MBA Preparation.xls

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					         English Words
S.No     and Meanings
                 Word List - 1
 1     abase         lower                    degrade                         humiliate

 2     abash         embarrass
       abate         subside or
 3     moderate

 4     abbreviate     shorten
                                               give up (position, right, or
 5     abdicate      renounce                 responsibility)

       aberrant      abnormal or
 6     deviant
       aberration     deviation from the
 7     normal                                 mental disorder

       abet         assist usually in
 8     doing something wrong                  encourage

 9     abeyance           suspended action
 10    abhor         detest                   hate
 11    abide        dwell                     abide by: comply with           put up with
       abject       (of a condition)
 12    wretched                               as low as possible              lacking pride

 13    abjure        renounce upon oath
 14    ablution      washing
 15    abnegation         renunciation        self-sacrifice                  self-abnegation
 16    abode         dwelling place           home
 17    abolish       cancel                   put an end to
 18    abominable         detestable          extremely unpleasant
 19    abominate          loathe              hate
       aboriginal    being the first of its
 20    kind in a region                       primitive                       native
21   abortive        unsuccessful           fruitless
22   abrasive        rubbing away           tending to grind down
     abridge         condense or
23   shorten
24   abrogate        abolish
25   abscission       cutting off           separation
     abscond          depart secretly
26   and hide
27   absolute        complete               totally unlimited            having complete power
     absolve         pardon (an
28   offense)
                                                                         intentionally not use one's
29   abstain        refrain                 withhold from participation vote
     abstemious        sparing in eating
30   and drinking                           temperate
     abstinence       restraint from
     pleasant things, esp. eating or         CF. abstention: act of
31   drinking                               abstaining from vote
32   abstract        theoretical            not concrete                 nonrepresentational
33   abstruse        obscure                profound                     difficult to understand

34   abusive         coarsely insulting     physically harmful
35   abut           border upon             adjoin
36   abysmal          bottomless

37   abyss          enormous chasm          vast bottomless pit
     academic         related to a           not practical or directly
38   school                                 useful
39   accede          agree
40   accelerate       move faster

41   accessible       easy to approach      obtainable
                                             useful but not essential
42   accessory        additional object     thing
43   acclaim         applaud                praise                       greet with great approval
     acclimate       adjust to climate or
44   environment                            adapt
     acclivity      sharp upslope of a
45   hill                                   OP. declivity
                                             strong praise and
46   accolade         award of merit        approval
     accommodate         oblige or help       adjust or bring into
47   someone                                 harmony                      adapt

48   accomplice       partner in crime
49   accord         agreement
     accost         approach and
50   speak first to a person
51   accoutre        equip                   N. accoutrement

     accretion       growth or increase
52   in size by gradual addition             growth                       increase
     accrue         come to one as a
53   gain                                    accumulate over time         come about by addition
     acerbity       bitterness of                                          acrid (in taste, manner, or
54   speech and temper                       ADJ. acerbic: bitter         tone)
55   acetic        vinegary
     acidulous       slightly sour (in
56   taste or manner)                        sharp                        caustic
57   acknowledge        recognize            admit
58   acme           peak                     pinnacle                     highest point
     acne          skin disease (on the
59   face)

                                              quality that makes a room
60   acoustics       science of sound        easy or hard to hear in
61   acquiesce        assent                 agree passively              comply without protest
     acquittal      deliverance from a        V. acquit: free from a
62   charge                                  charge or accusation         discharge from a duty
     acrid         bitter (to the taste or
63   smell)                                  sharp                        bitterly pungent
64   acrimonious       stinging              caustic                      bitter in words or manner
65   acrophobia       fear of heights
                                              pertaining to insurance
66   actuarial      calculating              statistics
     actuary        someone who
67   advises insurance companies
68   actuate        motivate                 activate                     cause to act

     acuity        sharpness (of mind
69   or senses of sight or hearing)
                                                                       ability to judge quickly and
70   acumen           mental keenness       sharpness of judgment      well
     acute         (of the senses)
71   sharp                                  quickly perceptive         keen
72   adage           wise saying            proverb
73   adamant           hard                 inflexible
     adapt         make or become
74   suitable for a specific use            alter                      modify

                                                                        something that is added (as at
75   addendum           addition            appendix to book           the end of a speech or book)
     addiction        compulsive
76   habitual need
     addle         make or become
77   confused                               muddle                     drive crazy

