficult for the      to
grasp           v
                        complex                                         student to grasp.                                       comprehend
Unit 14          Parts   Definition                                       Sentence                                                Synm

                                                                          The recipient of the noble peace prize was a
recipient        n       a person who receives something                                                                          beneficiary
                         a yearly award in the USA for the best writing   She won the Pulitzer Prize for her best selling novel
Pulitzer Prize   n
                         in newspapers, novels, poetry                    based on her childhood.
                                                                          Migrant workers pick strawberries in California each
migrant          n       workers who harvest seasonal crops                                                                       moving
possessions      n       control over something                           She lost all her possessions during the fire.           ownership
                         to injure so that one cannot walk or use one's
crippled         v                                                        The accident crippled her brother.                      disabled
                         limbs normally
miserably        adv     sad, heartbroken                                 After her dog died, she felt miserably.                 unhappily
                                                                          Cleaning up after the hurricane is going to be a
mammoth          adj     huge in size
                                                                          mammoth task.
                                                                          He lost all his money, and he is in dire financial
dire             v       very serious                                                                                             very serious
                                                                          We could not have a campfire because of the
drought          n       a time of little or no rainfall
                         a long-term loan from a bank for buying
mortgage         n                                                        Most American families have a mortgage payment.
desperately      adv     in immediate, very strong need                   I desperately need a vacation.
                                                                          The mother was arrested after she abandoned her
abandon          v       to leave someone or something                                                                            to desert
                                                                          baby daughter in the grocery store.

derogatorily     adv     showing lack of respect                          Many Asians were derogatorily labeled as "chinks."      disparagingly

                                                                          It is surprising to find that people still die of
starvation       n       the state of having no food
                                                                          starvation today.
                         a search for something especially over a long    His quest to find the perfect wife lasted 20 years,
quest            n                                                                                                                crusade
                         time period                                      without much success.
                                                                          There are many merits to learning to speak several
merits           n       high quality                                                                                             excellence
                         the ability to share or understand another       She had empathy for the mother; she had also lost a
empathy          n
                         person's feelings                                child.
                                                                          The prisoner's plight was broadcasted all over the
plight           n       a difficult situation                                                                                    predicament
marred           v       to damage                                        Her reputation was marred by her divorce.               to deface
                                                                          We had three more hours to travel before we
destination      n       the place where someone is going
                                                                          reached our destination.
Unit 15      Parts   Definition                                     Sentence                                               Synm

                                                                    The tragedy of losing a child affected the couple's
tragedy      n       a sad event                                                                                           disaster
playwright   n       person who writes plays                        Shakespeare was a playwright.

survivor     n       person who survives a life-threatening event   She was the sole survivor of the plane accident.

figure       n       an important person                            John F. Kennedy is an important political figure.
                     an object regarded as an example of the best
classic      n                                                      Miracle on 34th Street is a classic Christmas movie.
                     of something
                                                                    Out of anger, the husband made scathing remarks
scathing     v       harsh                                                                                                 severe
                                                                    about his wife.
fierce       adj     cruelly violent                                Her opponent was a fierce tennis player.               ferocious

immense      adj     huge                                           There is an immense statue in front of the library.    very big

strived      v       to work hard for something                     She strived for perfection in everything she did.
                                                                    She worked with children all day, and needed a
sanity       n       mental health
                                                                    break in order to keep her sanity.
                                                                    Her perfect plan started to unravel when her
unravel      v       to become undone                                                                                      to loosen
                                                                    husband found out the secret.
                                                                    Her lack of education compounded to her difficulty
compounded   v       to make something more difficult                                                                      to complicate
                                                                    in finding a job.
                                                                    My mother instilled good moral values in me when I
instilled    v       to give by example or teaching
                                                                    was a child.
overriding   adj     to set aside, ignore                                                                                  overrule
                                                                    Most people that fantasize about winning the
inevitably   adv     unable to avoid
                                                                    lottery will inevitably come to their sense.
                                                                    Starvation was rampant in the city after the
rampant      v       uncontrollable and widespread
                                                                    My mother was called to testify about the accident
testify      v       to tell what one knows
                                                                    she witnessed.
                                                                    Resumption in the growth of the economy resulted       beginning
resumption   n       a restart
                                                                    in more jobs.                                          again
                                                                    She received an award for her notable work in
notable      adj     important, impressive                                                                                 outstanding
                                                                    solving world poverty.
                                                                    The voice of the children's choir resonated through
resonates    v       to sound clearly for a long time
                                                                    out the church.
Unit 16         Parts   Definition                                       Sentence                                                   Synm

admirers        n       a person who thinks highly of another            Bill Clinton has many admirers.
                                                                         Martin Luther King Jr. is remembered for his
heroism         n       an act of courage or great skill
spotlight       v       to focus attention on                            The media spotlighted the candidates achievements.

                                                                         The neighbors really didn't know the man because
reclusiveness   n       a disposition to prefer seclusion or isolation
                                                                         of his reclusiveness.
                                                                         After having spent most of his childhood alone, he
withdrawn       adj     not communicative                                                                                           shy
                                                                         became very withdrawn as an adult.
clamor          n       a loud protest                                   The students created quite a clamor.
                                                                         The little girl's heroic act had a lasting impression on
lasting         v       continuing for a long time                                                                                  enduring
                                                                         the community.
                                                                         Lack of exercise has a negative impact on people's
impact          n       effect                                                                                                      impression
                        public disagreement, usually involving strong
controversy     n                                                        There is much controversy over stem cell research.
                        opinions and an important subject
                                                                         Her mother was very rigid and expected her children
rigid           adj     strict                                                                                                      unbending
                                                                         to follow a strict schedule.
                                                                         The women in the office were very disturbed by the
disturbed       adj     worried                                                                                                     upset
                                                                         vulgar language of the man.
                                                                         The new law enabled women to have equal rights in
enable          v       to make possible for                                                                                        empower
                                                                         the work place.
                                                                         Her teaching methods were very unorthodox and
unorthodox      adj     unusual
                                                                         caused much controversy in the school.
                                                                         Although many praised his artwork, some found it
offensive       adj     suffering of the body or the mind                                                                           disgusting
                                                                         to be very offensive.
                                                                         That little boy's tennis ability is very impressive; he
impressive      adj     causing admiration
                                                                         will be a pro one day.
                        a magazine or other publication that comes
periodicals     n                                                        I subscribe to several periodicals.
                        out at regular intervals
                                                                         We went to China Town to have authentic Chinese
authentic       adj     genuine                                                                                                     real
sensitive       adj     easily hurt or affected emotionally              He is a very sensitive man; he cries very often.

ultimately      adv     in the end                                       The children ultimately had to obey their parents.
                                                                         The owner of the company gave a definitive answer
definitive      adj     clear and leaving no further question
                                                                         to the employee's question.
Unit 17        Parts   Definition                                    Sentence                                                  Synm

                       holding the most important position or
dominant       n                                                     Football is a dominant sport in the state of Texas.
                       greatest influence
                                                                                                                               to come into
appeared       v       to become visible                             He appeared in several movies.
                                                                     After the civil war, there was an influx of refugees
influx         n       the sudden arrival of many people or things
                                                                     fleeing to the neighboring country.
                                                                     The dog adjusted to his new home because of the
gradual                happening slowly or by small steps                                                                      incremental
                                                                     gradual process.
                       an important part or characteristic of a      The salesperson explained the different features of
features       n
                       product or service                            the computer.
                                                                     The firefighters extinguished the fire that had
extinguished   v       to stop                                                                                                 put out
                                                                     started in the garage.
                                                                     The company diversified its products by selling
diversify      v       to make or become varied
                                                                     clothes too.
                                                                     The extinction of the dinosaur happened million of
extinction     n       destroyed so that they no longer exist
                                                                     years ago.
huge           adj     big                                           There was huge trashcan next to the movie theater.

primitive      adj     belonging to an early stage of development:   The villagers still used primitive methods for fishing.   simple
                                                                     The existence of poverty in America surprises many
existence      n       the presence of something in the real world

                       having many parts or details that make        The map was very complex and difficult to
complex        n                                                                                                               involved
                       something hard to understand or deal with     understand.

triggered      v       to start a reaction                           Watching the film triggered a childhood memory.

proliferate    v       increase in number rapidly                    After the bombing, fear proliferated the country.         multiply
prey           n       animals killed for food by other animals      Small fish are prey to bigger fish in the ocean.
carnivorous    adj     an animal that eats meat                      Lions are carnivorous animals.
herbivores     n       an animal that eats only plants               Cows are herbivores animals.
adapted        v       adjust                                        She adapted to her new surrounding very quickly.
nominally      adv     in name or thought but not reality            The country is nominally independent.
                                                                     Much progress was made in building the new
progress       n       movement toward a goal                                                                                  advancement
Unit 18       Parts   Definition                                      Sentence                                                Synm

decompose     v       to rot                                          Over time, dead plants decompose into the ground.       to decay
                      the remains of ancient animal or plant life     Fossils tell us a great deal about the dinosaurs that
fossil        n
                      preserved in rock                               lived long ago.
elusive       v       difficult to describe                           The answer to the murder mystery is elusive.
                      a type of rock composed of calcium
limestone     n                                                       Many homes in Texas are built from lime stones.
                                                                      Her many positive traits make her a very popular
traits        n       a characteristic                                                                                        an attribute
                      he area of the body between the backbone
pelvis        n                                                       A women's pelvis is wider than a mans.
                      and the legs, framed by the hip bones
                                                                      The parent's rules are unambiguous: if you come
unambiguous   adj     without doubt                                                                                           clear
                                                                      home late, you are grounded for a week.
                                                                      The little boy unearthed a wooden box full of
unearthed     v       to dig up                                                                                               to discover
                                                                      money in his backyard.
                                                                      The committee became suspicious when many of
unanswered    adj     not answered or explained
                                                                      their questions were unanswered.

glided        v       to fly through the air without power            Birds are able to glide through the air effortlessly.   to soar
                      a governmental area into which many             She and her husband are from the same province in
province      n
                      countries are divided                           China.
agile         adj     quick and skillful in moving                    The ballerina was very agile in her performance.        nimble

                      an animal that lives by killing and eating
predators     n                                                       Lions are predators; they eat other animals.
                      something that gets in the way and stops        The new president faced many obstacles in
obstacles     n                                                                                                               hurdle
                      action or progress                              implementing his new plan.
                                                                      The CEO expanded his company buy starting a new
expanded      v       to grow larger                                                                                          to enlarge
                                                                      branch in Canada.
hollow        adj     empty, with no center                           The tree was not very healthy; the trunk was hollow.
                                                                      The money raised from the fund raiser exceeded our
exceeds       v       to be more than what is expected
                      the development of living things, cultures or
evolution     n                                                       Darwin is credited with the theory of evolution.
                                                                      The contrasting views of the different age groups
contrasting   n       very different
                                                                      was not surprising to the teacher.
                                                                      The deer emerged from the woods and into the            come into
emerged       v       to appear
                                                                      clearing.                                               view
Unit 19         Parts   Definition                                      Sentence                                                Synm

                        close to a particular number or time although   It will take approximately three weeks to frame the
approximately   adv                                                                                                             nearly
                        not exactly that number or time                 picture.
                        to discover something secret or hidden or       When they moved the stone, they uncovered a giant
uncovered       v                                                                                                               reveal
                        remove something covering something else        fossil.

mammals         n       a warm-blooded animal                           Female mammals feed their milk to the young.            animal
                                                                        The boy resembled his father; they both had curly
resembled       v       to look like someone or something else                                                                  be alike
                                                                        black hair.
                                                                        The baby indicated what toy she wanted by pointing
indicate        v       show where or what something is                                                                         point out
                                                                        to it.
genus           n       a type of classification                        Humans belong to the genus Homo.
                                                                        Weasels cause problems for farmers because they
weasel          n       a small, brown and white meat-eating animal
                                                                        like to eat chickens on the farm.
support         v       to hold up or bear the weight of                Three beams supported the stage.                        encourage
                                                                        Owls are nocturnal and sleep during most of the
nocturnal       n       during or relating to the night                                                                         night
                                                                        The book bag bulged because there were too many
bulged          v       swell or stick out                                                                                      protrude
                                                                        books in it.
upright         adj     standing up                                     My father bought an upright piano.
                        to have the most important place or greatest    Her father was a great soccer player; he dominated
dominated       v                                                                                                               command
                        influence in                                    the field.
inhabit         v       to live in an area                              This island is only inhabited by birds and flowers.     dwell
                                                                        You are an expert in this field, so I submit to your
submit          v       to agree
pouches         n       a bag-like pocket of skin                       Baby kangaroos live in the mother's pouch.              pocket
                        an animal, such as a kangaroo or an
marsupials      n       opossum, whose female members have a            Marsupials are found in Australia.
                        pouch to carry their young in
                                                                        The disappearance of the magician is still a great
disappearance   n       an act of disappearing
                                                                        All latecomers are required to sit at the back of the
latecomers      n       a person who arrives late
                                                                        She had the black and white prints reproduced in
reproduced      v       to make copies of something                                                                             copy
                        with constant high body heat in any
warm-blooded    adj                                                     Humans are warm-blooded.
Unit 20          Parts   Definition                                     Sentence                                               Synm

                                                                        The pregnant woman listened to classical music
                         the developed embryo in humans and other
fetus            n                                                      everyday because she believed her fetus would
                                                                        enjoy it.
                                                                        The accident was partially caused by the broken
partially        adv     in part                                                                                               not fully
                                                                        traffic light.
embryo           n       the early stage of growth before birth         Chicken embryos grow inside the eggshell.
teat             n       a nipple of an animal                          Milk of a cow is squeezed through its teats.
native           adj     a person who is born in a certain place        She is a native of Indonesia.                          endemic
                         words or objects that support the truth of     The judge released the man because there was no
evidence         n                                                                                                             proof
                         something                                      evidence that he had committed the crime.
hind             adj     related to the rear or posterior part          The dog injured his hind leg.                          back
graze            v       to feed on grass                               The cows graze in the field.                           feed
digest           v       to process in the stomach                      Vegetables digest faster than meat.
                         one of the sharp nails on an animal's paw or
claws            n                                                      Bears have sharp claws.
designed         v       to form mental plans for                       The company designed a better advertising plan.        create
                                                                        The family subsists on the money from the life
subsist          v       to live at basic or minimal level                                                                     to exist
debate           v       present differing views on a question          The two candidates debate over national security.      to argue
                                                                        The student was simultaneously working on two
simultaneously   adv     done at exactly the same time
                                                                        The walked together until they reached the bridged,
diverged         v       to separate and go in different directions
                                                                        then their paths diverged.
                         to continue steadily in the same manner in     The little boy persisted in asking his mother for
persisted        v
                         spite of obstacles or opposition               candy, until she agreed.
                                                                        The discovery of the artifacts helped the scientists
discovery        n       the finding of something new
                                                                        understand the ancient culture.
distinctive      adj     different from others                          The dish had a distinctive flavor.                     special
striking         adj     immediately noticeable                         He is a striking man; he is very handsome.
                                                                        The similarities between the man and woman was
similarities     n       the state of being almost alike                                                                       a resemblance
                                                                        very surprising.
                Part of
Unit 21                   Definition                                      Sentence                                                Synm
                          of being based in nature, not in the            He is a naturalist because he believes in what he can
naturalist      n
                          supernatural                                    see.
                                                                          The judge made her ruling based on the precedent
precedent       n         a case which has basis in an earlier case
                                                                          established last year.
                                                                          The scientist drew information from a library of
drew            v         to take or use something                                                                                to portray
                                                                          Darwin has been widely cited for popularizing the
widely          adj       broadly, commonly
                                                                          theory of evolution.
                                                                          Abortion continues to be one of the most
controversial   adj       something that is not accepted by everyone
                                                                          controversial topics in American politics.
                                                                          The jury found the woman's testimonial to be
convincing      adj       satisfying                                                                                              assuring
                                                                          The writer worked hard in refining his composition
refining        v         to make more exact or clear
                          extending in the same direction as something
parallel        adj                                                       The two roads run parallel to each other.
effort          n         an attempt to do something                      We made an effort to be friends after the argument.

slight          adj       being delicate or lacking strength              The young man looked very slight to be a boxer.
                                                                          Many people were speculating about the outcome
speculating     v         to expect                                                                                               to assume
                                                                          of the game.
                                                                          Accepting the validity of the theory was central to
central         n         at the core or foundation of something
                                                                          his argument.
notion          n         a belief or idea                                I had a notion that you would come tonight.
                          a privileged status, typically due to being     Her seniority in the company allowed her to make
seniority       n
                          older or from having a strong record            many big decisions.
                                                                          The theory was revolutionary because no one had
revolutionary   adj       pertaining to great change
                                                                          ever seen anything like it.
                                                                          It is certainly remarkable that you got straight A's
remarkable      adj       incredible                                                                                              wonderful
                                                                          last semester.
                                                                          It is important to talk in terms that laypersons can
laypersons      n         common people or citizens
                                                                          The woman's condition did not allow her to have
offspring       n         children or babies born to a mother or father

lacking         adj       to be without                                   His argument was lacking any convincing details.
perish          v         to die or become destroyed                      If the plane runs out of fuel we all will perish.
Unit 22

                                                                      The mere idea of teaching the class made me
mere          adj   to be nothing more than something else
                    an idea or prediction that something will         Scientists first make a hypothesis and then test it
hypothesis    n
                    occur                                             with an experiment.
                                                                      The worker split the piece of wood into two pieces
split         v     to divide into two pieces
                                                                      with his ax.
previously    adj   having occurred beforehand                        We previously thought that it was not a good idea.

                                                                      The evidence presented to the court was not
compelling    v     convincing
                                                                      compelling, so the case was dismissed.
                                                                      When was the last time that a software update
update        v     to make a new version
                                                                      became available for this program?
                                                                      The student was asked to revise his paper as it had
revise        v     to review and correct
                                                                      many errors.
                                                                      The answers provided by the teacher were
contested     v     to question                                                                                                a dispute
                                                                      contested by the honor student.
                                                                      My friend is a geologist. He takes soil samples to his
geologist     n     a person who studies the earth and rocks
                                                                      lab to examine them for their elements.
                                                                      The tractor was used to plow the soil in order to
plow          v     to move or turn over
                                                                      plant corn.
                                                                      We dug a basin for each fruit tree so we could water     a hole in the
basins        n     a depression
                                                                      them more efficiently.                                   ground
                                                                      The boy did not speak, but his decision could be
implied       v     to be understood in an indirect manner
                                                                      implied by the look on his face.
                                                                      The alternative answer was not convincing to the
alternative   adj   a different choice
                                                                      professor, either.
                                                                      Darwin's theory of evolution is nearly universally
universally   adj   globally; all over the world
                                                                      accepted by scientists.
                                                                      The defendant's argument seemed implausible to
implausible   adj   not possible or warranting disbelief
                                                                      the jury.
dense         adj   very thick                                        The population in New York City is dense.                compact
                                                                      Many say that children's brains have a plastic
                    having a quality that is flexible or able to be
plastic       adj                                                     quality since they can be shaped to understand
                                                                      almost anything.
                    having the action of going in the opposite        A stay-at-home father may seem like a role reversal
reversals     n
                    direction                                         to some older couples.
                                                                      I climbed to the ridge of the mountain with my best
ridge         n     an elevated or higher portion of a structure
                                                                      The girl's cell phone bill seemed to correspond with
correspond    v     to conform to or to be in agreement with
                                                                      her actual airtime usage.
Unit 23

                                                                      We had sufficient money to buy two pairs of
sufficient        adj   enough to meet the needs of something
descended         v     to come down                                  The balloon descended from the sky in the evening.      to lower
                                                                      The basketball team survived a near loss and            to stay in
survived          v     to continue living
                                                                      continued to the semi-final game.                       existence
                        a person who studies the environment and      The city hired an ecologist to investigate the impact
ecologists        n
                        its organisms                                 of the new apartment buildings on the river.
                        invented by human, based on an actual         She bought artificially flavored vainilla because it
artificially      adj
                        model                                         was less expense than real vainilla.
                        to introduce or present something for a       The actress was reintroduced by the announcer
reintroduced      v
                        second time                                   after her name was mispronounced.
                        to establish the existence or reality of      He wants to prove that he understands the
prove             v
                        something                                     difference between the two models.
                                                                      The struggling couple wanted to involve the
involve           v     to take part in or engage in an activity
                                                                      psychologist in their situation.
                                                                      An ice age results when the earth's temperature
ice age           n     a time when many glaciers covered the earth
                                                                      drops dramatically for a long period of time.

                        to consider something as correct or           The governor did not condone the activity of the
condones          v
                        acceptable                                    governness.
                                                                      The Caribbean ocean has an amazing variety of
marine life       n     animals or organisms that live in the sea
                                                                      marine life.
                                                                      Terrestrial life forms have inhabited the planet for
terrestrial       adj   relating to the earth and its inhabitants
                                                                      Vertebrates are some of the strongest organisms to
vertebrates       n     animals or organisms with a backbone
                                                                      inhabit the earth.
habitat           n     a place where something lives                 The natural habitat of an alligator is a swamp.
sustained         v     to endure for a long period of time           He sustained his innocence during the trial.
                        preventing something from doing something
inhibiting        v                                                   His actions were inhibiting the success of others.

destruction       n     damage, or the state of being destroyed       The destruction of the old house was sad to see.
                                                                      There was mass hysteria when the fire alarm went
mass              adj   to a great degree
                                                                      We could not have predicted that the underdog
predicted         v     to think something will happen
                                                                      team would win.
over harvesting   v     to harvest something too much                 Forests have been destroyed due to over harvesting
Unit 24

                      the condition of something never happening       The rooky's win at the championship was
unprecedented   adj
                      before                                           unprecedented.
                                                                       A blue moon is a phenomenon that occurs every
phenomenon      n     a rare or significant event
                                                                       three years.
                                                                       The surface of the car was rusted from years of
surface         n     the exterior or upper part of something
                                                                       rainy weather.
                                                                       The boy was unafraid of the consequence of getting
consequence     n     the result of an action
                                                                       bad grades.
                                                                       It is evident that you have prepared well for the
evident         adj   apparent                                                                                                observable
                                                                       The process was accelerated by a knowledgeable
accelerated     v     to speed up or go faster
                      the product of something which has been
radiation       n                                                      The radiation of heat from the sun is very high.
                      emitted from something else
                                                                       There was a steady stream of messages coming to
steady          adj   constant or unchanging
                                                                       the inbox.
                                                                       The paper towl absorbed all of the water on the
absorbed        v     to take in                                                                                              to suck up
                      the air that surrounds the surface of the        A spaceship must fly through the atmosphere to get
atmosphere      n
                      earth                                            into outer space.
misnomer        n     an incorrect name for something                  Calling the activity legal was a misnomer.
project         v     to throw or cast something forward               The flashlight projects light onto the wall.
                      to do something with someone or something        I wanted to interact with the other customer in the
interact        v
                      else                                             store but I was shy.
emit            v     to send out                                      The radio emits sound through a pair of speakers.      to give off

                                                                       The end result of the experiment did not confirm
result          n     the effect or consequence of an action
                                                                       the hypothesis.
                      posing a problem; something that is              Running out of gas in the middle of the desert is
problematic     adj
                      questionable                                     problematic.
                      the quality or state of something that is        My uncertainty about the product made me decide
uncertainty     n
                      unsure                                           to not buy it.
                                                                       The construction of the housing district led to the
deforestation   n     the state of a forest which has been cleared
                                                                       deforestation of the forest.
                      an area that is covered, or mainly covered, by
wetland         n                                                      He grew up outside the city in a wetland.
                                                                       The roof was vented to allow air to circulate around
vented          v     to have access to air
                                                                       the house.
Unit 25

drained               v     to draw out                                    The sink had not drained because it was clogged.        to empty
                            to surround or form a circle around            The explanation encompasses the central part of
encompass             v
                            something                                      the problem.
vital                 adj   crucial, extremely important                   Water is vital to our existence.
                                                                           Speeding constitutes the basis to receifvfe a
constitutes           v     to set up                                                                                              to establish
                                                                           speeding ticket.
                                                                           A caterpillar undergores a transformation when it
undergoes             v     to experience                                                                                          to endure
                                                                           turns into a butterfly.
                                                                           One aspect of the problem we had not considered
aspect                n     a particular appearance or status
                                                                           came back to haunt us.
                                                                           The people of the town were united to fight for their
cause                 n     a reason for an action or condition
multitude             n     a great number of people or things             There was a multitude of cars at the car show.
                                                                           The United States imports many products from
import                v     to bring in from somewhere else
implications          n     something that is implied                      The ruling of the court case had many implications.
                                                                           The internet has allowed for ease of global
global                adj   relating to or involving the entire world
grazing               v     to feed on grass or other vegetation           Cattle graze around the area of the ranch.
                            a group of people that is preoccupied with     The conservation group did not want the scientists
conservation groups   n
                            the environment                                performing their experiment near the ocean.
                                                                           We could only speculate about the outcome of the
speculate             v     the think or be curious about a subject
irrevocable           adj   impossible to change or undo                   The decision of the manager was irrevocable.
reverse               v     to go in the opposite direction                The man would like to reverse his actions.
                                                                           There are many government subsidies available for
subsidies             n     a grant or donation of money
                                                                           college students.
                                                                           He police officer was responsible for enforcing the
enforce               v     to force something or to carry out an action
                                                                           The conservation group wants to preserve the
preserve              v     to keep safe from destruction or injury
richness              n     the satate of having high quality or value     There is a richness to be found in all places.
Unit 26

                                                                       The girl was absolutely the fastest runner on the
absolutely        adj   definitely, for certain
                                                                       A person can suffer of dehydration if he does not
dehydration       n     the state of being without water
                                                                       drink enough water.

victims           n     a person who has been harmed by something      There were many victims after the latest hurricane.

relentless        adj   to occur constantly, without stopping          A relentless wave of attacks destroyed the city.
                                                                       Many courses require a cumulative exam at the end
cumulative        adj   made up of a addition of individual parts
                                                                       of the semester.
entirely          adj   completely, totally                            The necklace is made entirely of diamonds.
                                                                       The car with the automatic transmission shifts gears
shift             v     to change or move
                                                                       very easily.
                        having the characteristic of drama;            The number of car accidents has dramatically
dramatically      adj
                        surprisingly                                   reduced over the past few years.
magna(molten                                                           The molten magna flowed out of the volcano at a
                  n     substance emitted by an erupting volcanoe
magma-스 펠 링 수 정                                                        rapid pace.
                                                                       The bathroom was full of vapor after the man took a
vapor             n     a gaseous substance emitted from hot liquid                                                            steam
unequally         adj   not of the same character or measurement       The piece of pie was cut unequally into two pieces.

compressed        v     to press together or reduce in size            The clothing was compressed into the suitcase.
                                                                       A seamstress can take a dress and alter its size or
altering          v     to change or modify the quality of something
                                                                       Every news station has a meteorologist who gives
meteorologists    n     a person who studies the weather or climate
                                                                       the weather report.
traverses         v     to cross                                       The river traverses much territory from east to west.   to cut across

                        a substance which has been converted into      Much of the water in the teapot was lost due to
evaporation       n
                        vapor                                          evaporation.
                        a substance that has been changed from         The vapor in the bathroom turned into
condensation      n
                        vapor into liquid                              condensation on the window.
                                                                       The meteorologist claims that there will be little
precipitation     n     a deposit of water or snow on the earth
                                                                       precipitation tomorrow.
                        to pass through something by filtering or
infiltrate        v                                                    The water infiltrated the soil after several minutes.
                                                                       The plumber noticed a droplet of water underneath
droplet           n     a very small drop of liquid
                                                                       the sink.
Unit 27

                      a type of fuel which has been formed by the     Fossil fuels such as natural gas are commonly
fossil fuel     n
                      remains of plants or animals                    burned to heat houses in the wintertime.
combustible     adj   able to combust                                 The airplane fuel is highly combustible.               burn
                                                                      The tickets to the basketball game were surprisingly
economical      adj   not costing much money                                                                                 inespensive
                      a situation or circumstance which makes         Not having studied for the exam was a disadvantage
disadvantages   n
                      something difficult to achieve                  for the student's success.
                                                                      Unforseen drawbacks created delays for the
drawbacks       n     an unfavorable situation or feature
                                                                      completion of the project.
                      an interruption in the normal course of an      The student's interruptions were a disruption for
disruption      n
                      activity                                        the class.
                      to change something, either a skillful or       The manipulation of the data gave the professor the
manipulation    n
                      deceptive manner                                result she wished for.
                      to involve as a consequence through             A man was implicated in the crime thanks to the
implicated      v
                      inference                                       neighbor's testimony.
ferns           n     a type of plant with long, thin leaves          Ferns are popular houseplants.
                      a substance which settles at the bottom of a    The coffee grounds settled as a sediment at the
sediment        n
                      liquid                                          bottom of the coffee cup.
                      people who occupied the region in southwest     The Mesopotamians created a powerful society
Mesopotamians   n
                      Asia between the Tigris and Euprhates rivers.   along the Tigris River.
                      oil which has not been processed for typical    Venezuela exports large quantities of crude oil to
crude oil       n
                      use                                             the United States.
                                                                      Many dinosaurs died when they became trapped in
tar             n     a thick, heavy brown or black liquid
                                                                      pits of tar.

drilled         v     to open a hole with a rotary motion             A hole was drilled in the wall to hang the picture.

                                                                      The idea was discarded as being impossible to
discarded       v     to throw away                                                                                          to cast off

synthetic       adj   a product which has been made artificially      Synthetic oil is often used in high mileage cars.
                                                                      Many countries are searching for forms of
renewable       adj   capable of being renewed
                                                                      renewable energy.
                      a substance used to reduce the temperature      Industrial refrigerators use large quantities of
refrigerants    n
                      of something                                    refrigerants to keep the food cool.
                      a substance which can explode or break apart    The terrorists used explosives to destroy the
explosives      n
                      violently                                       governmental building.
                                                                      The scarcity of food lead to starvation across the     having little of
scarcity        n     the state of being scarce
                                                                      country.                                               something
Unit 28

                                                                      The hominids became the dominate group
hominid          n     any family of two-legged primates
                       a very dense and hard material that produces
flint            n                                                    The campers used a piece of flint to start a fire.
                       sparks when struck hardly
ochre            n     a red or yellow iron used as a pigment         The natives used ochre to pain their faces.
                                                                      The mine shaft was closed because it was unsafe for
mine shaft       n     an opening used to enter a mine
                                                                      The fighting ceased when the two sides came to an     to bring to an
ceased           v     to stop
                                                                      agreement.                                            end
                                                                      Many commodities are bought and sold worldwide
commodities      n     a product which can be bought or traded
                                                                      every day.
strata           n     a sheet or layer of rock                       The earth is composed of many stratas.
                       the power to cause an effect over something    The judge's ruling had a great influence on the
influence        n
                       else                                           community.
                                                                      An excavation near the border revealed many
excavation       n     a hole or cavity formed by digging
                                                                      exciting findings.
                                                                      Climbing a mountain without a rope is inherently a
inherently       adj   of being essential
                                                                      bad idea.
                                                                      The woman's testimony posed a problem for the
pose             v     to set in place
susceptible      adj   open or unresistant to a stimulus              The little girl was susceptible to catching colds.
                                                                      One would intuitvely assume that studying is a
intuitively      adj   readily learned or understood
                                                                      good idea.

curse            n     a cause of harm or misfortune                  The witch put a curse on the town before leaving.

                                                                      The new graduate student showed great potential to
potential        n     possibility
                                                                      become famous.
                                                                      The smelting of the substances created the desired
smelting         n     the melting or fusing of a material
                                                                      Although it could not be seen, the man was
internally       adv   existing on the inside of something
                                                                      bleeding internally.
external         adj   existing on the outside of something           Skin is external to the body's organs.
                                                                      The company's infrastructure did not allow the
infrastructure   n     The central framework of a system
                                                                      workers to advance.
plume            n     a bird's feather                               We found a plume of a robin in the back yard.
Unit 29

                                                                         The contamination emitted by cars each year is very
contamination    n     state of being dirty or polluted
array            n     a range or distribution of values                 There is a large array of colors in the spectrum.
harmful          a     dangerous or of causing harm                      Smoking cigarrettes is harmful to one's health.

                                                                         The couple was eliminated from the competition
eliminated       v     to do away with, to put an end to
                                                                         when they made a mistake in the final round.
                                                                         The presence of danger elevates an animal's desire
elevates         v     to raise                                                                                                 to heighten
                                                                         to flee.
                                                                         The power company was disconnecting heat to
disconnecting    v     to end or terminate a connection
                                                                         family's homes that had not paid their heating bill.
                                                                         Bicycles do not release pollutants into the air as
pollutants       n     something which is unclean or impure
                                                                         cars do.
                                                                         Diesel fuel is typically less expensive than regular
diesel           n     a heavy mineral oil used for power engines
                       a place or plant that processes oil or other      The oil refinery worked around the clock to keep up
refineries       n
                       substances                                        with the demands of customers.
                                                                         The bird that flew over the refinery came away with
sooty plumes     n     a dirty or soiled feather
                                                                         sooty plumes
                                                                         The stock market is notoriously volatile during
volatile         adj   subject to rapid change
                                                                         Harold's new book focused on the role of women in
focused          v     to concentrate on something or to specify
                                                                         today's business culture.
                                                                         An urban home is desirable for those who wish to
urban            adj   pertaining to the city or city life
                                                                         be near to everyday conveniences.
                                                                         The warm weather diminished the necessity to heat
diminished       v     to lessen or decrease
                                                                         the house as much as usual.
                                                                         I would like to reduce the amount of coffee I
reduce           v     to lessen or decrease                                                                                    to diminish
                                                                         consume each day.
                       a type of pollution, especially carbon dioxide,   More and more greenhouse gas is emitted into the
greenhouse gas   n
                       emitted in global warming                         atmosphere each year around the world.
                       a chronic lung condition presenting difficulty    The boy had to use medicine to control his attacks
asthma           n
                       of breathing                                      of asthma.
                                                                         Acid rain can damage the environment in many
acid rain        n     precipitation of acid in the form of rain
                                                                         The president implemented new regulations              to put into
implemented      v     to put in place
                                                                         regarding the trade agreement.                         action
                                                                         The new company generated high revenues in their
generated        v     to create or make
                                                                         second quarter.
Unit 30

                                                                       The majority vote in the senate allowed the bill to
majority        adj   the greatest (largest) part of something
                                                                       pass into law.
                                                                       Tennis is a sport done as recreation by many
recreation      n     something done for fun or distraction
                                                                       Shirley's decision was objectionable for several
objectionable   adj   of causing objection or a negative reaction
                                                                       Steven improperly answer the majority of the
improperly      adj   incorrectly, not properly
                                                                       questions on the exam.
                      to pass through an opening, typically by
leaked          v                                                      The roof leaked every time it rained outside.
                      refuse or garbage carried out of buildings by    Cities are responsible for controlling the sewage
sewage          n
                      the sewer                                        created by its residents.
                                                                       There was a layer of silt that remained after the dust
silt            n     a very fine grained material made of rock
                                                                       The depletion of the ozone layer leads to faster
depletion       n     the state of being emptied or reduced
                                                                       global warming.
                                                                       The entire stadium went crazy when the home team         having no part
entire          adj   complete
                                                                       won the game.                                            omitted
                      a community of organisms pertaining to a         Ecosystems come into danger when new housing
ecosystem       n
                      particular environment                           developments are created.
                                                                       Snow accumulated on the road quickly during the
accumulated     v     to amass                                                                                                  to gather
                                                                       last snow storm.
                                                                       Businesses typically must be built outside of
residential     adj   pertaining to an area where people live
                                                                       residential areas.
                                                                       Common citizens buy the majority of their goods
retail          adj   of being sold to customers in small quantities
                                                                       from retail stores.
                      liquid which comes away from a particular        There was a great amount of runoff into the streets
runoff          n
                      source                                           after the rainstorm.
                                                                       I bought some fertilizer for the grass in my lawn as
fertilizer      n     a substance used to help plants grow
                                                                       well as for the houseplants.
fouled          v     to disturb or prevent                            The police fouled the attempted burglary.
                                                                       Some candidates abruptly change their mind when
abruptly        adj   quickly                                                                                                   rapidly
                                                                       questioned agressively.
                                                                       All activity on the college campus halted with the
halted          v     to stop or bring to an end
                                                                       sounding of the fire alarm.