78   address          direct a speech to    speak to                   deal with or discuss
79   adept         expert at                very skilled
80   adhere          stick fast             be a devotd follower       N. adhesion: adhering
81   adherent         supporter             follower
82   adjacent         adjoining             neighboring                close by
83   adjoin       be next to
     adjourn         suspend until a         move from one place to
84   later time                             another

     adjunct         something attached
85   to but holding an inferior position
                                             V. adjure: entreat
86   adjuration       solemn urging         earnestly                  enjoin solemnly
     adjutant        staff officer
87   assisting the commander                assistant
     admonish          warn or speak to
88   with gentle disapproval                reprove
     adore         love deeply and
89   respect highly
90   adorn         decorate
     adroit       skillful (in using mind
91   or hand)

              Word List - 2
                                             admiration that is more
                                            than is necessary or
92   adulation        flattery              deserved
      adulterate       make impure or of
      poorer quality by adding inferior
      or tainted(contaminated)
93    substances
94    Advent          arrival
95    adventitious      accidental          casual                        happening by chance
96    adversary         opponent            enemy
97    adverse          going against        opposing                      unfavorable
      adversity        great hardship or
98    affliction                            misfortune                    calamitous event
99    advert          refer
                                             active pleading on behalf
100   advocacy          support             of someone or something

101   advocate         speak in favor of    support (an idea or plan)     urge
102   aegis          shield                 protection                    defense
      aerie(aery,eyrie,eyry) nest of a
103   large bird of prey

                                             dealing with or capable of
                                            appreciating the beautiful
104   aesthetic        artistic             (of a person or building)     CF. aesthete

105   affable        easily approachable easy to talk to                  warmly friendly
106   affected        artificial            pretended
      affidavit      written statement
      made under oath (for use as
107   proof in a court of law)
108   affiliation    joining                associating with
109   affinity       feeling of kinship     similarity                    Ex. strong affinity for her
                                                                           solemn pledge by one who
110   affirmation      positive assertion   confirmation                  refuses to take an oath

111   affliction     state of distress      trial                         cause of distress or suffering
112   affluence        abundance            wealth
113   affront        insult                 offense                       intentional act of disrespect
114   afterlife      life after death       later part of one's life
115   agape           openmouthed
      agenda           items of business
116   at a meeting
                                                                      V. agglomerate: gather into a
117   agglomeration        collection      heap                      rounded mass
                                            increase in power, wealth,
118   aggrandize          make greater     rank, or honor              N. aggrandizement
                                                                     ADJ. V: gather into a mass or
119   aggregate          sum               total                     whole
      aghast         filled with great
120   surprise or fear                     horrified
121   agility      nimbleness              ability to move quickly
122   agitate        stir up               disturb
      agnostic        one who is
      skeptical of the existence or
      knowability of a god or any
123   ultimate reality
124   agog           highly excited        intensely curious
      agrarian        pertaining to land
125   or its cultivation                   Ex. agrarian reform
126   airy         of air                  high in the air            lofty
      alacrity      cheerful promptness
127   without reluctance
      alchemy            medieval
128   chemistry
129   alcove         nook                  recess
      alias         an assumed name
      esp. by a criminal (usually to
130   mislead people)                      ADV. alias
      alienate       make unfriendly or
131   hostile                              estrange                   separate
      alimentary         supplying
132   nourishment
      alimony         payments made
      regularly to an ex-spouse after
133   divorce
134   allay         calm                   pacify

135   allege        state without proof
136   allegiance         loyalty
      allegory       story, play, or
      picture in which characters are
137   used as symbols                      fable
138   alleviate      relieve (pain)
      alliteration    repetition of
139   beginning sound in poetry
                                              set apart for a particular
140   allocate        assign                 purpose
                                           something added that
141   alloy          mixture as of metals lowers in value or purity        V: mix
                                           N. allusion: indirect
142   allude         refer indirectly     reference
143   allure         entice                  attract                       tempt
      alluvial       pertaining to soil
144   deposits left by running water
      alms           money or goods
145   given to the poor
146   aloft          upward                  high up in the air
                                              not open in one's
                                             relationship with other
147   aloof          apart                   people                        reserved
148   altercation      noisy quarrel

                                                                            N. altiruism: unselfish concern
149   altruistic     unselfishly generous concerned for others             for the welfare of others

                                              mixture of metals
      amalgam            combination of      (containing mercury) used
150   different things                       for filling holes in teeth
      amalgamate          (of societies or
151   groups) combine                        unite in one body

      amass            collect (gradually,
152   in a very large amount)
153   amazon             female warrior

      ambidextrous        capable of using
154   either hand with equal ease
                                                                            Ex. restraurant with a
155   ambience           environment         atmosphere                    pleasant ambience
      ambiguous           unclear or          having more than one
156   doubtful in meaning                    possible interpretation

      ambivalence         the state of
      having contradictory or conflicting
157   emotional attitudes or opinions
      amble            walking at an easy        V: walk slowly and
158   unhurried pace                            aimlessly