visible         adj   able to be seen                                  The mountains were visible from across the city.
                                                                       Henry bought some manure to use when planting
manure          n     a type of fertilizer used to help plants grow
                                                                       his lawn.
Unit 31              Parts   Definition                                   Sentence                                                 Synm

                             an organic compound consisting of hydrogen
hydrocarbon          n                                                    Hydrocarbons are a common element in our world.
                             and carbon
liquefied            v       to turn into liquid                          The snow liquified when it melted in the sun.
                                                                          She was extremely upset when she did not receive
extremely            adj     to a great degree, highly                                                                             greatly
                                                                          the job offer.
                                                                          Getting bad grades is detrimental for getting into a
detrimental          adj     bad for something, harmful
                                                                          good university.
                                                                          The severity of the punishment was regarded by
severity             n       the quality of strength or strictness
                                                                          many as too low.
                                                                          His pain persisted even after the doctor gave him
persist              v       to endure                                                                                             to continue
                                                                          some medication.
                                                                          The shipping company was proud of its reputation
timeliness           n       of being on time or being punctual
                                                                          of timeliness.
                                                                          Many travelers use a device for the detection of
detection            n       the state of being noticed or detected
                                                                          police radar.
                                                                          Some fishery operations are aimed at tourists who
fishery operations   n       the work of people in the fishing industry
                                                                          would like to try fishing for the first time.
                             opposition to something or the ability to    The group's resistance to change might have caused
resistance           n
                             resist change                                their downfall.
                                                                          The severe snowstorm caused the entire city to shut
severe               adj     a strict or strong quality
waterlogged          adj     to be full of water                          My boots were waterlogged after I fell into the river.
                                                                          Preening birds keep themselves clean by using their
preening birds       n       a bird which cleans itself with its bill
                                                                          own bill to clean their feathers.
                             detrimintal or harmful, often in a subtle    The deletirious comment was not appreciated until
deleterious          adj
                             manner                                       much later.
                             of being second to something else, coming    Completing his thesis was only secondary to
secondary            adj
                             after something else                         maintaining his family.
                                                                          Security was breached when classified information
breach               v       to break                                                                                              to violate
                                                                          was published in a daily newspaper.
                                                                          The governor worked to keep lethal weapons off the
lethal               adj     deadly, able to kill
                             occurring without losing time, happening     The immediate reaction of the crowd was one of
immediate            adj
                             instantly                                    laughter.
                                                                          Genetic mutations caused the farm animal to be
mutations            n       a change experienced by an organism
                                                                          born differently than the others.
                                                                          The idea of switching jobs lingered in his mind after
lingered             v       to persist or remain
                                                                          the bad experience with his employer.
Unit 32

synonymous      adj   to mean the same as                            To help' is synonymous to 'To assist.'
hazardous       adj   dangerous, potentially harmful                 Smoking cigarrettes is hazardous to your health.

                                                                                                                             in a general
broadly         adj   widely                                         The presentation broadly covered many topics.

emissions       n     something that is emitted, let out             Cars need to be checked for emissions once a year.
imposed         v     to bring about by authority or force           The professor imposed her rules on the class.
disposal        n     a place for leaving waste or garbage           The city's disposal was overflowing with garbage.

                                                                     His strategy was to start studying for the test
strategy        n     a careful plan or method
                                                                     several days early.
                                                                     Our manager received a strong criticism from the
criticism       n     an evaluation, often on the negative side
                                                                     university president.
                                                                     Nobody wants nuclear waste to be stored near their
waste           n     garbage, refuse
                                                                     The student teacher was substituting for the regular
substituting    v     to put in place of something else
                                                                     professor in class today.
                                                                     My idea to finish the project in several days was
unrealistic     adj   not realistic                                                                                          inappropriate
proper          adj   correct, of the right representation           She invited us to a proper English tea party.
                                                                     At the end of the semester the students take a
comprehensive   adj   covering a large scop, broadly                                                                         complete
                                                                     comprehensive exam.
incineration    n     the act of burning something                   The house was damaged by incineration.

                      money paid for doing something incorrectly     The couple paid a large amount of money in fines
fines           n
                      or illegal                                     for not taking care of their children correctly.

indefinitely    adj   for an unspecified period of time              The gym will be closed indefinitely for remodelling.
unregulated     adj   without rules or regulations                   Unregulated policies are difficult to enforce.
                                                                     The amount of money raised by the campaign was
insignificant   adj   without much significance or worth
                      something suffered as result of an action, a   The penalties for driving over the speed limit can be
penalties       n
                      hardship                                       very costly.
                      to prevent from doing something, to            Susan's news did not deter Brian from making his
deter           v
                      discourage                                     decision.
Unit 33

                                                                          It is a great accomplishment to have graduated first
accomplishment   n     something achieved or completed                                                                           achievement
                                                                          in your class.
                                                                          He accurately identified the main language centers
accurately       adj   correctly, truthfully
                                                                          of the brain.
                                                                          The rules were established by the members of the
established      v     to bring into existence or to stabilize
                                                                          elective committee.
                       a population of people living in a newly           The first immigrants to the United States formed
colony           n
                       established territory or state                     colonies on the east coast.
                       on purpose, resulting from careful
deliberate       adj                                                      The decision to leave a night early was deliberate.
                                                                          Early voyages to newly found territories were very
voyages          n     a trip or journey, typically by sea
                                                                          The early colonists settled in the northeastern
settled          v     to establish a place to live, to develop an area
                                                                          United States.
                                                                          If there are no objections, this couple may be
objections       n     an opposition or complaint
                                                                          He submitted his proposal for the project before
proposal         n     a plan to do something
                                                                          the deadline.
                                                                          Prior to working at the copy shop, she worked as a
prior            adj   beforehand, before
                                                                          receptionist at a law firm.
                       a group of people that is against a particular     The opposition to the president's idea was very
opposition       n
                       point or another group                             disorganized.
                                                                          We took food provisions with us on the camping
provisions       n     a supply or material provided for a purpose
                                                                          The story of the beginning of the church is
fascinating      adj   very interesting, incredible
                       a place or area pertaining to a particular group   The southern territories have experienced troubles
territories      n
                       of people or country                               recently.
                                                                          John's parents were discontented with his academic
discontented     adj   upset, not content
                                                                          The young man was imprisoned for attempted
imprisoned       v     to be put in jail or prison
initiated        v     to begin or start                                  The children initiated their club in the park.
                                                                          They were eager to begin on their journey to the
eager            adj   anxious, excited
                                                                          The houses were built far enough inland to be safe
inland           adj   a piece of land which lies inward from the sea
                                                                          from the storm.
                                                                          The team capitalized on the opponents' errors and
capitalized      v     to take advantage of a situation
                                                                          won the game.
Unit 34

                                                                      A primary purpose of a battle tends to be the
conquest        n     something that is conquered or won in war
                                                                      conquest of land.
                                                                      The height of the mountain is like no other in this
height          n     the elevation of something, a high point
                                                                      An agrarian country is capable of sustaining its own
agrarian        adj   relating to fields or land
                                                                      food sources.
dynasty         n     a kingdom or powerful group of people           The dynasty of the emperors lasted for centuries.

composed        v     to be made up of, to be built of                A table is composed of a flat board and four legs.

                      related to superstitious, belief in something   The superstitious woman was afraid that a black cat
superstitious   adj
                      perhaps unaccountable for                       might cross her path.
                                                                      The information provided to the candidate was
inaccurate      adj   not accurate, wrong                                                                                     incorrect
                                                                      Jason was obligated to retake the exam since he did
obligated       v     to oblige, force to do something
                                                                      not pass the first time.
                                                                      Many professional athletes have the reputation of
arrogant        adj   an exaggeration of one's worth or self-esteem
                                                                      being arrogant.
                                                                      The amount of work required in the class was
excessive       adj   exceeding a normal amount, too much
                                                                      Her driver's license was revoked when she got her
revoked         v     to be denied or turned away                                                                             annul
                                                                      third speeding ticket.
triumphed       v     to win, to be victorious                        The politician triumphed in the election.
                                                                      France established an alliance with the United States
alliance        n     a bond or connection between people
                                                                      decades ago.

slaughter       n     a killing or butchering                         The lambs were taken to the farm for slaughter.         massacre

                                                                      The subjugation of the people was essential to his
subjugation     n     to bring under control or make submissive
                      to abandom or leave something after making      Her defection from the country made international
defection       n
                      a conscious decision                            news.
                                                                      There was not a substantial amount of evidence in
substantial     adj   a notable amount, ample
                                                                      the court case.
                                                                      The prosecutor aggressively attacked the
aggressively    adv   with great power, marked by aggression                                                                  fervently
                                                                      defendant's alibi.
                                                                      The news of the train crash was unsettling to all
unsettling      adj   upsetting, making one feel uneasy                                                                       disturbing
                                                                      residents of the town.
                      money demanded by someone for the release       The ransom demanded for the boy's liberty was very
ransom          n
                      of another                                      high.
Unit 35

                                                                      The plant is indigenous of the high mountain
indigenous    adj   originating in a particular area                                                                          native
diverse       adj   having distinct or different qualities            There is a diverse student body at this university.

immensely     adj   greatly, to a large degree                        He impressed me immensely with his new theory.
                                                                      My willingness to help has not changed since the
willingness   n     inclination or disposition to do something
                                                                      first moment.
                                                                      The judge requested that more evidence be brought
evidence      n     a sign or indication that something happened
                                                                      to the court.
                                                                      His victory was notable in that it was deemed
notable       adj   worthy to note, remarkable
                    an object characteristic of a particular time     Archeologists look for artifacts during archeological
artifacts     n
                    period or place                                   digs.

remnants      n     something which remains or is left behind         The there were few remnants from the yard sale.
                                                                      A clue for the answer was gleaned from careful
gleaned       v     to extract or to bring to light
                                                                      observation of the old records.
                                                                      The descendents of the mountain clan became very
descendents   n     one who follows from a previous generation
                                                                      His vast knowledge about the subject made his
vast          adj   great, expansive                                                                                          very broad
                                                                      lectures fascinating.
                    to take into a relationship or into               The faculty was slow to adopt the director's
adopted       v
                    consideration by choice                           proposal for change.
loom          v     to come into sight or to appear                   The dark rain clouds loomed overhead.
                                                                      The ceremonial wedding was impressive to the
ceremonial    adj   pertaining to a ceremony, very formal in detail
                                                                      international guests.
                                                                      The president empowered his staff by giving them
empower       v     to give power to someone or something
                                                                      the right to make their own decisions.
                                                                      Her designer strived for symmetry when creating the
symmetry      n     to be equal on all sides                                                                                  balanced
                                                                      The boys committed sacrilege when they spoke
sacrilege     n     a violation or offense to God
                                                                      badly of God.
                                                                      People came from all parts of town to perform a
ritual        n     a ceremony or traditional observation
                                                                      ritual on Christmas day.
departed      v     to leave, to go away                              The plane departed on time this morning.
                    people who came before us in our family or        I have many ancestors who came to the United
ancestors     n
                    country's history                                 States from Norway.
Unit 36

                                                                     Tensions were high as the people waited for the
tensions      n     unrest or imbalance in a relationship
                                                                     judge's decision.
                                                                     The roads were newly paved last year but are already
paved         v     to cover, often with asphalt
                                                                     in poor condition.
                                                                     The prison outbreak was the first story on the
outbreak      n     a disturbance or insurrection, often violent
                                                                     evening news.
                                                                     The story about child abuse incensed the members
incensed      v     to arouse indignation or anger
                                                                     of the community.
                    to bring from another place, often another       The United States has been importing oil from
importing     v
                    country                                          Venezuela for many years.
                    to bring something to another place in an        The pilot was smuggling drugs in his plane until one
smuggling     v
                    illegal manner                                   day he was caught.
                                                                     Due to poor sales, there was a surplus of
surplus       n     an extra amount of something
                                                                     automobiles left in the factory.
                                                                     Rather than file for bankruptcy, it is better to try to   impoverishme
bankruptcy    n     the state of having no money
                                                                     pay your bills.                                           nt
                                                                     The exact number of people in the audience was
exact         adj   precise, free of error
                                                                     The members of the soccer team unanimously
unanimously   adv   a condition in which all people agree                                                                      unequivocally
                                                                     decided to skip practice last night.
                    to portray oneself as someone else, often for    The bank robber disguised himself by wearing a
disguised     v
                    the purpose of deceit                            black mask and sunglasses.
                    a structure built along the shore of an ocean,   Fisherman's wharf is one of the most popular
wharf         n
                    typically for fishing                            tourist attractions in San Francisco.
                                                                     Many crates were lined up along the walls of the
crates        n     a box or large container for storing objects
                                                                     She was motivated to do her best work from the
motivated     v     to provide motivation or excitement
                                                                     man's nice words.
                                                                     There is a strict penalty for turning in homework
strict        adj   stringent, inflexible                                                                                      rigid
                                                                     The wall along the side of the freeway prevented the
prevent       v     to keep something from happening
                                                                     car from going off the road.
outright      adj   of being complete or exact                       What he said last night was an outright lie.
                                                                     His negative comments on health care alienated a
alienated     v     to be left alone or removed from a situation
                                                                     lot of voters.
                    a representative, typically elected by a group   The candidates pursued becoming the delegate
delegates     n
                    of people                                        from their party.
Unit 37

                     pertaining to a situation in which one is
                                                                        Although they were paid fairly, the indentured
indentured     adj   bound to work for another and receive pay
                                                                        servants were not happy with their work.
                     for the services

                     a condition in which a person cannot decide        Living in servitude is something most people would
servitude      n
                     for himself or make his own decisions              not wish to do.
                     happening without making a conscious               The reaction to run away from trouble is
involuntary    adj
                     decision                                           involuntary.
                                                                        The prisoners' uprisingings were increasingly more        an act of
uprisings      n     a fight
                                                                        difficult to control.                                     defiance
                                                                        The family's descent was notable for its connection
descent        n     of coming from a line of ancestry
                                                                        to the ruling party.
                     a representation of something, often made of       There was a statue of the country's liberator in the
statues        n
                     concrete or wood                                   town plaza.
                                                                        The college's rules strictly prohibited staying on
prohibited     v     not permitted or allowed
                                                                        campus past midnight.
                                                                        He was lynched for his involvement with the
lynched        v     to put to death, often by hanging
                                                                        terrorist group.
                     negative treatment received for doing              The punishment for turning in a late assignment
punishment     n
                     something wrong                                    was a zero in the gradebook.
                     the condition of giving or trading one thing       In the slave trade, people were traded to work on
trade          n
                     for another                                        other people's land.
                                                                        The tobacco plantations on the east coast have
plantations    n     a settlement, typically on a large piece of land
                                                                        been in operation for centuries.

cruelty        n     a condition of poor, often violent, treatment      Animal cruelty is not tolerated in the United States.
                     a part of the body that grows off the trunk or     One must risk life and limbs to if he wants to
limbs          n                                                                                                                  appendages
                     main section                                       become a mountain climber.
                                                                        The slave was whipped for failing to do his job
whip           v     to beat with a long rope
                                                                        She went to the police to inform them about her
abusive        adj   harmful, harsh
                                                                        abusive husband.
                                                                        I did not object when I was asked to stay late at
object         v     to disagree or oppose to something
                                                                        work last night.
                                                                        The quakers objected to the slave trade, even
Quakers        n     early group of settlers in the United States
                                                                        though some had slaves.
                                                                        The president tried to abolish the slave trade early in
abolishing     v     to put an end to                                                                                             to stop
                                                                        his career.
                                                                        The emancipation proclamation ended the slave
emancipation   n     to free or end restraint
                                                                        The liberation of the slaves is a positive piece of the
liberation     n     condition of being free or liberated
Unit 38

existed           v     to be real or have life                          His problem with nervousness lasted for decades.
                                                                         The government was not prepared for the rebellions
rebellions        n     an action of resistance or defiance
                                                                         of the citizens.
                                                                         The magnitude of the earthquake was greater than
magnitude         n     referring to size or proportions
                                                                         any other in history.
subsequent        adj   following in time or place                       We heard subequent complaints from the students.

                                                                         The outcome of the championship match was what
outcome           n     a result or consequence
                                                                         one would expect.
                                                                         The chain of events that lead up to the disclosure
chain of events   n     series of actions or events
                                                                         was remarkable.

debts             n     something owed, often of monetary value          He had debts we knew of.
practice          n     a performance or action                          The lawyer's practice was very busy.
                        a person or animal that is held under the        The captive was not allowed to talk to anyone but
captives          n
                        control of someone else                          his lawyer.
schooner          n     a sailing ship or vessel with two sails          We rode on the schooner to get to the island.
                                                                         The ceremony commenced after all of the audience
commenced         v     to start or begin
                                                                         was seated.
                                                                         The school's test scores were considered abysmmal
abysmal           adj   terrible, immeasurably low
                                                                         by the school board.
intolerable       adj   not tolerable, unbearable                        The man's attitude was intolerable.
                                                                         The bank processes hundreds of transactions each
transaction       n     an exchange or transfer of goods or services
                        a person who inhabits or lives in a particular   The occupants of the hotel had to evacuate when
occupants         n
                        place                                            they heard the fire alarm.
                                                                         Last year's football team lived a near situation of
enslavement       n     a situation of being enslaved or held captive
                                                                         Children acquire language from hearing it in their
acquired          v     to gain or come into possession
secure            v     to relieve from danger or to make safe           The building was secured by the police chief.
complicated       adj   difficult, not easy                              Math problems can be very complicated.
horrific          adj   to feel horrible or terrible                     The scene of the crime was horrific.                  terrific
Unit 39

                                                                    One avenue for solving the problem is reconsidering
avenue          n     a route, a manner for pursuing something
                                                                    the equation.
                                                                    His bad attitude was affecting his performance on
affecting       v     to have an effect on something
                                                                    the job.
recounted       v     to count again                                The voting ballots were recounted twice.
reverend        n     a priest or pastor at a church                The town reverend was loved by all.
                                                                    Her manager was frank about her recent
frank           adj   honest, sincere                                                                                       forthright
                                                                    The book had a profound effect on my way of
profound        adj   characterized by intense feelings                                                                     deep
                      a person who must serve another without       According to the family tree, Davis' grandfather was
slave           n
                      freedom                                       a slave on a large plantation.
                                                                    The song was banned from radio because of its
banned          v     to not allow, to prohibit
                                                                    vulgar language.
                      to consider the value of something, to find
criticized      v                                                   Her work was criticized for being unoriginal.
                      fault with
                                                                    The criminal was depicted as a good person in the
depicted        v     to show or demonstrate
                                                                    television movie.
                                                                    The mayor's opinions were divergent from those of
divergent       adj   differing from a standard reference
                                                                    the previous mayor.

conflict        n     a struggle or competition                     The conflict was escalated when the king was killed.
                                                                    The president said he would not withdraw the
withdraw        v     to take away                                                                                          to draw back
                                                                    troops from the region.
                                                                    It was atrocious to see how badly the children
atrocious       adj   horrible, disgusting
                                                                    Giving concrete examples is essential when
concrete        adj   definitive                                                                                            specific
                                                                    The government decided to outlaw the sale of
outlawing       v     to make illegal
                      a person who thinks that his or her race is
racist          n                                                   He was disliked for his reputation of being a racist.
                      better than any other
                      pertaining to the status quo or the normal
stereotypical   adj                                                 The response was stereotypical for the situation.
                                                                    Our opinion did not differ from that of the other
opinion         n     a way of thinking                                                                                     a belief
                      a reason given to prove something, a source   The professor's argument for suspending the
arguments       n
                      of conflict                                   student was not taken seriously.
Unit 40

                                                                                The congressman facilitated the justice talks last
facilitated             v     to help something happen, to make easier
                                                                                A one million dollar bounty was offered for the
bounty                  n     a generous gift or reward
                                                                                capture of the criminal.
labor                   n     work, the expending of energy                     To labor all day without rest is no fun.
                                                                                The output from the computer program was
output                  n     the end result of an action
                                                                                impossible to understand.
gross domestic                the value of all goods and services produced      The rising country's gross domestic product was
product                       by a country during a specific time period        stronger than ever this year.

yield                   n     the amount of a product returned or yielded       The yield of corn per acre was quite high.
                                                                                The woman pioneered the new clothing fashion
pioneering              v     to do something for the first time, to invent
                                                                                seen at the awards ceremony.
                                                                                People cannot endure living without water for very
endures                 v     to withstand, to put up with
                                                                                I modified the equation by adding an additional
modified                v     to change something deliberately                                                                            to alter
                              a change in the economy motivated by the          The industrial revolution in England caused
industrial revolution   n
                              use of machinery to do humans' work               widespread unemployment.

resistant               adj   capable of providing resistance                   The stain resistant shirt was worth every penny.
                              the quality or feature of being able to do        She had many capabilities that we were not aware
capabilities            n
                              something                                         of.
                              a machine, like a train, that can move on its     Locomotives transport people and products
locomotives             n
                              own                                               around the world every day.
                                                                                We used an herbicide on the weeds growing in our
herbicides              n     an element used to kill or inhibit plant growth
                                                                                front yard.
                              the quality of being efficient, the degree to     The company was looking for workers with a great
efficiency              n
                              which one can do something with ease              deal of efficiency.
pesticides              n     a substance used to kill pests, such as insects   You can buy a pesticide to kill the ants in your patio.
                                                                                The new branch on the rose bush stemmed from
stemmed                 v     to come from, to branch off of
                                                                                the main trunk of the plant.
                                                                                The new company's operating costs were offset by
offset                  v     to serve as a counterbalance for something
                                                                                high first quarter sales.
                                                                                They closed the business when they realized the
diminishing             v     to make less                                                                                                to decrease
                                                                                increasingly diminishing returns.
modular                 adj   based on a model, having pieces of set sizes      The modular carpet could be pieced together easily.
Unit 41

                                                                     There are twenty-seven amendments to the
amendment      n     something which is amended or added
                                                                     constitution of the US
                                                                     Her bid for presidency was denied by a stronger
denied         v     to not allow, to refuse
                     characterized by being a shortened version of   The abridged dictionary still had more words than
abridged       adj
                     something                                       we needed to know.
                                                                     The appropriate attire for the reunion was a
appropriate    adj   suitable or correct                                                                                     compatible
                                                                     business suit and tie.
                                                                     Her productivity at work increased when she started
productivity   n     relating to the production of something
                                                                     to sleep more at night.
                                                                     The amount of oppression on the people of the
oppression     n     cruel or unjust exertion of power
                                                                     country was unbearable.
                                                                     They increasingly realized that their decision was      more and
increasingly   adv   with a greater rate
                                                                     wrong                                                   more
sentiment      n     the feeling of a person or group of people      Our sentiment toward the criminal was very low.

                                                                     There were many exclusions to the offer at the
exclusion      n     something that is removed or excluded
reformer       n     a person who makes reforms or changes           Noah Webster was a spelling reformer.
                                                                     The progression of notes played by the pianist was
progression    n     an advancement or succession
                     the condition of having moderation in one's
temperance     n                                                     She was not known for having much temperance.           restraint
                     actions or feelings
                     something which is formally confirmed or        The ratification of the law was high on the list of
ratification   n
                     approved                                        priorities.
uppity         adj   feeling upbeat or happy                         We felt uppity after winning our first tennis match.
                                                                     The incremental plan to reform spelling was
incremental    adj   in a step-by-step fashion
                     the condition of something compared to
status         n                                                     In the classroom, John had high status.
                     something else
                                                                     The girl scouts achieved their goal of selling enough
achieve        v     to accomplish or to get something done
                                                                     cookies to go to Washington D.C.
                                                                     We gained momentum as we entered the final
momentum       n     the pace at which something occurs
                                                                     round of competition.
                                                                     The workers were picketing outside the
picketing      v     to petition or complain
                                                                     headquarters building.
                                                                     The people's thinking on how to resolve the
coalesced      v     to grow together or to united
                                                                     problem coalesced with time.
Unit 42

                                                                    The naval headquarters were located just west of
naval         adj   pertaining to the navy
                                                                    the ocean.
                                                                    The children felt the urgent need to call their
urgent        adj   requiring immediate attention                                                                         pressing
                                                                    The pivotal moment in the debate came when the
pivotal       adj   very important, critical
                                                                    two candidates argued over healthcare.
                                                                    A tactical error at any moment could lead to
tactical      adj   concerning the tactics of doing something
                                                                    Dropping the football during the last seconds of
blunder       n     a large mistake or error
                                                                    the game was a blunder.
                    A group of nations opposed to the Allies        Germany, Italy and Japan were axis powers during
Axis powers   n
                    during World War Two.                           World War Two.
                                                                    The police officer detected the smell of alcohol on
detected      v     to notice, to discover
                                                                    the driver.
                                                                    The smaller country had few armaments to protect
armaments     n     a weapon or military force

internment    n     a place where people are held or confined       The internment was known for its poor conditions.

imperial      adj   relating to an empire                           One day the imperial powers began to dissolve.
midget        n     a very small version of something               The midget cars were popular at the car show.
                    an order from the government which
embargo       n                                                     The US continues its financial embargo to Cuba.
                    prohibits something
                                                                    The escalation of troops sent to the war was
escalations   n     the state of becoming greater or more intense
                    to change a person's opinion through            I persuaded Rosa to come with me after offering
persuaded     v
                    argument                                        many convincing reasons.
                                                                    Henry brought together an impressive assemblage
assemblage    n     a collection of people or things                                                                      a gathering
                                                                    of voters.
                                                                    We were preoccupied that the situation was not
preoccupied   v     to concern, to worry
aviator       n     a person who flies an airplane                  The early aviators were courageous.                   pilot
                                                                    The manager's ultimatum was that the worker
ultimatums    n     a final demand or proposition                   needed to come to work on time or stop working
                                                                    Our opinions seldom coincided with respect to the
coincide      v     to have agreement, to accord                                                                          to concur
                                                                    controversial topic.
                    a person delegated to respresent a country or   The government envoy did a great job in getting the
envoy         n
                    government                                      people to come together.
Unit 43

                      Countries that opposed the Axis powers          The major Allied Powers in WWII were Britain, Russia
Allied Powers   n
                      during World War II                             and the United States.
                                                                      The brutal punishment of the hostage was shown
brutal          adj   harsh                                                                                                  severe
                                                                      on the news.
official        adj   pertaining to an office, authoritative          Spanish is the official language of Venezuela.
                                                                      There were a variety of students from different
variety         n     pertaining to having different forms or types
                                                                      countries in the class.
                                                                      The doctors monitored her condition throughout
monitoring      v     to watch                                                                                               to observe
                                                                      the night.
                                                                      Her humanitarian efforts were recognized by the
humanitarian    adj   relating to humanity or people
                                                                      United Nations.
                                                                      Arms control is a frequent topic of international
arms control    n     the control of weapons or armaments
                                                                      The soldier received torture after he was captured
torture         n     cruel mistreatment of someone or something
                                                                      behind enemy lines.
                      a period of time marked by the absence or       The failure of the Irish potato crop led to
famines         n
                      extreme lack of food                            widespread famine in Ireland.
                                                                      The worker was promoted for consistently
promote         v     to advance something, to further something
                                                                      increasing sales revenues.
                                                                      A low degree of collaboration on the project would
collaboration   n     the action of working jointly with others
                                                                      certainly not be sufficient for success.
                                                                      The company has subsidiaries in many different
subsidiary      n     a secondary or supporting organization
                      a person or group of people that creates or     The founders of the organization were honored for
founders        n
                      invents something                               their contributions.
                                                                      The latter set of homework problems were the
latter          adj   pertaining to something that follows                                                                   subsequent
                      a period of tension between the US and the      The Cold War latest for approximately 50 years,
Cold War        n
                      Soviet Union                                    from the 1940s to the 1990s.
                      the deliberate destruction of a group of        The genocide of the group will always be a low point
genocide        n
                      people                                          in world history.
                                                                      A violent protest outside the capitol made the
violent         adj   characterized by violence or strong force
                                                                      headline news.
peacekeeping    n     an effort to maintain peace and order           Peacekeeping is always a priority of the government.

                                                                      Driving over the speed limit constitutes a traffic
violations      n     an infringement, something done improperly
                                                                      Twenty athletes were selected to represent the
selected        v     to choose or pick
                                                                      country in the Olympic Games.
Unit 44

                                                                           The rumor of a terrorist attack created a state of
turmoil             n     a state of confusion or commotion
                                                                           turmoil in the village.
                                                                           The removal of the senator created a rift in the
rift                n     an opening, a fissure
                          a person who oppresses, keeps another            The oppressors were prosecuted under
oppressors          n
                          down                                             international law.
                                                                           Many of the repressive actions were not considered
repressive          adj   to prevent or hold down by control
                                                                           How the law was not repealed earlier is a mystery to
repealing           v     to take away, to draw back                                                                               revoke, annul
contagious          adj   something communicated by contact                The respiratory illness was highly contagious.
                          a soldier who has been designated as a           The Green Berets are regarded as being part of the
Green Berets        n
                          member of the Special Forces                     upper echelon of military forces.
                                                                           Everyone says Paul is clumsy because he is always
clumsy              adj   lacking tact or dexterity
                                                                           dropping everything.
                          to interfere in business that is not of one's
meddling            v                                                      She was always meddling in the life of her neighbor.
                                                                           Our feeling of futility could not be overcome with
futility            n     useless, without worth
                                                                           simple words.
                                                                           The actions of the students were not tolerated by
tolerated           v     to allow                                                                                                 to put up with
                                                                           the professor.
                                                                           It was difficult to resist ordering some icecream for
resist              v     to put up force against something
                                                                           Mary intimidated the others by always having the
intimidate          v     to make another feel fear or nervouseness
                                                                           answers for everything.
                          to make a formal request, to ask for             The campus group petitioned for their own meeting
petitioned          v
                          something                                        space at the university.
                                                                           The troops surrendered when they realized they
surrender           v     to give up, to relent
                                                                           were outnumbered.
                                                                           Having a rapid does not do much good if the speed
rapid               adj   very quick, very fast
                                                                           limit is low.
causalities(용 어 정
                          a person or thing hurt or damaged by an          A primary concern in a war is the number of
의대로 한다면             n
                          action                                           casualties that may be suffered by either side.
casualties로 수 정 )
                                                                           Over 100 civilians were injured in the bombing
civilians           n     A regular resident of a place
                                                                           The infamous doctor was tried in court for his
infamous            adj   famous for being bad or evil
                                                                           actions against humanity.
                          an act of invading, entering a place where one   The enemy's invasions were met with great
invasions           n
                          is not welcome                                   resistance by the smaller country.
Unit 45

                                                                          His radical departure from his hypothesis made
radical            adj   greatly different, considerable
                                                                          people wonder what was going on.
                         not moral, in conflict with general beliefs or   Immoral actions are considered negatively when a
immoral            adj
                         principles                                       person runs for public office.
                                                                          The taillights faded into the darkness as the car
fade               v     to slowly dissappear or go away
                                                                          drove away.
                         something that interferes, obstructs, gets in    There was interference on the phone line and thus
interference       n
                         the way                                          we could not communicate easily.
                                                                          The reforms made to the constitution were for the
reform             n     a result of a change to a policy or convention
                                                                          better of the people.
                                                                          Compensated emancipation was used as a way to
compensated              the freeing of a slave in return for money or
                   n                                                      end slavery in places were slavery was deemed
emancipation             another compensation
                                                                          The general's tactics were considered highly
tactics            n     a way or mode of procedure
                                                                          effective by the commissioner.
                                                                          The psychologist wanted to institutionalize her
                         to integrate into a formal system or
institutionalize   v                                                      patient after she did not respond to the clinical
                                                                          The student disrupted the class with his
disrupt            v     to bother, to break up                                                                                    to disturb
                                                                          inappropriate remarks.
                                                                          The killing of the king prompted the beginning of
prompted           v     to motivate or encourage
                                                                          the war.
                                                                          The two teams squared off at this year's
squared off        v     to confront, to prepare to fight
                                                                          championship game.
                                                                          Four of the five causes were considered adequate
cause              n     a reason for doing something
                                                                          for beginning the project.
                                                                          Her notoriety seemed to do her more harm than
notoriety          n     condition of being well known or famous
culminating        v     to result or end                                 Our years of hard work culminated in success.
                                                                          There was an assassination attempt on the gang
assassination      n     the killing of a person
                                                                          leader last month.
                                                                          She wore a disguise to work and nobody recognized
disguise           n     something used to prevent identification
                                                                          who she was.
                         a formal ceremony to mark the beginning of       The inauguration of the country's president was
inauguration       n
                         an event                                         very elegant.
                                                                          The state seceded from the nation after a bitter fight
seceded            v     to withdraw, to remove
                                                                          for freedom.
                                                                          It was crucial for the group to agree before
crucial            adj   very important, essential                                                                                 critical
                                                                          presenting themselves to the council.
                         to prevail over something, to have more          The president can override any request for a bill
overrode           v
                         power                                            presented to him by congress.
Unit 46

                                                                     The incident in front of the the dormitory was
incident        n     a situation or event
                                                                     deemed inappropriate.
                      a military award given by the President to a
                                                                     The soldier was awarded the Purple Heart after her
Purple Heart    n     soldier who has been wounded or killed in
                                                                     service in the Middle East.
                                                                     There were few risks associated with the
risk            n     a danger, a possiblity for loss or injury
                                                                     Many career choices are offered by universities and
careers         n     a job or profession
                                                                     community college.
                                                                     His wages were garnered in order to repay his debts
garnered        v     to withhold                                                                                           to reduce
                                                                     to the company.
                      a piece of paper used for the purpose of       The ballots had to be recounted after the national
ballot          n
                      voting                                         election.
                                                                     The prolonged effects of the medication were not
prolonged       v     to last for a longer length of time                                                                   endure
                                                                     known at the time.
                      situation of becoming larger, of being         Several of the buildings were in need of expansion
expansion       n
                      expanded                                       to accommodate the growing staff.
                                                                     His stance on the issue was that there was no
stance          n     a point of view or way of thinking
                                                                     The airplane pilot was notably drunk before he
notably         adj   noticeably, to a high degree
                                                                     boarded the plane.
                                                                     Jane carried out her plan even though she knew it
carried out     v     to do, to take action
                                                                     was a bad idea.
                                                                     The crisis only worsened when the county's water
crisis          n     a desperate situation, a large problem
                                                                     supply ran dry.
                                                                     On the bright side, he learned something from his
failure         n     an inadquate performance, a poor result
                      a problem without an obviously correct         She spent hours considering the best solution for
dilemma         n
                      situation                                      her dilemma
constructed     v     to build or put together                       The building was constructed in one week.
                                                                     The group's attempt to take over the building was
averted         v     to turn away or to deter
                                                                     averted by the police.
assassin        n     a person who kills                             The king's assassin was later killed for his action.   murderer

                      to portray incorrectly, for an improper        The defendant says he was framed by the police
framed          v
                      purpose                                        who needed to pin the action on someone.
                      pertaining to a situation which seems
                                                                     Paradoxically, it seemed that the wrong answer was
paradoxically   adv   contrary to popular belief but which may be
                                                                     actually correct.
                                                                     The decline of the military turned out to be a good
decline         n     a reduction or lowering
                                                                     thing for the country.
Unit 47

pledge          n     a sign or acknowledgment                        We pledged allegiance to our country.                   a token
restore         v     to make something new again                     The judge restored order in the courtroom quickly.      to give back

                                                                      It is important to have optimism in order to be
optimism        n     to have a positive outlook or belief
                                                                      The candidate had lots of charisma and it helped
charisma        n     a special appeal or charm
                                                                      him win votes.