159   ambrosia           food of the gods
160   ambulatory         able to walk

      ambush             act of lying in wait    sudden attack made from
161   to attack by surprise                     a concealed position          Ex. lie in ambush
162   ameliorate         improve
163   amenable           obedient               compliant                     readily managed
164   amend             correct                 change                        generally for the better

                Word List - 3
      amenities         convenient
      features that helps to make life
165   pleasant                                  social courtesies
166   amiable           agreeable               lovable                       warmly friendly
167   amicable          peaceful                politely friendly             not quarrelsome
168   amiss            wrong                    faulty                        Ex. something amiss
                                                 peaceful relationship as
169   amity            friendship               between nations
170   amnesia           loss of memory
      amnesty           pardon (allowed
      by government to political
171   criminals)
      amok(amuck)          in a state of
172   rage                                      Ex. run amok
                                                 having no understanding
173   amoral           nonmoral                 of right and wrong
      amorous            moved by sexual
174   love                                      loving                        of sexual love

175   amorphous           formless              lacking shape or definition
      amphibian          able to live both
176   on land and in water                      N.
      amphitheater        oval building with
177   tiers of seats                            CF. arena
178   ample            enough                   abundant                      spacious
      amplify          increase in size or                                     broaden or clarify by
179   effect                                    expand                        expanding
      amputate           cut off part of
180   body                                      prune (a limb)
                                                                           an object worn believed to
181   amulet         charm                  talisman                      protect against evil, bad luck
      anachronism       an error            something or someone
182   involving time in a story             misplaced in time             ADJ. anachronistic
      analgesia       condition of being
183   unable to feel pain
      analgesic       causing
184   insensitivity to pain                 N.
185   analogous        comparable           similar

186   analogy        similarity             parallelism                   comparing two similar things
      anarchist      person who seeks
      to overturn the established            advocate of abolishing
187   government                            authority
      anarchy         absence of
188   governing body                        state of disorder
                                             someone or something
189   anathema         solemn curse         regarded as a curse           V. anathematize
190   ancestry       family descent         ADJ. ancestral
      anchor         secure or fasten
191   firmly                                be fixed in place             N. anchorage
      ancillary      serving as an aid or
192   accessory                             auxiliary                     N.
      anecdote        short story of an
193   amusing or interesting event

      anemia          condition in which
194   blood lacks red corpuscles            ADJ. anemic
      anesthetic      substance that
      removes sensation with or
195   without loss of consciousness         N. anesthesia
196   anguish        acute pain             extreme suffering
197   angular        sharp-cornered         having an angle               not rounded (body)
                                             V. animadvert: comment
198   animadversion      critical remark    critically with disapproval
199   animated        lively                spirited
200   animosity       active enmity
      animus         hostile feeling or
201   intent                                animosity                     hostility
      annals         records arranged in
202   yearly parts                          history
      anneal         reduce brittleness
      and improve toughness by
      heating and cooling (metal or
203   glass)
204   annex          attach                  add to a large thing          take possession of
205   annihilate     destroy
206   annotate        comment                make explanatory notes
207   annuity        yearly allowance
208   annul          make void
      anodyne           drug that relieves
209   pain or trouble                        opiate                        ADJ. Ex. anodyne statement
                                              put oil on (in a religious
210   anoint         consecrate              ceremony)
211   anomalous          abnormal            irregular
212   anomaly           irregularity
      anonymity         state of being
213   nameless                               anonymousness                 ADJ. anonymous
                                                                            V. antagonize: cause to
214   antagonism         hostility           active opposition             become an enemy
215   antecede          precede

      antecedents     preceding events ancestors or early
216   that influence what comes later  background
217   antediluvian      antiquated           extremely ancient
      anthem          song of praise or
218   patriotism                             Ex. national anthem
      anthology         book of literary
219   selections by various authors          CF. omnibus

220   anthropoid        manlike              resembling a human being N.

      anthropologist student of the
221   history and science of humankind
      anthropomorphic having human
222   form or characteristics
                                            something unexciting,
                                           ordinary, or disappointing
      anticlimax        letdown in thought coming after something
223   or emotion                           important or exciting
      antidote       remedy to                Ex. antidote to the
224   counteract a poison or disease         economic troubles
225   antipathy       aversion               dislike or opposition
226   antiquated       obsolete                 old-fashioned                 outdated
                                                 N: object that was made in
      antique        made in an earlier         an earlier period and that
227   period and usu. valuable                  is rare or valuable
      antiquity      quality of being very
228   old                                       ancient times
      antiseptic     substance that
229   prevents infection in a wound             ADJ.