                                                                      The deregulation of the emission of greenhouse
deregulation    n     the state of losing rules or regulations
                                                                      gases was harmful for the environment.

                                                                      The situation was difused when the two parties
defused         v     to improve, to make less harmful or intense
                                                                      began to speak to each other.

wit             n     mental resource or reasoning power              We used our good wit to figure out the problem.         sense
stint           n     a short period of time                          One of the workers stayed for only a stint.

outlook         n     perspective, a prospect                         The outlook for the situation did not look good.

advocate        v     to support or encourage                         He advocated the control of firearms in the county.
                      protection granted to a person after a period   The professor received tenure after six years of
tenure          n
                      of trial service                                service at the university.
                                                                      Mountain lions leaped out of the cage and ran out
leap            v     to jump, to make a large stride
                                                                      of the zoo.
                      pertaining to the governor or to the            The gubernatorial election was poorly attended by
gubernatorial   adj
                      government                                      the residents of the town.
                                                                      Wind swept through the city and damaged several
swept           v     to make a large motion, to move
                                                                      He was physically fatigued after a long tennis
fatigued        adj   to be tired                                                                                             to be weary
                                                                      The book about the history of Sweden was a saga in
saga            n     a long, detailed representation of a story
                                                                      its own right.
                      having much money or being generally            One way of measuring prosperity is by counting
prosperity      n                                                                                                             thriving
                      successful                                      your money.
                                                                      The concert was stimulating and we all left in a good
stimulating     v     to stimulate or invigorate
                      to have a shortage, to have spent more than     The country's deficit grew larger and larger each
deficit         n
                      one has earned                                  year.
Unit 48

                                                                               The preacher was popular for giving energetic
preacher                n     a person who delivers a public sermon
                                                                               The group was segregated because of the color of
segregated              v     to separate from others
                                                                               their skin.
                              the study of God and the relationship of God
theology                n                                                      Many preachers have a degree in theology.
                              to the world
                              a movement by people to gain equality under      The civil rights movement helped make major
civil rights movement   n
                              the law                                          changes in the society.
                                                                               Nonviolent protests often have a larger impact than
nonviolent              adj   without violence
                                                                               violent ones.
                              a situation in which one does not obey the       Civil disobedience in the form of a violent protest
disobedience            n
                              rules                                            gained the attention of the governor.
dictated                v     to speak or give orders in a demanding way       My boss dictated what we had to do that day.

                                                                               The preacher inspired me with his wonderful
inspired                v     to influence or motivate                                                                                 to guide
                              a situation in which one refuses to be           The boycott of the airline pilots caused large delays
boycott                 n
                              involved                                         in travel.
                                                                               Her book was instrumental in getting the situation
instrumental            adj   having critical or crucial means
                                                                               changed in congress.
                                                                               Thousands of people lined the streets to protest
protest                 n     a display of disagreement
                                                                               animal cruelty.
                              the elimination of a situation in which people
desegregation           n                                                      Desegregation led to a more unified country.
                              are kept separate
                                                                               The judge incarcerated the criminal for repeat
incarcerated            v     to put in prison                                                                                         to imprison
                                                                               The case of police brutality showed that police
brutality               n     a very harmful, damaging action
                                                                               officers are not always kind.
                                                                               He conveyed his message by making a public speech
convey                  v     to show, to demonstrate
                                                                               and by writing a letter.
                                                                               The protests were realized by thousands of people
realized                v     to happen, to occur
                                                                               around the country.
                                                                               The prison riots claimed the lives of both inmates
riots                   n     an uprising, a massive fight
                                                                               and prison officials.

prejudice               n     a judgment which causes injustice or damage      Although prejudice is common, it is not good.

                                                                               The effectiveness of the new medicine has not been
effectiveness           n     producing a desired effect or outcome
                                                                               proven by the Food and Drug administration.

                                                                               The confrontation between the manager and the
confrontations          n     a tense meeting or a clash
                                                                               employee harmed the image of the company.
unit 49

                                                                    Her illustrious career as an architect made her very
illustrious     adj   exemplary, brilliant                                                                                  noble
                                                                    Public contributions to the roadwork project
contributions   n     the giving or gift of something
                                                                    helped get the job done quickly.

former          adj   coming before, previous                       The former mayor was once a track and field athlete.

                                                                    The candidates anti-semitic remarks gave him a bad
anti-Semitic    adj   of being against Jewish people

                      a member of the United States House of        The number of congressmen from each state varies
congressman     n
                      Representatives                               depending on the population of that state.
                                                                    Few youth from our high school gained entrance
prestigious     adj   having high value or regard                                                                           honorable
                                                                    into the prestigious college.
                                                                    Television commercials are funded by the company
funded          v     to give funds, to pay
                                                                    who is selling its product.
                                                                    The mandates required that employers not judge
mandates        n     an order or command                           applicants on base of religion, sex or political
                                                                    There were unresolved disputes that lingered for
disputes        n     an argument or controversy
                      characterized by being able to be argued or
arguably        adj                                                 His recipe for lasagna was arguably the best ever.
                      something of great importance transferred     The legacy she built helping children will endure for
legacy          n
                      from one generation to the next               years to come.
                                                                    His ability to speak well extends beyond the
abilities       n     the capability to do something, competence                                                            skill
                      person in charge of a business or             The company's chairman resigned last night after
chairman        n
                      organization                                  the scandal was published in the paper.
                                                                    A staggering number of people attended the biology
staggering      adj   amazing, incredibly large
                                                                    Each state in the US elects two senators to express
senator         n     a representative of the state                 the views and necessities of its citizens in
                                                                    Washington, D.C.
                                                                    The pursuit of happiness is perhaps the most
pursuits        n     an activity or engagement in something
                                                                    important pursuit of all.
                                                                    The high school alumni celebrated their twentieth
alumni          n     a person who has graduated from a school
                                                                    reunion this year.
                                                                    Rules are established for the benefit of the
establishing    v     to make or bring into existence
despite         adj   in spite of                                   Despite her poor preparation, Alice passed the quiz.    rather than

                      a person who invites another person into      The host family was very kind and generous with
host            n
                      their home or community                       their exchange student.
Unit 50

                                                                             The hiring committee set norms for the types of
norms                  n     a typical or accepted behavior or control
                                                                             questions they would ask candidates.
                                                                             The boxer remained unconscious after he was hit in
unconscious            adj   without consciousness, without awareness
                                                                             the first round.
                             something that exists in the mind but that is   Something in my subconscious told me that it was a
subconscious           n
                             not readily available for reasoning             bad idea.
motivations            n     something that motivates or encourages          Her motivation for coming was not clear.
                                                                             The researchers looked for anthropological evidence
anthropological        adj   pertaining to people or the study of people
                                                                             at the ruin.
                                                                             The evidence the lawyers brought to the case was
disparate              adj   made of fundamentally different components
                                                                             There were gaps in the boy's story about why he
gaps                   n     a hole or space
                                                                             was late to school.
                                                                             He had a tremendous drive to be successful at the
drives                 n     a motivation or reason for doing something
                                                                             The child's outrageous behavior at the park was
outrageous             adj   exceeding the usual limits, unconventional                                                             unreal
                                                                             embarrassing for his parents.
phobias                n     an extreme fear                                 She has a phobia for spiders.
                             a condition which leads a person to do
compulsive disorders   n                                                     Binge eating is a common compulsive disorder.
                             something without thought or care
provoked               v     to spark or motivate                            The news provoked protests across the state.
                                                                             The first wave of questions seemed easy to the
wave                   n     a period or situation
intrinsic              adj   essential, characteristic                       The intrinsic value of the earrings was quite low.

                             a technique used for treating someone or        The doctor offered his patient a cutting-edge
treatment              n
                             something                                       treatment to alleviate the pain.
                                                                             Our pediatrician has been healing sick children for
pediatrician           n     a doctor who works with children
                                                                             twenty years.
                                                                             The condemnation of the plan was agreed on by all
condemnation           n     censure or rejection
                                                                             His perspective on how to solve the problem did
perspective            n     point of view, way of seeing something
                                                                             not differ much from that of the other candidates
                                                                             She extracted six ounces of fluid from the
extracted              v     to bring out, to separate                                                                              to withdraw
instincts              n     a natural impulse or capacity                   My instincts told me that I better leave right away.
Unit 51                Parts   Definition                                         Sentence                                                Synm

                               to tell apart from something else, to perceive     The young child could not distinguish wrong from
distinguished          v
                               a difference                                       right.
                                                                                  We were able to see the team play in more than one
instance               n       a particular occurrence or situation
                                                                                  The manager proposed to raise the workers' salaries
proposed               v       to put forth, to make an offer
                                                                                  over the next six months.
                                                                                  The experiment set out to measure the reaction
reaction times         n       the time it takes for one to react to a stimulus
                                                                                  times of the participants.
conscious              adj     of perceiving or having awareness                  He made a conscious decision to leave his job.
                               the result of perceiving or being aware of         The research study sought to investigate listeners'
perceptions            n
                               something                                          perception of foreign accent in the recordings.
                               a creation of an ideal situation in one's          His fantasy was to win the lottery, retire, and buy a
fantasies              n
                               imagination                                        home on an island.
                               a situation which is unmanageable, out of          Hysteria ensued when the fire broke out in the
hysteria               n
                               control                                            apartment complex.
                                                                                  Some people feel the impulse to eat if they are         a sudden
impulses               n       inspiration, motivation
                                                                                  depressed.                                              onset
                                                                                  Governor James rejected the proposal to lower
rejected               v       to turn away, to refuse                                                                                    to repel
                               being completely opposed or of the opposite        The two sides of the brain were once considered to
diametrically          adv
                               extreme                                            be diametrically different.
observable             adj     able to be seen or observed                        The patient's distress was visually observable.
                               the use of a reward or consequence to              A parrot that talks to get a cracker has learned
operant conditioning   n
                               modify behavior                                    operant conditioning.
                                                                                  Having quick feet is essential to be a good tennis
essential              adj     basic, being of the essence
                                                                                  It is critical that you study harder if you want to
critical               adj     crucial, indispensable                                                                                     vital
                                                                                  pass the class.
                                                                                  The girl emphasized to her parents that she did not
emphasized             v       to restate or try to impress an issue
                                                                                  want to go to the party.
                                                                                  The children were nurtured by their parents until
nurtured               v       to raise with care, to bring up
                                                                                  they left home.
                                                                                  The magazine article satisfied my curiosity about the
satisfy                v       to comply or yield a sufficient amount
                                                                                  group's religious beliefs.
                                                                                  I decided I needed some self-actualization so I went
self-actualization     n       to bring oneself up to date, to modernize
                                                                                  back to school.
                                                                                  Holistic medicine aims to treat the whole body, not
holistic               adj     pertaining to the whole of something
                                                                                  just a particular condition.
Unit 52

                                                                        His innovative way of thinking got him a top
innovative           adj   new, pertaining to an innovation
                                                                        position in the company.
                           pertaining to a new, creative way of doing   The team made a groundbreaking discovery in
groundbreaking       adj
                           something                                    cancer research.

advanced             v     to move forward, to continue                 We advanced through the jungle at a rapid pace.

                                                                        Carol refined her novel by making the characters
refined              v     to make better or more pure, to improve
                                                                        more believable.
                                                                        My psyche just doesn't allow me to take part in the
psyche               n     relating to a person's soul or personality
                                                                        The resistance to the proposal was more than we
resistant            adj   able to resist or withstand
                                                                        would have expected.
                                                                        There were too many restrictions to be able to get
restriction          n     something that restricts, a regulation                                                               a restraint
                                                                        the job done.
                                                                        We could not differentiate the identical twins by
differentiated       v     to be able to see a difference
                                                                        simple inspection.
instinctual          adj   relating to instinct, a basic impulse        Running from trouble is instinctual.
                                                                        The old woman was arrested for harboring a
harboring            v     to hold or contain, to give refuge
                                                                        My boss's actions seemed sadistic to the rest of the
sadistic             adj   a fondness for cruelty or punishment
                                                                        The newspaper article compelled me to write a letter
compels              v     to drive or force                                                                                    to motivate
                                                                        to the editor.
                                                                        The pronoun 'it' is often used to refer to inanimate
inanimate            adj   without life or spirt
                                                                        A traumatic event early in life can lead to phobias
traumatic            adj   of causing pain or distress
                                                                        later in life.
                                                                        The fusion of the two elements created an
fusion               n     the state of merging two or more objects                                                             coalition
                                                                        unwanted reaction.
                                                                        The embattled president looked for ways to improve
embattled            adj   characterized by conflict or controversy                                                             troubled
                                                                        her public opinion rating.
                           something considered to be profane or        The action was deemed taboo by the school
taboos               n                                                                                                          not correct
                           forbidden                                    principle.
                                                                        The plates and glasses are fragile so please handle
fragile              adj   easily broken                                                                                        delicate
                                                                        them with care.
                                                                        Our bodies create antibodies as defense
defense mechanisms   n     something used to defend
                                                                        mechanisms against colds or other illnesses.
enable               v     to make able, to give power                  The study session enabled us to pass the test easily.   empower
Unit 53

                                                                       The scientists conducted their research at the
conducted       v     to bring about, to lead                                                                                 to direct
                                                                       The old man complained of problems with his
digestive       adj   pertaining to digestion
                                                                       digestive tract.
                                                                       His reflexes closed his eyes when he looked at the
reflexes        n     an automatic response to a stimulus
                      an enzyme secreted into the mouth by the         Saliva helps keep the mouth clean by breaking down
saliva          n
                      salivary glands                                  starches.
                      a condition or factor which has effects on       Several circumstances lead to his decision to leave
circumstances   n
                      others                                           the company.
                                                                       It was an unconditioned response they were
unconditioned   adj   void of limitations or conditions
                                                                       interested in.
                      something that motivates some type of            Stimuli were presented to subjects to test their
stimuli         n
                      activity                                         reactions.
                                                                       She practiced the piano with the help of a
metronome       n     a device used for keeping time or a beat
                      a situation of outgrowing something, or of       His increased performance was an outgrowth of
outgrowth       n
                      being derived from something else                continued practice.
                                                                       His actions exemplified the kind of behavior the
exemplified     v     to give an example, to show something
                                                                       president hoped for.
                                                                       The frequency of his calls to his brother increased
frequency       n     a condition of ocurring frequently
                                                                       over the years.
                                                                       The musician received a positive response from the
positive        adj   characterized by affirmation
                                                                       The candidate received a negative response for
negative        adj   marked by denial or without affirmation
                                                                       changing his views.
                      a condition of reinforcing, adding strength or   The police reinforcement helped control the
reinforcement   n
                      support                                          situation.
                                                                       The food pellets were offered to the rabbit in the
pellet          n     a small, round piece of something
                                                                       He amassed a great fortune over the years as a trial
amass           v     to collect, to gather
                                                                       Different fashions come in and out of vogue over
vogue           n     fashion, a popular item
                                                                       the years.
                                                                       The advent of the personal computer revolutionized
advent          n     an invention, something coming into being
                                                                       the society.
                                                                       His play was critiqued by editors of a national
critiqued       v     to review or criticize
demeaning       adj   to lower in quality or character                 His opinions of his friends was demeaning.
Unit 54

                                                                       He retained his scholarship by consistently getting
retain          v     to hold, to keep
                                                                       good grades.
                                                                       He could not recall the time he last spoke to his
recall          v     to remember or to bring back
                                                                       His sensory perception of smell was not as good as
sensory         adj   relating to the senses
                                                                       We devoted a substantial amount of energy to the
devoted         v     to commit or to give
                      an addition or something used to help            There are many wonderful nutrional supplements
supplement      n
                      complete something else                          available on the market today.
                                                                       The snapshot of the scene was used to record it in
snapshot        n     a picture, a photograph
                                                                       Having many rehearsals makes the final
rehearsal       n     a practice, a run-through
                                                                       performance much better.
                                                                       The proper sequence for the chemistry experiment
sequence        n     the order of something                                                                                 a progression
                                                                       was not followed.
                                                                       His mental grammar revealed the way he
mental          adj   pertaining to the mind, to brain activity
                                                                       understood language.
tasks           n     a job or project                                 Many shopping tasks can now be done from home.

duration        n     the length that something lasts                  The duration of the moview is just over two hours.

neurons         n     a cell in the brain that processes information   If a neuron dies, it cannot be regrown.
                                                                       The man consolidated his credit card debt into one
consolidate     v     to put together, to bundle
                                                                       The doctor was honored for his study of nervous
pathologies     n     a disease or the study of diseases
                                                                       system pathologies.
                                                                       Her work schedule interferes with the amount of
interfere       v     to hinder or impede
                                                                       time she can spend at home.
progressive     adj   characterized by progress, advancement           The new idea was certainly a progressive one.
deterioration   n     the state of deteriorating, falling apart        The old jeans were deteriorating.
impaired        v     to damage or make something worse                His speech was impaired after the stroke.
obtained        v     to get or obtain                                 She obtained her degree at a university in Denmark.

enhance         v     to improve or make better                        The old movie was enhanced with a new audio tack.
Unit 55

abstractly     adv        not specific, quite general                     The woman was portrayed abstractly in the painting.