230   antithesis     contrast                   direct opposite of or to      ADJ. antithetic or antithetical
      antler        bony growth on the
231   head of a deer
      anvil         iron block used in
232   hammering out metals
                                                                               lack of concern or interest in
233   apathy         lack of caring             indifference                  important matters
      ape           imitate or mimic (a
234   person's behavior or manner)
                                                                               adjustable opening in a
                                                                              camera that limits the amount
235   aperture        opening                   hole                          of light
236   apex          tip                         summit                        climax
      aphasia         loss of speech due
237   to injury or illness
      aphorism         pithy maxim or
238   saying                                    ADJ. aphoristic
      apiarist      person who keeps
239   bees
      apiary        a place where bees
240   are kept
241   apiculture      bee-keeping
                                                 composure in difficult
242   aplomb          poise                     situations                    assurance
                                                 pertaining to revelations
243   apocalyptic      prophetic                especially of disaster        N. apocalypse
      apocryphal          (of a story) widely
244   believed but untrue
                                                the point farthest from the
245   apogee          highest point             earth                         OP. perigee
      apolitical     having an aversion
      or lack of concern for political
246   affairs
      apologist       one who writes in
247   defense of a cause or institution    N. apologia
                                            loss of consciousness
                                           caused by too much blood
248   apoplexy         stroke              in the brain
      apostate        one who abandons
      his religious faith or political
249   beliefs                              N. apostasy
250   apothecary        druggist           pharmacist

                Word List - 4
      apothegm(apophthegm) pithy,
251   compact saying
      apotheosis       elevation to         an ideal example of
252   godhood                              something
253   appall        dismay                 shock deeply

254   apparent        evident              easily seen or understood   appearing as such
255   apparition      ghost                phantom

256   appease          pacify or soothe    Ex. appease a crying baby N. appeasement
257   appellation     name                 title
258   append          attach
259   application     diligent attention   diligence                   V. apply oneself
260   apposite        appropriate          fitting

261   appraise        estimate value of    N. appraisal
262   appreciate       be thankful for     increase in worth           be thoroughly conscious of

263   apprehend         arrest (a criminal) dread                      perceive
264   apprehensive       fearful           discerning
265   apprise        inform
266   approbation       approval
                                            take possession of for
                                           one's own use without        set aside for a particular
267   appropriate      acquire             permission                  purpose
      appurtenances       subordinate      something added to a
268   possessions                          more important thing
                                                                        Ex. remarks apropos (of) the
269   apropos         with reference to    regarding                   present situation
270   aptitude       fitness               talent
271   aquiline       curved                   hooked                     of or like an eagle

272   arable         fit for growing crops    Ex. arable land
                                        judge who is in a position
      arbiter     person with power to ot make influential                Ex. supreme arbiter of fashion
273   decide a matter in dispute       judgments                         in beachware
      arbitrary      unreasonable or
274   capricious                              random                     tyrannical
      arbitrate      act as judge (at the
275   request of both sides)

276   arboreal        of or living in trees
      arboretum         place where
      different trees and shrubs are
277   studied and exhibited
      arcade          a covered
      passageway usually lined with
278   shops
279   arcane          esoteric                secret                     mysterious
280   arch-         chief                     first                      Ex. archbishop

      archaeology        study of artifacts
281   and relics of early mankind
282   archaic        antiquated               no longer used             belonging to the past
283   archetype         prototype             primitive pattern
      archipelago       group of closely
284   located islands
                                               place where public
285   archives        public records          records are kept
286   ardor         heat                      passion                    zeal
287   arduous         hard                    strenuous                  Ex. arduous work
                                               speech spoken by only a
288   argot         slang                     small group of people
                                               a song sung by one
                                              person in an opera or
289   aria          operatic solo             oratorio
290   arid          (of land) dry             barren                     unproductive

291   aristocracy      hereditary nobility    privileged class           government by nobility
292   armada          fleet of warships
                                                                          N. aroma: strong pleasant
293   aromatic        fragrant                having a sweet smell       smell
294   arraign       charge in court          indict
295   array        marshal                   draw up in order            arrange in order
                                              money that should have      work that should have been
296   arrears       being in debt            been paid                   done
      arrhythmic      lacking rhythm or
297   regularity                             N. arrhythmia
                                                                          ADJ. arrogant: unpleasantly
                                                                         self-important (with a strong
                                                                         confidence in one's own
                                                                         importance and a lack of
298   arrogance       pride                  haughtiness                 respect for other people)
                                              narrow channel formed by
299   arroyo        gully                    rainwater
      arsenal        storage place for
300   military equipment
301   artery       blood-vessel              CF. vein

302   artful       exhibiting art or skill   deceitful                   cunning
303   articulate    effective                distinct                    expressing ideas clearly
      artifacts     object made by
      human beings, either hand-made
304   or mass-produced
305   artifice     deception                 trickery
      artisan       a manually skilled
306   worker
307   artless       without guile            open and honest
      ascendancy        controlling           position of controlling
308   influence                              influence                   CF. in the ascendant

309   ascertain      find out for certain    make certain
      ascetic       practicing self-          avoiding physical
310   denial                                 pleasures and comforts      austere
311   ascribe       refer                    attribute                   assign

312   aseptic       preventing infection having a cleansing effect
313   ashen          ash-colored             deadly pale
314   asinine       stupid                   Ex. asinine remarks
      askance         with a sideways or
      indirect look (with disapproval or
315   distruct)                              Ex. look askance at
316   askew          crookedly               slanted                     at an angle
                                                                          severity (of temper or
317   asperity        sharpness              roughness                    weather)

318   aspersion        slanderous remark Ex. cast aspersions on
      aspirant        seeker after
319   position or status
      aspire         seek to attain                                        Ex. aspire to become
320   (position or status)                   long for                     president
321   assail         assault

      assay           analyze (to discover
322   what materials are present)            evaluate (soil or ore)
323   assent          agree                  accept                       N. assessment
      assert         state strongly or        demand recognition of        make a claim to (by forceful
324   positively                             (rights, claims, etc.)       action)
325   assiduous         diligent
                                                                           understand (knowledge)
                                              take (food) into the body   completely and be able to use
326   assimilate       absorb                and digest it                properly

327   assuage          mak less severe       ease or lessen (pain)        satisfy (hunger)
      assumption        something taken      the taking over or taking
328   for granted                            possession of                Ex. her assumption of power
      assurance         firm statement
329   that something is certainly true       promise or pledge            certainty
330   asteroid        small planet
      astigmatism       eye defect which
331   prevents proper focus                  OP. stigmatism

                Word List - 5
332   astral         relating to the stars
                                              causing contraction
333   astringent       binding               (stopping bleeding)          harsh or severe
      astronomical      enormously large
334   or extensive
335   astute         wise                    shrewd                       keen
336   asunder          into parts            apart                        V. sunder
      asylum          place of refuge or      protection (religious or
337   shelter                                political)
      asymmetric        not identical on
      both sides of a dividing central
338   line
      atavism          resemblance to
      remote ancestors rather than to
339   parents                                reversion to an earlier type throwback
      atheistic        denying the
340   existence of God                       N. atheism
341   atone           make amends for        pay for                     Ex. atone for
342   atrocity        brutal deed            ADJ. atrocious

                                              V: weaken and lose flesh
                                             and muscle (through lack
343   atrophy          wasting away          of blood or lack of use)

344   attentive        alert and watchful    listening carefully         paying attention
345   attenuate         make thin            weaken
346   attest          testify                bear witness
347   attire         clothe                  N: clothing                 array
348   attribute       essential quality      V: ascribe                  explain
      attrition       rubbing away by         gradual decrease in        reduction in the work force
349   friction                               numbers or strength         without firing employees
350   atypical         not normal            not typical
351   audacious          daring              bold                        N. audacity
      audit           examination of
352   accounts of a business                 official examination        V.
353   augment            increase            add to
354   augury           omen                  prophecy                    sign of coming events
355   august           impressive            majestic
356   aureole          sun's corona          halo                        bright circle of light
      auroral          pertaining to the
357   aurora borealis                        CF. aurora australis
                                              giving signs of future
358   auspicious         favoring success    success                     Cf. auspices

359   austere          forbiddingly stern    ascetic                     without comfort or enjoyment
360   authenticate       prove genuine
      authoritarian      subordinating the    completely dominating
361   individual to the state                another's will              Ex. authoritarian regime/father
                                           regarded as providing
      authoritative     having the weight knowledge that can be
362   of authority                        trusted                        reliable
      autocratic        having absolute
363   unchecked power                        dictatorial                 N. autocrat, autocracy
      automaton       mechanism that         machine that works by
364   imitates actions of humans            itself
365   autonomous       self-governing       N. autonomy
      autopsy        examination of a
366   dead body                             postmortem                 V.
      auxiliary     offering or providing
367   help                                  additional or subsidiary   N: helper
      avalanche       great mass of
368   falling snow and ice
      avantgarde      group of artists
      whose work is based on the
369   newest ideas and methods              CF. vanguard
      avarice       greediness for
370   wealth
      avenge         take vengence for       Ex. They avenged his
      something or on behalf of             death by burning the        Ex. He swore to avenge his
371   someone                               village                    brother
372   aver         state confidently        declare as true
373   averse        reluctant               disinclined                not liking or opposed
374   aversion       firm dislike
375   avert        prevent                  avoid                      turn away (eyes or thought)