                                                                          Speaking colloquially is much different than
colloquially   adv        in everyday terms, in a common way
                                                                          speaking in a formal situation.
                          relating to a psychological technique for       The psychometric test did not yield any usable
psychometric   n
                          taking mental measurements                      results.
                                                                          One of the main collaborators at the art show was
collaborator   n          a person who collaborates or helps                                                                     contributor
                                                                          not present.
                                                                          He coined the phrase as a way to describe
coined         v          to invent, to make up
                                                                          something that had no name.
                                                                          The defendant was asked to identify the criminal in
identify       v          to determine the identity of something
                                                                          the police lineup.
                                                                          Two cognitive tasks were realized to measure the
cognitive      adj        pertaining the the mind or mental ability                                                              mental
                                                                          boys mental functioning.
                                                                          His version of the story today did not coincide with
version        n          a form, variety or account of something
                                                                          his earlier account.
                                                                          Professor Menchin's lecture affected the class
profoundly     adj        to a great degree, vastly
                                                                          The spectrum of responses ranged from very low to
spectrum       n          a continuum of color or of a sequence
                                                                          very high.

                          an objective or characteristic used to judge    There were several criteria for judging the writing
criteria       n
                          something                                       assignment that the teacher did not agree with.

                                                                          The data was renormalized when the researcher
renormalized   v          to be evaluated to a standard a second time     found that it did not coincide with certain
                                                                          characteristics of the study population.
                          from time to time, with some regularity of      I called the insurance company periodically to be
periodically   adv
                          frequency                                       sure the policy was still current.
accurate       adj        correct, free of error                          The response to the question was accurate.
                                                                          There was a considerable amount of food left over
considerable   adj        worthy of consideration, significant
                                                                          from the party.
                          the production of an image by itself, for       The lake was so clear that the fisherman could see a
reflection     n
                          example in a mirror                             reflection of his face in the water.
                                                                          The painter was regarded as one of the best in the
regarded       v          to consider from a particular point of view
                                                                          post-modern era.
               형용사,       something that is passed from one
hereditary                                                                Stuttering is not a hereditary illness.
               heredity   generation to the next

nurture        n          environmental factors that influence a person   His parents nurtured him from an early age.

                          conditions or factors that a person is born
nature         n                                                          It was in his nature to be an aggressive person.
Unit 56

                       to combine various elements to make a single    The scientist learned to synthesize the elements
synthesize       v
                       product                                         into a powerful medication.
                                                                       She received insurance benefits which helped cover
benefit          n     a type of help or aid
                                                                       the cost of the surgery.
                                                                       The children were engaged in the activity from the
engaging         v     to take part in, to hold attention
                                                                       very start.

                                                                       The political candidates wanted to have a debate so
debates          n     a situaton that is arguable
                                                                       they could express their views on the issue.
aptitudes        n     a skill or ability                              Her aptitude in mathematics was high.
                       of the relationship between two or more         Michael's interpersonal skills were not those one
interpersonal    adj
                       people                                          would expect from a lawyer.
affinity         n     an attraction, a likeness                       He had an affinity for cats and dogs.
                                                                       The boy's results on the standardized test did not
corresponding    v     to relate to, to compare closely                                                                      to match
                                                                       correspond with his grades in class.
                       an act of drama, a dramatical version of        The television show presented a dramatization of
dramatizations   n
                       something                                       what happened last night.
                       the use of reason, to come to a conslusion by   Her reasoning about why she left school early was
reasoning        n
                       thinking                                        questionable.
                                                                       He gradually worked his way up through the
gradually        adj   slowly, proceding in steps
cater            v     to provide a service, to work for               The modeling agency catered to the youth market.
                                                                       There was a varying degree of responses to the
varying          adj   differing, changing
                                                                       The football team was evaluated by their record at
evaluated        v     to test something or determine its value
                                                                       the end of the season.
                       to be able to pay for something or afford its   I could not afford the tennis racquet I wanted so I
afford           v
                       costs                                           decided not to buy anhything at all.
                                                                       He was adept at figuring out problems no one else
adept            adj   to be skilled or proficient
                       of central importance, at the core of           The judge was fundamentally opposed to allowing
fundamentally    adv                                                                                                         principally
                       something                                       an extension.
                                                                       The old laws were reformed to take into account the
reformed         v     to change or alter for the better
                                                                       present social situation.
                                                                       Julie's account of the story was broader than that
broader          adj   wider, more general
                                                                       of Martin.
Unit 57

                                                                      His speech disorder resulted from a massive left-
disorder        n     a problem                                                                                                a disability
                                                                      hemisphere stroke.
                                                                      There was a subtle attempt by the director to
subtle          adj   not strong, light
                                                                      improve public relations.
                                                                      Jake's parents bonded with him by taking him to the
bonding         v     to bring together, to unite                                                                              to join
                                                                      zoo every Saturday.
                      relating to a general or quite non-specific     He is generally considered to be the father of jazz
generally       adj
                      manner                                          music.
                                                                      His manual motor skills improved after a period of
motor skill     n     a skill or ability learned through repetition
                      pertaining to a particular category, free of    The specific complaint of the unhappy customer
specific        adj
                      question                                        was not clear.

extent          n     a range                                         To what extent do you believe he is telling the truth?   a degree
                                                                      He was suffering from an illness the doctors knew
suffering       v     to hurt or feel pain
                                                                      little about.
                      to maintain or restrict within an area or
confined        v                                                     The prisoner was confined to a small cell in the jail.
                                                                      I relied on her good judgment to help us solve the
rely            v     to count on, to have confidence in something
                                                                      A narrow selection of the students was needed to
narrow          adj   pertaining to a limited scope or range
                                                                      determine the prize.
                      a question typically asked of a relatively      The trivia show on television was popular all over
trivia          n
                      obscure or unpopular fact                       the nation.
                                                                      There was an exorbitant amount of students
exorbitant      adj   relating to a great or incredible amount
                                                                      missing from the class on Friday.
                                                                      Melissa recited her poem to a roomfull of adoring
reciting        v     to say over again                                                                                        to practice
                      a moment in which a person becomes very         I had a panic attack when I realized I had forgotten
panic attack    n
                      scared or nervous                               the baby's food at the house.
                      the act of improvising or doing something on    The musician's improvisation of the classic hit was
improvisation   n
                      the spot                                        not well received.
                                                                      The skateboarder eluded the police by riding away
eluded          v     to avoid perception or grasp
                                                                      very quickly.
                      a functional unit in the makeup of a person     She was born to a family with strong genes for
gene            n
                      that determines his or her characteristics      cooking.

                                                                      There is a particular watch that I am interested in
particular      adj   relating to a certain thing or detail
                      pertaining to something that indicates or       Her high test scores were indicative of her
indicative      adj
                      demonstrates                                    dedication to studying hard for each exam.
Unit 58

                                                            It was time to make a rational decision on the
rational       adj   intelligent, well thought
                                                            My manager wanted to limit the number of hours I
limit          v     to restrict or restrain
                                                            could work each day.
                                                            Sara felt a certain amount of anxiety before leaving    a fearful
anxiety        n     nervousness, a sense of apprehension
                                                            for work that day.                                      concern
                                                            Stress can be extremely difficult to cope with on a
cope           v     to put up with                                                                                 to handle
                                                            daily basis.
challenges     n     something difficult to do              It was a challenge we were not prepared to deal with.

                                                            The trouble stemmed from an earlier problem that
stem           v     to branch off from                                                                             to come from
                                                            was never resolved.
                                                            The woman was inflexible in her decision to stay at
inflexible     adj   rigid                                                                                          adamant

flee           v     to run away                            The girl fleed from the house as it caught on fire      escape
                     pertaining to the literal or precise
literally      adj                                          He was literally afraid of spiders.
                     interpretation of something
                                                            Mary was in her comfort zone driving at a slow
comfort zone   n     where one feels comfortable
                                                            Hysteria ensued at the announcement of free
ensues         v     to take place afterward                                                                        to result
                                                            tickets for the concert.
crippling      adj   loss of force or power                 The news was a crippling blow to her ego.               weakening
urges          n     a desire                               I felt the urge to eat another chocolate bar.           an impulse
                                                            There was a bewildering number of options available
bewildering    adj   confusing                                                                                      perplexing
                                                            for insurance coverage.
                                                            "Raining like cats and dogs" is a metaphor for
metaphor       n     a figure of speech based on analogy
                                                            raining strongly.
abuse          n     inproper treatment                     Animal abuse is not tolerated in this country.          harm
unavoidable    adj   not avoidable                          His capture at the border was unavoidable.
repressed      v     to restrict                            He repressed his urges to go out that night.            to oppress
                                                            The trauma Jane experienced as a youth still affects
trauma         n     an injury                                                                                      an upset
                                                            her today.
risky          adj   dangerous                              The behavior is risky at best.                          hazardous
Unit 59

sought          v     to look for                                  We sought legal advise in the matter                    to request
                                                                   A camera can be defined as a deviced used to take       to determine
define          v     to give meaning to something
                                                                   pictures.                                               identity
                                                                                                                           a unifying
bond            n     a union                                      Love is a bond that keeps people together.
assume          v     to think                                     He assumed that all that glitters was gold.             to consider
platonic        adj   friendly                                     They had a platonic relationship outside of work.

universal       adj   world-wide, covering all things              It was a universal goal to create world peace.
lust            n     sexual desire                                His feelings of lust for the woman were unbearable.     craving

recognized      v     to take notice                               She recognized that he was not the man for her.         to understand
                                                                   There were controls in place to ensure that
controls        n     something used to control something else
                                                                   everything worked properly
                                                                   Harry was passionate about taking group
passionate      adj   having intense feelings                                                                              impassioned
                                                                   photographs at the parties.
consciously     adj   having a noticeable thought or observation   He consciously made up his mind to quit his job.        aware
                                                                   She refrained from using any more of the
refrain         v     to keep from doing something                                                                         to abstain
connotation     n     a suggested meaning                          The connotation of his remark was quite negative.

homosexuality   n     of being attracted to the same sex           His homosexuality was not a secret.
                                                                   The strictest interpretation of the law was used
strictest       adj   stringent                                                                                            severe
lasts           v     to endure                                    The movie lasted for more than three hours.             to continue
                                                                   His idea originated from something he had read
originated      v     to come from, to begin at
                                                                   years ago.
                                                                   The results suggested that the hypothesis was
suggest         v     to bring to mind or imply                                                                            to hint
                                                                   Her erotic fantasies were a secret to the rest of the
erotic          adj   arousing sexual desire
                                                                   Taking a basic mathematics course is a prerequiste
prerequisite    n     something needed beforehand
                                                                   for algebra.
Unit 60

reserved         adj   restrained                                        Her actions at the gathering were quite reserved.       quiet
                                                                         John was one of the more gregarious guests at the
gregarious       adj   happy, social                                                                                             sociable
dichotomous      adj   relating to two opposing parts                    Their views on the issue were dichotomous.
                                                                         The mayor's opinion fluctuated depending on who
fluctuate        v     to vary                                                                                                   swing
                                                                         he was talking to.
                                                                         Ambiversion is not a very common quality for a
ambiversion      n     of being both introverted and extroverted
                                                                         person to have.
                                                                         The woman decided to do some research about the
research         n     investigation, experimentation
                                                                         Her favorite CD comprised musics of different
comprised        v     to make up, to compose
                                                                         His predisposition to arguing was not taken well by
predisposition   n     to be susceptible to something                                                                            inclination
                                                                         the faculty.
                                                                         The dimensions of the table were two feet deep by 3
dimension        n     a measurement, the size of something
                                                                         feet wide.
                                                                         My first impression of the student was that he was
impressions      n     a characteristic or trait given by something                                                              an idea
                                                                         very lazy.
                                                                         Dr. Martly queried about the results of the
queried          v     to ask, to inquire                                                                                        to question
                                                                         laboratory exam.
limitations      n     a restriction, a restraint                        Few limitations seemed to apply to the man.
                                                                         The defendant felt he was misrepresented in the
misrepresent     v     to give false information, to mislead
initial          adj   first, beginning                                  Dan's initial reaction was one of frustration.
                       the outer or superficial part of a structure in   The brain's cortex is responsible for processing high
cortex           n
                       the body, such as the cerebral cortex             mental functions.
introvert        n     a person who is shy or unsociable                 Jason was known as being an introvert.
                                                                         Although he is an extrovert, he was not very
extrovert        n     a person who is sociable or gregarious
                                                                         talkative last evening.
                                                                         His delinquent behavior earned him the reputation
delinquent       adj   poor or unacceptable
                                                                         as a bad child.
                                                                         I have a tendency to want to eat out on Thursday
tendency         n     being prone to a particular action
prefer           v     to like better, to put before something else      Would you prefer to drink coffee or tea?
Unit 61         Parts   Definition                                        Sentence                                                Synm

                                                                          There is an overlap between the fields of linguistics
overlap         n       having something in common
                                                                          and psychology.
                                                                          The commissioner lashed out at the actions of the       to become
lash out        v       to strike out
                                                                          baseball player.                                        angry
perceived       v       to become aware, to understand                    I perceived his response as being negative.
                                                                          His behavior seemed very juvenile for a man of 37
juvenile        adj     relating to youth                                                                                         childish
                                                                          years of age.
                                                                          We were committed to the company because of our
commit          v       to do, to carry out                                                                                       to obligate
                                                                          two year contract with them.
                                                                          It was a compulsive disorder the doctor was trying
compulsive      adj     done without thinking                                                                                     obsessive
                                                                          to treat.
                                                                          The crimes were linked to each other by the police
linked          v       to connect, to couple
                                                                          The chain became detached from the bicycle during
detach          v       to separate, to take apart
                                                                          the ride.
honors          n       a good showing, of having merit                   He passed the exams with honors.
                                                                          The two ideas were confused in the mind of the
confuse         v       to cause indistinction, to lose differentiation
                                                                          His habitual drunkenness caused him to be denied
habitual        adj     happening on a regular basis                                                                              customary
                                                                          citizenship in his new country.
sensational     adj     wonderful, incredible                             It was a sensational performance.
superficially   adv     on the surface, as seen by the eye                Superficially, his actions seemed to be quite decent.
craved          v       to want, to desire                                The pregnant woman craved soup every day.
                                                                          His domination of the sport was recorded in the
domination      n       complete control, supremacy
                                                                          history books.
                        of not having ability, lack of power or           The student's inability to do well in mathematics
inability       n
                        resources                                         was more psychological than real.
remorse         n       a sense of guilt                                  The criminal felt no remorese for his actions.          reproach
                        being of lesser quality, of a lower degree or     Although the products were inexpensive, they were
inferior        adj                                                                                                               mediocre
                        rank                                              of inferior quality.
unstable        adj     not stable, not constant                          The construction was unstable and soon fell down.       irregular

                                                                          Impulsiveness is generally not considered to be a
impulsiveness   n       having impulse, spontaneity
                                                                          good characteristic in a person.
Unit 62

distinct                  adj   different, separate                               The two theories were distinct in nature.                 discrete
                                                                                  The two gentlemen interacted over dinner at the
interacting               v     to have contact, to act upon something else
                                                                                  His identity was not revealed until after the trial was
identity                  n     a distinguishing characteristic                                                                             a description
                                                                                  Multiple choice tests are a favorite of college
multiple                  adj   more than one, several
                                                                                  She suffered a fracture to her wrist as result of the
fractures                 n     a slight crack or break
                                                                                  He altered the recipe by reducing the salt and
alter                     v     to change, to make different
                                                                                  adding some cumin.
                                of having information or having learned           The professor's knowledge of the subject was
knowledge                 n
                                something                                         incredibly high.
                                                                                  The group reached a consensus after much
consensus                 n     a general agreement                                                                                         unity of belief
                                                                                  It was apparent that the student had studied a great
apparent                  adj   clear, obvious
                                                                                  deal for the final exam.
                                                                                  The patient desired hypnosis to see if her problems
hypnosis                  n     a trance, as if being asleep
                                                                                  could be revealed.
                                                                                  The paramedics tried to revive the elderly man but it
reviving                  v     to bring back to life, to restore consciousness
                                                                                  was no use.
                                                                                  The athlete's inclusion in the hall of fame was a
inclusion                 n     of being included, of being part of something
                                                                                  great honor.
                                                                                  The woman sent her passport to the consulate to
renewed                   v     to make new again, to restore                                                                               to replenish
                                                                                  have it renewed.
                                                                                  People in the pueblo united to celebrate their
unite                     v     to join, to bring together
                                                                                  independence day.
                                of identifying a disease or reaching a            Dr. Jones's diagnosis was that the man had broken
diagnosis                 n
                                conclusion                                        his ankle.
antidepressants           n     a drug given to alleviate depression              Some people receive antidepressants unnecessarily.

tranquillizers(tranquil                                                           The young man was given a tranquilizer after the car
                          n     a drug given to make a person more calm
izers로 수 정 )                                                                      accident.
prognosis                 n     a prediction                                      The prognosis for the man's health was not good.          a forecast

                                an idea or perception that is not based on        He suffered hallucinations of robbers in his house
hallucinations            n
                                reality                                           after taking an illicit drug.
                                                                                  We integrated the ideas of the committee in the
integrate                 v     to bring together, to blend                                                                                 to unite
                                                                                  revision of our proposal.
Unite 63

                                                                      Hearing loss is a common impairment among elderly
impairment      n     a condition of being damaged or hurt
                                                                      Losing control of one's balance is a dysfunction of
dysfunction     n     an abnormal or incorrect function
                                                                      the eustachian tube.
loosely         adj   not rigid or secure                             The bolt was loosely fastened to the mirror.