376   aviary       enclosure for birds      large cage
377   avid         greedy                   extremely eager for        Ex. avid learner
      avocation      secondary or
378   minor occupation
379   avow          declare openly          N. avowal

380   avuncular      of or like an uncle
                                            feeling of respect mixed
381   awe          solemn wonder            with wonder and fear       V: fill with awe
382   awful        terrible                 very bad
      awl          pointed tool used for
383   piercing
384   awry         distorted                crooked                    bent
      axiom         self-evident truth
385   requiring no proof
386   azure         sky blue
                                               make continuous sounds
      babble            chatter idly or       like water running gently
387   foolishly                               over rounded stone             N.
      bacchanal          noisy party with a
388   lot of drinking
      bacchanalia         the ancient
      Roman festival in honor of
389   Bacchus
390   bacchanalian           drunken
      backslide         revert (to bad
391   habits)                                 N. reverter
                                               Ex. reciprocate his            N. reciprocity: reciprocal
392   backwards           and forwards        invitation by inviting him     relationship
                                               annoy continually with         persuade by asking again and
393   badger            pester                demands                        again
      badinage           teasing
394   conversation                            banter                         joking talk
395   baffle        frustrate                 perplex
396   bait         harass                     tease                          torment
                                               malignant in intent or
397   baleful         evil                    effect                         deadly
      balk          stop short, as if
      faced with an obstacle, and
398   refuse to continue                      foil                           stop or get in the way of
      ballast         heavy substance
399   used to add stability or weight         V. supply with ballast
      balm            something that           oily liquid with a pleasant
400   relieves pain                           smell from trees

401   balmy             soft and mild (of air) fragrant
402   banal           hackneyed               commonplace                    trite
      bandy             discuss lightly or    discuss in a frivolous
403   glibly                                  manner                         exchange (words) heatedly
404   bane            posion                  cause of ruin                  ADJ. baneful: harmful
405   bank            heap                    piled-up mass                  embankment
406   bantering         joking talk           good-naturedly ridiculing      N.V. banter
                                                                              vertical line dividing a staff
407   bar           railing in a courtroom legal profession                  into equal measures
      barb            sharp projection
      from fishhook, arrow, or other
408   object                                  openly cutting remark
                 Word List - 6
409   bard           poet
      barefaced           shameless and
410   noticeable                               blatant                     bold
                                      something for sale at a
      bargain      agreement between price advantageous to the
411   two groups or people           buyer                                 V: negotiate
412   baroque             highly ornate
      barrage         barrier laid down                                     large number of questions or
413   by artillery fire                        overwhelming profusion      statements

      barrister       counselor-at-law or
414   lawyer in the higher court of law        CF. bar
                                                                            exchange good for other
415   barterer        trader                   V. barter: trade            goods rather than money
416   base           contemptible              morally bad                 inferior in value or quality
417   bask           luxuriate                 take pleasure in warmth
418   bastard         illegitimate child
                                                something seen as a         Ex. the last bastion of male
419   bastion         stronghold               source of protection        chauvinism
420   bate           let down                  lessen the force of         moderate
      battalion       army unit made up
421   of four or more companies
422   bauble          trinket                  cheap jewel                 trifle

423   bawdy           indecent                 obscene                     about sex in a rude funny way
424   bearing         deportment               connection
      beatific       giving or showing
425   bliss                                    blissful
426   beatitude           blessedness          state of great happiness
      bedizen             dress with vulgar
427   finery
                                                ADJ. bedraggled:
428   bedraggle           wet thoroughly       draggled
429   beeline         direct quick route

430   befuddle            confuse thoroughly
431   beget          father                    become the father of        produce
432   begrudge             envy                give or allow unwillingly   grudge
433   beguile         deceive                  mislead or delude           cheat
                                             something of monstrous
434   behemoth          huge creature       size or power
435   beholden         obligated            indebted                    owing thanks
436   behoove(behove) be suited to          be incumbent upon           be right and necessary

                                                                         explain or go over excessively
437   belabor        harp on                dwell on tediously          or to a ridiculous degree
438   belated        delayed
      beleaguer        besiege or attack
439   (with an army)                        harass                      beset
440   belie         contradict              give a false impression     disguise
441   belittle      disparage               depreciate
442   bellicose      warlike
443   belligerent    quarrelsome
                                                                         express sorrow or disapproval
444   bemoan           lament               moan for                    of
445   bemused          confused             lost in thought             preoccupied
446   benediction      blessing
                                                                         person who does good or who
                                                                        gives money for a good
447   benefactor       gift giver           patron                      purpose
448   beneficent       kindly               doing good
449   beneficial     helpful                useful                      advantageous
      beneficiary      person entitled to
      benefits or proceeds of an
450   insurance policy or will
                                             anything that brings helpl, money provided by the
451   benefit       advantage               advantage, or profit         government to the people
452   benevolent       generous             charitable                  having a wish to do good
453   benign         kindly                 favorable                   not malignant (disease)
454   benison        blessing
                                             Ex. bent on advancing in
455   bent          determined              the business                N: natural talent or inclination
      bequeath         leave to someone
456   by means of a will                    hand down in his will       N. bequest
457   berate         scold strongly
      bereaved         deprived of
      (someone beloved through
458   death)
      bereavement        state of being
      deprived of something valuable          state of being bereaved or
459   or beloved                             bereft
      bereft         deprived of
460   (something valuable)                   lacking
      berserk         mad with violent
461   anger                                  frenzied                      madly excited
462   beseech          beg                   plead with
      beset          harass or trouble
463   from all directions                    hem in
      besiege         surround with
464   armed forces                           harass (with requests)        annoy continually
465   besmirch         soil                  defile                        make dirty
466   bestial        beastlike               brutal                        inhuman
467   bestow          confer
468   betoken         signify                indicate                      be a sign of
                                              reveal (unconsciously or      Ex. Her trembling hands
469   betray         be unfaithful           unwillingly)                  betray her anxiety.
      betroth        become engaged to
470   marry
471   bevy           large group             Ex. a bevy of starlets
472   beware          be cautious (of)
473   bewitch         cast a spell over      captivate completely
      bicameral        two-chambered as
474   a legislative body
475   bicker         quarrel
476   bid           command                  utter (a greeting)            offer as a price
477   biennial       every two years
      bifurcated      divided into two
478   branches                               forked

      bigot         one who is intolerant
479   (in matters of religion or politics)

480   bigotry        stubborn intolerance
      bilious        suffering from           sick from having too much
481   indigestion                            bile                       irritable
482   bilk          swindle                  cheat
                                              a great swell or surge (of
483   billow        large wave of water      smoke)                        V: surge, swell, roll in billows
      billowing        swelling out in
484   waves                                 surging
      biting       sharply painful to the
485   body or mind                          Ex. biting wind/remarks
      bitter       having a sharp biting                               causing sharp pain to the
486   taste                                 ¾´                        body or mind
      bivouac          temporary
487   encampment                            camp without tents        V.
488   bizarre        fantastic              violently contrasting     noticeably odd
      blackball        vote against (an
489   applicant)                            ostracize                 N: negative vote
490   blanch           bleach               whiten                    make white or pale
      bland         soothing or mild
491   (food)                                agreeable                 causing no trouble or offence
492   blandishment        flattery
      blare        loud or harsh roar or
493   screech                               dazzling blaze of light
      blase        bored with pleasure
494   or dissipation                        uninterested or bored
495   blasphemy          irreverence        sacrilege                 cursing
      blatant       extremely
496   (offensively) obvious                 loudly offensive          Ex. blatant lie
497   bleak         cold or cheerless       frigid                    unlikely to be favorable
                                             spoil the beauty or       N: flaw or defect (that spoils
498   blemish          mar                  perfection of             perfection)
499   blight       plant disease            V: infect with blight     ruin
      blighted         suffering from a
500   disease                               destroyed

501   bliss        complete happiness       ADJ. blissful
502   blithe(blithesome) gay                joyous
      bloated          (unpleasantly)
      swollen or puffed as with water or
503   air
504   blotch        spot                    blot                      CF. blot+botch

505   blowhard          talkative boaster   braggart
506   bludgeon          club                heavy-headed weapon       V.
507   blue         gloomy                   depressed
                                             style of slow, mournful
                                            music (evolved from
      blues         state of depression     southern Black American
508   or melancholy                         songs)

509   bluff        pretense (of strength) deception                    high cliff

                Word List - 7
510   blunder        error                  stupid mistake
                                             abrupt and frank in
511   blunt        having a dull edge       speech or manner           brusque

      blurt        utter impulsively from
512   nervousness or excitement
      blush         become red in the
      face (from embarrassment or
513   shame)                                become red or rosy         N.