madness         n     a state of craziness, mad                       Her madness did not allow her to work in public.        insanity
                      a disease characterized by loss of cognitive    A common cause of dementia is Alzheimer's
dementia        n
                      function                                        disease.
                                                                      His performance at the concert exhibited his great
exhibits        v     to show                                                                                                 to display
                                                                      Arriving to work on time everyday demonstrated the
demonstrate     v     to display, to prove
                                                                      new secretary's sense of responsibility.

delusions       n     a false belief                                  He had delusions of becoming the next tennis star.

                      characterized by having large or oversized      The boy's exaggeratedly quiet behavior led his
exaggeratedly   adv
                      proportions                                     parents to believe he had an emotional problem.
                                                                      A disturbance at the convention would be
disturbance     n     something disurbed, unrest
                                                                      The student's writing style was inappropriate for the
inappropriate   adj   not appropriate                                                                                         unsuitable
                                                                      college level.
                                                                      My recovery from the fall took longer than
recovery        n     the process or act of recovering
                                                                      The causes of some mental disorders are not fully
causes          n     a reason for a condition or action
                                                                      She inherited a lot of money when her grandfather
inherited       v     to be given, to be born with
self-esteem     n     a person's belief of or value for himself       A low self-esteem will not get you anywhere.
                                                                      The man's wealth did him no good when he was
wealth          n     having a lot of something, particularly money
                                                                      diagnosed with a terminal illness.
                                                                      The patient received psychotherapy after being
psychotherapy   n     therapy for the mind
                                                                      diagnosed with a mental disorder.
                      an unhealthy state, pertaining to some types
infection       n                                                     I had to take antibiotics to cure my ear infection.
                      of illness
                      pertaining to youth before reaching             In adelolescence people go through many emotional
adolescence     n
                      adulthood                                       changes.
cure            n     a solution                                      The cure for cancer has not been found.                 a remedy
Unit 64

                                                                        A significant change in events ocurred over the
significant        adj   having meaning, often to a large degree
                                                                        His state of depression made him want to sleep all
depression         n     a state of feeling sad or moody
                         a psychological disorder characterized by      The medication is designed for a strong bipolar
bipolar disorder   n
                         mood swings from happiness to sadness          disorder.
                                                                        This instance constitutes the fourth time you are
constitutes        v     to make up, to comprise                                                                                 to compose
                                                                        late for work this week.
                                                                        A pathological condition needs to be diagnosed by
pathological       adj   related to illness or disease
                                                                        a medical doctor.
manic              adj   related to excitement                          The actions were extremely manic.
                         characterized by being dependent on
dependency         n                                                    A baby has a dependency with his or her mother.
                         something else
                         a method for measuring a mental                The patient was refered to the clinic for
psychoanalysis     n
                         phenomenon                                     psychoanalysis.
                                                                        The psychiatrist ordered the patient to take
psychiatrist       n     a doctor who treats psychological disorders
                                                                        medicine to help treat the problem.
                                                                        She suffered a debilitating injury when she broke
debilitating       adj   pertaining to weakness
                                                                        her leg.
                                                                        There is a trend to offer patients medication for
trend              n     something popular at a particular time                                                                  tendency
                                                                        their psychological illnesses.
                         a place where a patient goes after leaving a
                                                                        He spent a month in the halfway house after being
halfway house      n     hospital or clinic but before going to their
                                                                        released from the hospital.
                         own home
                         something given as a motivation to do          The car dealership offered many incentives to buy a
incentive          n
                         something                                      new car.
                                                                        She overcame her bout with cancer after a
overcome           v     to win, to prevail                                                                                      to get better
                                                                        successful operation.
                                                                        I plan to contribute five percent of my earnings to
contribute         v     to give                                                                                                 to supply
                                                                        my retirement plan.
                                                                        He used different props on the stage to create the
props              n     something used to support or assist
                                                                        look of a jungle.
                                                                        Some of the children articulated their desire to go to
articulate         v     to say                                                                                                  to verbalize
                                                                        the zoo.
                                                                        The scientist added a stabilizer to the solution to
stabilizer         n     something used to stablize
                                                                        keep it from reacting.
                         a person who assists another in a clinical     The sports therapist was well known for his work
therapist          n
                         situation                                      with soccer players.
mood               n     a state of mind, an emotion                    He was in a bad mood after the party.
Unit 65

unrelated        adj   not related                                   The two crimes that evening were unrelated.             not associated
digits           n     numbers                                       The digits one and zero are used in a binary system.

                                                                     We converted the business losses into profits with
converted        v     to change, to make different
                                                                     a new sales plan.
binary           adj   consisting of ones and zeros.                 Binary systems are used in computer coding.
genius           n     a person of extreme intelligence              Susan was regarded as a genius by her peers.
                                                                     The options were limited to those selected by the
limited          adj   restricted                                                                                            reduced
                                                                     The comparisons between the two candidates were
comparisons      n     a state of comparing two elements
                                                                     offensive for some.
                                                                     Her reaction was interpreted as disinterest in the
interpret        v     to understand                                                                                         to conceive
                                                                     It is fortunate that we did not run out of gas on the
fortunately      adj   of being fortunate, of a fortunate manner
                                                                     way home.
                                                                     The time-consuming activity of counting all the
time-consuming   adj   something that takes time to complete or do
                                                                     papers was bothersome.
                                                                     The engine harnessed the power of one hundred
harnessed        v     to hold                                                                                               to sustain
                                                                     The assembly outside the president's house was
assembly         n     a gathering                                                                                           a group
                                                                     There was a tremendous amount of interest in the
tremendous       adj   to a great degree                                                                                     very large
                                                                     ski trip.
                                                                     We employed the help of a gardener to trim our
employ           v     to offer work, to pay for service
                                                                     Some of the segments of the recording were not
segments         n     a portion, a piece
retrieved        v     to recall, to bring                           The janitor retrieved the guest's missing watch.        to get
                                                                     The young boy has the mental capacity of a person
capacity         n     ability, skill                                                                                        aptitude
                                                                     twice his age.
                       a device for storing something such as        Computers now come with large hard drives that act
storage system   n
                       information                                   as storage systems.
                                                                     A few of the advancements in the project did not        an
advancements     n     a progression
                                                                     seem to be worthwhile.                                  improvement
executed         v     to do, to perform                             The computer executed multiple tasks easily.            to carry out
Unit 66

                                                                     Many generations of families have immigrated to
generations   n     a period of time relating to one's ancestry
                                                                     the United States from that country.
                    an instrument, something with a capability to    Modern telephone devices can be used when
devices       n
                    do something else                                traveling internationally.
efficient     adj   producing a quick effect                         His work in the kitchen was efficient.                   effective
                                                                     The sewing pattern was not as complicated as it
pattern       n     a form or model
                                                                     The theory lacked any real evidence that it would
lack          v     to be in need of something                                                                                to be deficient
                    a device used to change a pattern or the state
switches      n                                                      There were many light switches in the house.
                    of something
                    the study of the motion of objects, such as      The government spent much money on
ballistics    n
                    of firearms                                      modernizing their ballistics.
                    a device which explodes with the intent of       The terrorist threatened to use a bomb if his
bomb          n                                                                                                               an explosive
                    harming something                                requests were not granted.
                                                                     Some of the memory modules in the computer had
modules       n     a piece, a segment
                                                                     The circuit board was rewired to work properly in
rewired       v     to wire again
                                                                     the new machine.
                                                                     The computer input allowed the company to
input         n     something that is put in
                                                                     modernize their billing process.
                                                                     The error was costly because it meant we had to
costly        adj   expensive, demanding a high price
                                                                     start the project over again.
                                                                     New computers come with two independent
processor     n     a device used for processing information
                                                                     Silicon is often used in plastic surgery as it retains
silicon       n     a flexible plastic-like substance
                                                                     its shape and softness for a long time.
                                                                     The durability of the camera was deemed
durability    n     the amount time something works or endures
primary       adj   first                                            My primary laptop battery died last night.
                                                                     Getting her degree was a means to having a higher        something
means         n     something useful, a way to do something
                                                                     quality of life.                                         helpful
circuits      n     an electrical path or assembly                   Electronic equipment is full of circuits.
                                                                     The shoes were more affordable than I thought they
affordable    adj   within a price range that a person can pay for
                                                                     would be.
                                                                     Recent innovations in technology help us
innovations   n     an invention                                     communicate with friends and family around the
Unit 67

                                                                  He maintained his idea even though others
maintain         v     to keep, to carry on                                                                             to sustain
analyze          v     to examine                                 We analzyed the question from all possible angles.    to study
                       a count of something, typically of the     A census is taken in the United States every ten
census           n
                       population                                 years.
                                                                  The company divested itself from all dealings
divested         v     to deprive or rid                                                                                to free
                                                                  outside of the country.
                                                                                                                        opposite of
consumer         n     a person who buys or consumes something    The consumer computer market is booming.
                                                                  The media-savvy viewers knew that the
media-savvy      adj   to be smart or informed about the media
                                                                  advertisement was false.
                                                                  The theory concentrates on a post-modern view of
concentrates     v     to bring together or gather                                                                      to focus
                                                                  the world.
                                                                  The company decided to invest in niche markets
niches           n     a small, specialized market
                                                                  The game consoles were a popular item during
consoles         n     a case or cabinet
                                                                  The comment fueled criticism of the director's
fueled           v     to motivate                                                                                      to encourage
                       a person who explains or interprets        Some language interpreters charge high rates for
interpreters     n
                       something                                  their service.
                                                                  He worked in conjunction with the other members
conjunction      n     connection                                                                                       combination
                                                                  of the staff.
                                                                  Missy's loyalty to the company was praised by the
loyalty          n     to be faithful or loyal                                                                          fidelity
stable           adj   fixed, not flexible                        A stable table is needed to do the craftwork.
                                                                  His dominance on the basketball court was
dominance        n     the state of having complete control                                                             domination
                                                                  Few customers came to the grand opening of the
customer         n     a person who buys or shops for a product
                                                                  new store.

revenues         n     money made from sales                      Revenues for the third quarter were up ten percent.   income
                       an electronic device used to process       The price of microprocessors continues to
microprocessor   n
                       information                                decrease.
margin           n     an outside limit, a difference             The margin for error was very low in the operation.

                                                                  Jake bought a cutting-edge computer system after
cutting-edge     n     brand new                                                                                        innovative
                                                                  the demonstration.
Unit 68

peaked        v     to reach a high or maximum point                 The students' grades peaked about 85%
                                                                     The two writers were compared to each other for
compared      v     to make a comparison, to look for similarities
                                                                     their work on American literature.
                                                                     A worldwide company has the benefit of being able
worldwide     adj   around the world
                                                                     to work in many different countries.
                                                                     He gave the command to move the tanks to the
commands      n     an order, a signal
                                                                     My teacher assigned a homework problem I could
assigned      v     to give significance, to appoint
                                                                     not figure out.
stored        v     to keep, to put away                             We stored many old records in the attic.
                                                                     The woman has managed the restaurant for the past
managed       v     to take care of                                                                                          to conduct
                                                                     five years.
concern       n     a state of interest and uncertainty              I expressed my concern in the girl's health.            apprehension
demand        n     a request made with authority                    The judge's demands seemed too severe.                  an order
reliable      adj   dependable                                       My car is not very reliable.

broadband     adj   composed of a wide bandwidth of frequency        The broadband internet connection is very fast.

                    a device used to transmit information from       The communications satellite lost its signal with the
satellite     n
                    the sky                                          Earth.
                                                                     She made great strides in improving interior
strides       v     a step, a stage of progress
                                                                     His speech impediment was hardly noticeable after
impediment    n     an obstruction                                                                                           a hinderance
                                                                     the therapy ended.
compete       v     to partake in competition                        I do not like to compete as much as my sister does.

                                                                     She widened her horizons by getting a college
widen         v     to make wider, to broaden
                                                                     The range of possibilities for the startup company
ranges        n     a spectrum, a set of values
                                                                     seemed endless.
                                                                     The weatherman predicted that it would snow
predict       v     to declare something in advance                                                                          to foretell
deciphering   v     to figure out                                    The researchers deciphered the old written texts.

ubiquitous    adj   being in all places at one time                  His spirit seemed to be ubiquitous that day.
Unit 69

literature      n     a piece of writing, such as a novel          Modern literature has a broad range of styles.
unequivocally   adj   without exception or doubt                   She made her comment unequivocally.
                      to be good at something or have good
savvy           adj                                                The tech savvy student made a great presentation.
                      knowledge of something
                                                                   Customer feedback tends to help companies judge
feedback        n     a response
                                                                   their effectiveness.
                                                                   He was no longer considered a contender for the
contender       n     a participant in a contest
                                                                   championship title.
profits         n     earnings that exceed expenses                The company's profits were at an all time high.
                                                                   There were two modes available to correct the
modes           n     a way of doing something                                                                            a manner
                                                                   We developed a plan to have the troops out in one
developed       v     to set forth, to make something happen
                      the ability or permission to be able to do
access          n                                                  I was not granted access to the website.
                                                                   His version of the story today did not coincide with
versions        n     a particular account or description
                                                                   his earlier account.
current         adj   happening at the present time                The current belief is that the defendant is guilty.

displays        v     to show, to demonstrate                      He displayed great courage when rescuing the cat.

wane            v     to become smaller                            Interest in the project waned after several months.    to decrease
virtual         adj   seeming to be real                           The virtual reality TV program was a big hit.
                                                                   Blogs are popular among teenagers and young
blogs           n     a posting page on an internet web site
tasks           n     a job                                        One of his tasks included fixing the sink.             a duty
                                                                   The salesman was not readily available to answer the
readily         adj   easily, quickly
like-minded     adj   pertaining to thinking alike                 My best friend and I are like-minded.
general         adj   not specified or limited                     The report was very general in its information.
                                                                   An astonishing amount of students were absent
astonishing     adj   incredible                                                                                          surprising
                                                                   from class.
Unit 70

                                                                     Her mom didn't anticipate the bad news from her
anticipate     v     to think or discuss something in advance
                                                                     Michael deliberately decided to not answer the
deliberately   adj   with careful thought or anticipation                                                                   voluntary
interfere      v     to get in the way, to interpose                 Please do not interfere in this matter.
                                                                     The minor was corrupted by some of the older
corrupt        adj   to change from good to bad                                                                             to spoil
                                                                     people in the neighborhood.
illustrates    v     to display, to show                             The book illustrates how to construct a fence.
malicious      adj   marked by malice, bad                           The man's malicious remarks alarmed the citizens.
replicate      v     to make a copy, to repeat                       Policemen tried to replicate the crime.                to duplicate
relatively     adv   loosely, somewhat                               The answer was relatively on target.
inflicted      v     to cause                                        The punishment was inflicted by the older boy.
                                                                     The champion tennis player exploited the
exploit        v     to take advantage of                                                                                   to make use of
                                                                     weakenesses of his opponents.
intends        v     to plan, to have in mind                        I intend to talk to the teacher as soon as possible.
                                                                     Soldiers from the neighboring country invaded the
invade         v     to enter territory illegally                                                                           to encroach
                                                                     town unexpectedly.
globe          n     a round model representing the Earth            My friend bought a globe for his house.
havoc          n     massive disorder or confusion                   The hurricane caused havoc in the city.
nuisance       n     an annoyance                                    She was a real nuissance in the classroom.
                                                                     New plumbing was constructed to drain water from
drain          v     to empty, to draw off
                                                                     the patio.
vigilance      n     to be vigilant, characterized by watchfulness   We bought a dog to provide vigilance for the house.
                                                                     The couple tried to minimize their differences to      to keep to a
minimize       v     to make as small as possible
                                                                     save their marriage.                                   minimum
                                                                     The prominence of the theory made all other
prominence     n     something prominent, of having great notice
                                                                     theories seem insignificant.
issues         n     a conclusion or decision                        Several issues were brought up at the meeting.
Unit 71          Parts   Definition                                       Sentence                                               Synm

                                                                          Although less common years ago, piracy is
piracy           n       robery, often at sea
                                                                          becoming more common these days.
                         to falsely sign or alter a document or other
forgery          n                                                        Forgery is a criminal offense.
sources          n       the origin of something                          We have good sources for the information.
                                                                          The teenagers were charged with the vandalism of
vandalism        n       purposeful destruction of property
                                                                          the neighbor's fence.
                                                                          The woman wished to remain anonymous in the
anonymous        adj     without a name                                                                                          unidentified
                                                                          Four of the perpetrators were captures shortly after
perpetrators     n       a person who commits a crime
                                                                          the incident.
victim           n       a person harmed by a crime or event              One of the victims lived to tell the story.
                                                                          Identity theft is quickly becoming a major problem
identity theft   n       robbery of personal data or information
                                                                          for the society.
                                                                          Her false statements in the courtroom caused the
false            adj     untrue                                                                                                  not genuine
                                                                          dismissal of the case.
utilize          v       to use                                           Try to utilize all of the materials.
                                                                          The young professor went to the conference
networking       n       the use or creation of a network
                                                                          primarily for networking.

spam             n       junk mail sent electronically                    Spam filled the inboxes of the email subscribers.

estimate         v       to provide an approximate value                  We requested an estimate for fixing the garage door.
espionage        n       the act of spying                                Espionage is practiced by many countries.
                                                                          The counterfeit money was confiscated by the
counterfeit      n       false, fake
                         relating to a practice or promotional versions
demo             n                                                        The band recorded a demo of their songs.
                         of something
                         to take control of a vehicle against someone's
hijacked         v                                                        The terrorists hijacked the plane.
legitimate       adj     true, correct                                    She had a legitimate excuse to miss class.
recent           adj     happening a short time ago                       The recent news of the victory made the fans happy.

dashboard        n       the console of a car or vehicle                  The speedometer is located on the car's dashboard.
Unit 72

widespread     adj   very common, spread out greatly            There was widespread panic at the event.              prevalent
inherent       adj   innate, essential                          The inherent danger of the plan was not recognized.   intrinsic

intention      n     plan, goal                                 His intentions were clear.                            resolve
permitted      v     to allow, to let something happen          I was permitted access to the concert.
                     bothersome, something that interrupts      The student's comments in the class were quite
disruptive     adj
                     something else                             disruptive.
circulating    v     to move in a circle, to move around        The news circulated around the town quickly.          to revolve
contained      v     to hold or to have                         The jar contained some delicious spices.
fraudulent     adj   not authorized                             She reported fraudulent use of her credit card.       deceitful
                                                                Many precautions to ensure the children's safety
precautions    n     of taking advanced care                                                                          safeguard
                                                                were in place.
                                                                The incidence of teen pregnancy was quite high that
incidence      n     rate of occurrence
                                                                The distributor for the juice company is very
distributors   n     someone who distributes
                                                                You must exercise caution when participating in
caution        n     forethought or precaution                                                                        warning
                                                                that sport.
                     with frequency, relating to how frequent   John frequently asked questions I was not able to
frequently     adv
                     something happens                          answer.
                                                                The analyst tracked the sales reports for the
track          v     to follow                                                                                        to trace
detect         v     to notice, to discover                     He detected the smell of gas in the apartment.
ensure         v     to make sure, to guarantee                 I ensure you that the job will be ready on time.
                                                                The candidate secured the nomination by winning
secure         v     to fasten, to guarantee
                                                                the most votes.
                                                                Her random telephone calls to the sales agency had
random         adj   without a definite pattern or method
                                                                They prevented the burglary by building a high
preventing     v     to keep from happening                                                                           to hold back

extreme        adj   existing to a high degree                  Extreme measures were taken to ensure their safety.
Unit 73

reflect          v     to turn back, to send back light              The image was reflected in the car's mirror.
                                                                     The remarks in the meetings were not
commonplace      adj   common, usual
                                                                     He was able to advance his theory greatly in one
decade           n     a period of ten years

dubbed           v     to call                                       She was dubbed the next great promise in her sport.      to name
                                                                     The distrustful manager constantly monitored his
distrustful      adj   not trustworthy, showing distrust
substitute       n     something put in place of another             The substitute teacher was afraid of the students.
parcel           n     a piece of mail                               The parcel service was quite slow.                       a package
                                                                     His memory of the event had been displaced in
displace         v     to move to another place                                                                               to misplace
                                                                     Fortunately the ski gloves were more inexpensive
inexpensive      adj   not expensive, economical                                                                              cheap
                                                                     than I thought.
tactile          adj   relating to touch                             The boy's tactile sense was diminished after the fall.   tangible

                       pertaining to meteors, happening to a great   The meteoric rise of the price of stocks and bonds
meteoric         adj
                       degree                                        shocked the government.

bulk             adj   in great quantity or degree                   The grocery store sold many of its products in bulk.
                                                                     Hank's unwanted remarks caused quite a bit of
unwanted         adj   not wanted
                                                                     It is unfortunate that you did not receive your
unfortunate      adj   not fortunate                                                                                          unsuitable
                                                                     documents in time.
                                                                     We took careful consideration when making our
considerations   n     a thought or opinion
                                                                     Sensory neurons take information from the body
sensory          adj   related to the senses
                                                                     and carry it to the brain.

formality        n     of being formal                               Defending her thesis now seemed only a formality.        a convention
                                                                     It is considered good etiquette to chew with your
etiquette        n     pertaining to manners or customs
                                                                     mouth closed.
postal           adj   relating to mail service                      The postal service is very efficient in that town.

gratitude        n     of being grateful                             She showed her gratitude by baking him a cake.           thankfulness
Unit 74

                      a feeling of fulfillment, fulfilling a need or
satisfaction    n                                                      Customer satisfaction is guaranteed at this store.
interior        n     the inside part of something                     The car's interior was in excellent condition.
realms          n     a domain                                         The realms of the king reached far and wide.             an area
envisioned      v     to have a vision, to imagine something           I envision a great success for our company.              to think
solely          adv   by itself, alone                                 She is solely responsible for her success.               singly
                                                                       The irrelevant comment did not go with the
irrelevant      adj   not relevant, inapplicable
cumbersome      adj   troublesome, not easy                            It was combursome to build the ping pong table.

                      having a high level of sophistication, not       A sophisticated desgin is needed to sell the
sophisticated   adj
                      simple                                           product.
                      having significant meaning in relation to
relevant        adj                                                    The comment seemed relevant but in fact it was not.      pertinent
                      something else
                      a main office, an administrative building or     The company's headquarters are located in
headquarters    n
                      center                                           Albuquerque, NM.
cluster         n     a group or gathering of something                A cluster of antiques was found in the attic.
                                                                       Our family's income skyrocketed when my mom got
skyrocket       v     to rise quickly, to increase at a fast pace
                                                                       a great job.
complex         adj   of being difficult, not easy                     Some mathematics formulas are very complex.
                                                                       Her complimentary remarks of my performance
complimentary   adj   pertaining to a compliment, favorable
                                                                       made me happy.

                                                                       What I thought was a novel idea turned out to be
novel           adj   new                                                                                                       original
                                                                       something someone else had already thought of.

zoom            v     to enlarge, to get closer                        I made the camera zoom in on the object.
                                                                       Her engagement to the old friend made her family
engagement      n     an arrangement
complacent      adj   unconcerned, self-satisfied                      A complacent attitude to success is not good.
undisputed      adj   not in dispute, unchallenged                     His place at the top of the sport is undisputed.
                                                                       The web site is innovative in the sense that it allows
innovative      adj   creative, new
                                                                       its users to share in its design.
Unit 75

various           adj   not consistent                                   He received various complaints about his work.         variable

multifunctional   adj   having many functions                            It helps to be multifunctional in todays busy world.
                                                                         The complexity of the problem was not fully realized
complexity        n     level of difficulty                                                                                     complex
                                                                         until later.
                                                                         Mary's social network allowed her to meet new
networks          n     a group of elements linked together
                                                                         friends easily.
image             n     a picture or reproduction of something           An image of the Virgin Mary appeared in the town.
overall           adj   all encompassing, most general                   The overall trend was positive.
                                                                         The singer put on a dynamic performance at the
dynamic           adj   having force or energy
                                                                         concert last night.
                                                                         That the car's engine would die suddenly was not
foreseen          v     having been imagined                                                                                    anticipated
                                                                         foreseen by the mechanics.
equivalent        n     having the same value                            The two answers were believed to be equivalent.        equal

                                                                         We need a piece of cable that is more flexible than
flexible          adj   bendable, not rigid                                                                                     pliant
                                                                         this one.
striving          v     to work fore, to contend                         He strives to be the best person he can be.
                                                                         The underlying idea is that descriptive grammar
underlying        adj   basic, lying underneath                          accounts for how people speak better than
                                                                         prescriptive grammar.
                                                                         The work done by the contractor complies with the
complies          v     to conform                                                                                              to adapt
                                                                         necessary quality demanded by the city.
                                                                         He outlined his theory by covering its most central
outline           v     to give a plan, to show a direction
                                                                         He formatted his paper using the guidelines of the
formatted         v     to make in a particular way                                                                             to arrange
                                                                         Typically, you want to make more money than you
typically         adv   normally, generally
                                                                         The website's backbone is resistent to outside
backbone          n     structure, a chief characteristic of something
                                                                         His point of view on the subject did not conform
conforms          v     to be similar, to take on a particular shape
                                                                         with the ideas of the other people.
                        something that serves, a device used to relay    The computer servers worked twenty-four hours a
server            n
                        information                                      day.
                        pertaining to something that occurrs at the
actual            adj                                                    The actual time is 11:58 AM.                           current
                        present time
Unit 76

                                                                    The concept of waiting another day did not exist for
concept        n     soething conceived, a notion                                                                            a thought
                                                                    the boy.
glimpsed       v     to look quickly                                We glimpsed at the movie star as she rushed by.

                     the act of navigating, of moving an object
navigation     n                                                    The captain's navigation skills were extraordinary.
                     such as a ship from one place to another
                                                                    The children at the camp were clamoring for              to make a loud
clamoring      v     to vye, to try
                                                                    attention.                                               noise
sectors        n     a piece, a segment                             Three of the sectors on the disk were bad.               a section
                                                                    Many people were drawn to the park by the music
drawn          v     to attract(?), to portray
                                                                    they heard
                                                                    There was not adequate people on hand to control
adequate       adj   sufficient, enough
                                                                    the crowd.
                                                                    The designer launched a new product at this year's
launch         v     to set off, to cause to begin                                                                           to embark
                                                                    fashion show.
                                                                    My endeavor to become a better tennis player has
endeavors      n     an effort, an activity
                                                                    been slow coming.
                                                                    The continuous sound of the girl's crying was
continuous     adj   free of interruption                                                                                    constant
                                                                    driving me crazy.
                                                                    Some of the manager's shortcomings were not
shortcomings   n     an imperfection                                                                                         a flaw
                                                                    noticed immediately.
                                                                    The lags in the information feed made it difficult for
lags           n     a period of being decreased or slowed down     the news station to present up-to-the-minute news
                                                                    The rice is comprised of two cups of water and one
compromise     v     to make up, to compose                                                                                  to constitute
                                                                    cup of rice.
                                                                    It is obvious that he does not want to come to work
obvious        adj   clear, easily seen                                                                                      evident
                                                                    The remote server sent information more slowly
remote         adj   far away, from afar                                                                                     distant
                                                                    than the closer ones.
                                                                    The shelving unit collapsed when we tried to move it
collapsed      v     to fall apart or inward                                                                                 to break down
                                                                    out of the house.
                                                                    The impetus for creating the new design was based
impetus        n     a driving force or stimulus                                                                             an impulse
                                                                    on the fact that no current design was working.
                                                                    His limiting treatment of his partner led to
limiting       adj   functioning as a limit                                                                                  restrictive
                                                                    The constant sound coming from the room was
constant       adj   occurring all the time, without interruption                                                            invariable
                                                                    annoying me.
rotation       n     the curve of something, the act of rotating    The unit's rotation seemed to be limited.
Unit 77

                                                                 She diverted his attention by bringing up a different
diverting      v     to turn aside, to deviate
coffers        n     a chest or box                              Many old coffers were stored in the attic.

artists        n     a person who is creative or makes art       Some of the artists at the show were quite famous.

                                                                 His aggressive nature did not go over well at the
aggressive     adj   showing aggression                                                                                    combative
                                                                 The segment of the population targetted in the ad
targeting      v     to aim for something                                                                                  to set a goal
                                                                 was young.
                                                                 Two of the violators were arrested on charges of
violators      n     a person who violates, disturbs
inception      n     beginning                                   Since its inception it has been widely coveted.           start

peer           n     a person who works alongside someone else   His peers in the class were supportive of his work.       companion
                                                                 One who plagiarizes does not give credit to the
credit         n     recognition, acknowledgement
                                                                 original author's work.
                     the act of using someone else's ideas or
plagiarism     n                                                 Plagiarism is not tolerated on the college campus.
                     words as if they were your own
                                                                 The protestors were not allowed to distribute their
distribute     v     to give out                                                                                           to scatter
                                                                 flyers near the school.
                                                                 The father gave his daughter consent to go on the
consent        n     permission                                                                                            approval
                                                                 weekend trip.
copyright            to break a law regarding the use of         Copyright infringement is a subject that can be
infringement         copyrighted work                            difficult to understand.
                                                                 We ran into a snag when we did not receive
snag           n     a difficulty, an obstacle
                                                                 permission to continue with our work.
                                                                 The guilty verdict was presented to the judge by the
verdict        n     a judgment in a court case                                                                            a finding
                                                                 head of the jury.
avoid          v     to keep away                                I tried to avoid the professor after I failed the test.
                                                                 The two boys said they would not assume liability
liability      n     accountability, something that is liable
                                                                 for the crash.
landmark       n     an obvious place or boundary                The Eiffel Tower is a landmark in Paris.
creation       n     something created or invented               Her creations in the kitchen were truly delicious.

                     of being more stiff or less flexible than   Stiffer punishments for the possession of illegal
stiffer        adj
                     something else                              drugs have curbed drug use.
Unit 78

                                                                       We ventured into the mountains with only our
venture         v     to go out, to explor
encounter       v     to find                                          She encountered her professor at the coffee shop.      to come upon
                                                                       Shaking your head is akin to saying you dislike
akin            adj   alike, related
                                                                       The proverbial remark was known by all members of
proverbial      adj   relating or resembling
                                                                       the committee.
                                                                       The man was so gullible that he believed everything
gullible        adj   easily fooled or cheated                                                                                innocent
                                                                       he was told.
                                                                       The worker was naïve to think that he would not be
naïve           adj   innocent, young-minded
                                                                       caught stealing.

schemes         n     a plan or action often considered deceptive      The scheme to win more voters did not work.
underestimate   v     to place low value on something                  I underestimated the ability of the boy.
                                                                                                                              to bring
lure            v     to attract                                       He tried to lure the fish with a new type of bait.
slang           n     a type of language that is considered informal   Kids love to use slang when they talk to each other.
solicitations   n     a request, a drawing force                       Solicitations were not allowed at the business.
                                                                       The contestant captured the majority of votes in the
captured        v     to get                                                                                                  to grab
                                                                       My call was redirected to the customer service
redirect        v     to send in another direction
                                                                       His vulnerability was considered a great weakness in
vulnerability   n     open to physical or emotional distress
                                                                       the campaign.
cons            n     something negative                               Fortunately for us, the pros outweighed the cons.

unsolicited     adj   not requested or asked for                       The unsolicited calls angered the older gentleman.     unwanted
vary            v     to differ                                        Answers may vary for this exercise.                    to deviate
ignorance       n     pertaining to not knowing something              Some say ignorance is bliss.
                                                                       He exploited his opponent's weakness by always
exploiting      v     to make use of, to utilize
                                                                       hitting the ball to his backhand side.
                                                                       The public attorney prosecuted his client's case
prosecuting     v     to engage in, to perform on
                                                                       with ease.
Unit 79

anonymity     n     of being anonymous, unknown                       I requested anonymity when I filed my complaint.

                                                                      He was accused of stalking the woman for several
stalking      v     to follow                                                                                                  to pursue
                                                                      Many of the victims of the hurricane lost their
victims       n     a person hurt by something
                                                                      She harassed the employee until he finally quit the
harassing     v     to bother, to annoy constantly                                                                             to worry
engage        v     to bring into contact                             He engaged our attention by telling a fantastic story.   to involve

                                                                      My intential omission of the material made my
intentional   adj   purposeful                                                                                                 voluntary
                                                                      professor angry.
                                                                      A variety of different styles are available for
variety       n     assorted, various
                                                                      purchase at this store.
obscenities   n     a bad word or rude comment                        Obscenities are not tolerated in public places.
                    a level piece of ground, often used for raising
platform      n                                                       He stood on the platform when he gave the speech.
                    an object
                    to show something is false or not
impugn        v                                                       The lawyer impugned the defendant's testimony.
claim         v     to say                                            She claimed that she was not at the park that night.     to request
                                                                      The explicit comment got the worker in a load of
explicit      adj   obvious, fully revealed                                                                                    definite
overwrite     v     to write over, to cover                           Do not overwrite the information on the disk.
                                                                      We regulated the activity by keeping it to only thirty
regulated     v     to impose regulation                                                                                       to adjust
                                                                      He did his work judiciously and was praised for his
judiciously   adv   responsibly                                                                                                wisely
venue         n     a place for doing something                       The venue for the concert changed three times.

pursue        v     to follow                                         I would like to pursue a degree in English.              to continue
kidnap        v     to take hostage and demand money                  The boy was kidnapped last night.
                                                                      Looking both ways before crossing the street is          reasonable
commonsense   n     good judgment
                                                                      commonsense.                                             thinking

particular    adj   concerned with specific details                   There is a particular order that needs to be followed.
Unit 80

awareness       n     state of being aware                           His awareness of the issue made us feel better.         consiousness
                                                                     Can you link the two crimes that occurred last
link            v     to relate, to put together
gathering       v     to bring together                              The net was used for gathering butterflies.             to assemble

integral        adj   central, of much importance                    Understanding the example is integral for success.      essential

                                                                     The company offered several benefits, such as
benefits        n     something useful or that promotes well-being
                                                                     health insurance, to its employees.
                                                                     Expanding your horizons will help you see the world
expanding       v     to grow                                                                                                to enlarge
                                                                     in different ways.
                                                                     Modern medicine improves our chances for living a
improves        v     to make better
                                                                     long life.
                                                                     Her employability was even greater since she spoke
employability   n     being able to be employed                                                                              hirable
                                                                     three languages.
poverty         n     pertaining to having little money              Twenty percent of the residents here live in poverty.

                                                                     The value of the new car decreased the moment it
value           n     the worth of something
                                                                     was driven off the lot.
                                                                     The product's longevity demonstrates its high
longevity       n     the amount of time something lasts                                                                     durability
                                                                     It is not easy to comprehend some of the processes      to grasp
comprehend      v     to understand
                                                                     involved in neurophysiology.                            meaning
                                                                     The manager limited the employees' breaks to
limits          v     to restrict, to inhibit                                                                                to restrain
                                                                     twenty minutes.
                                                                     The accumulation of snow on the ground happened
accumulation    n     buildup, something gathered
                                                                     very rapidly.
stake           n     an interest in the gain of something           We held a stake in the company's success.
                                                                     The integration of the different elements yielded an
integration     n     incorporation
                                                                     award winning product.
                                                                     We can leverage the voters by offering them
leverages       v     to lift, to increase
                                                                     reduced taxes.
durable         adj   longlasting                                    Some pants are not as durable as others.                strong
                                                                     Consumption of fruits and vegetables is on the
consumption     n     the act of consuming
impart          v     to give or grant                               She imparted some of her wisdom on me.                  to convey

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