514   bluster       blow in heavy gusts     threaten emptily           bully
515   bode          foreshadow              portend

516   bog          soft wet land            V: hinder or be hindered   Ex. bogged down in the mud
517   bogus          counterfeit            not authentic              intentionally false
      Bohemian         unconventional
518   (in an artistic way)
519   boisterous      violent               rough                      noisy
520   bolster       support                 reinforce
521   bolt         door bar                 fastening pin or screw     length of fabric
      bombardment        attack (as with
522   missiles or bombs)                    V. bombard
      bombast         grandiloquent,
523   pompous speech
524   bombastic        pompous              using inflated language
      bookish         fond of books and
525   reading
526   boon          blessing                benefit                    something very helpful
      boor         rude, insensitive
527   person
528   boorish        rude                   insensitive
      boost         lift by pushing up
529   from below                            increase                   raise
530   botch         mismanage               blow
      bouillon       clear beef (or meat)
531   soup
532   bound          leap or spring         limit or confine           constitute the limit of
533   bountiful      generous               graciously generous        showing bounty
                                                                        too interested in material
534   bourgeois       middle class          selfishly materialistic    possessions
                                             short period of great
535   bout          match                   activity                   Ex. wrestling bout
536   bovine         cowlike                placid and dull            slow-thinking
537   bowdlerize       expurgate            CF. Thomas Bowdler
538   brackish       somewhat saline
539   brag          boast
540   braggadocio       boasting
541   braggart       boaster                bragger
                                             interweave strands or      make by weaving strands
542   braid         plait                   lengths of                 together
                                             mark burned on the hide    mark burned into the flesh of
543   brand         trademark               of an animal               criminals
      brandish        wave around (a
544   weapon)                               flourish
545   bravado         swagger               assumed air of defiance    false show of bravery

546   brave         face courageously       Ex. brave the storm
547   brawl         noisy quarrel
548   brawn          human muscle           muscular strength          sturdiness
                                            having well-developed
549   brawny          muscular              muscles
550   brazen         insolent               without shame              bold
      breach         breaking of contract
551   or duty                               fissure or gap             opening
552   breadth        width                  extent
553   breed         produce young           rear                       bring up
554   brevity       conciseness             shortness of duration

      bridle       harness fitted about
555   a horse's head (used to restrain)     curb                       check
      brim          uppermost edge of a projecting rim (as on a         Ex. The glass was full to the
556   cup                               hat)                           brim

      brindled       tawny or grayish
557   with streaks or spots (of animals)
      brink          edge (at the top of a    Ex. on the brink of the
558   cliff)                                  Grand Canyon
                                               marked by liveliness and
559   brisk          quick and active         vigor
                                               V: (hair or fur) stand up
560   bristle        short stiff hair         stiffly
561   bristling      rising like bristles     showing irritation
      brittle      hard but easily
562   broken                                  difficult                    unstable
      broach          introduce as a
563   subject                                 moot                         open up
      brocade          rich,
564   figured(patterned) fabric
565   brochure         pamphlet

566   broil        cook by direct heat        N.
                                               chemical compound used
567   bromide          platitude              to calm excitement
568   brooch          ornamental clasp        pin
      brood           sit on in order to       think deeply or worry        N: the young of certain
569   hatch                                   anxiously                    animals
570   brook           tolerate                endure                       Ex. brook no interference
571   browbeat          bully                 intimidate
572   browse           graze                  feed on growing grass        skim or glance at casually
      bruise         injure without
573   breaking the skin                       N.
      brunt          main impact or
574   shock (of an attack or blow)            Ex. brunt of the argument
575   brusque          blunt                  abrupt                       curt
576   buccaneer         pirate
577   bucolic         rustic                  pastoral
578   buffet         strike forcefully        slap                         batter
579   buffoon         stupid person           clown
580   buffoonery        clowning
581   bugaboo           bugbear               object of baseless terror
                                                                            Ex. The apple made a bulge
582   bulge          protruding part          swelling of a surface        in his pocket
      bulk           size or volume (esp.                                   Ex. The bulk of the work has
583   when very large)                        main part                    already been done
      bullion        gold and silver in the
584   form of bars
      bully        one who is habitually
585   cruel to weaker people                    V.
      bulwark           strong wall built for    earthwork or other strong
586   defense                                   defense                      person who defends
      bump             hit or knock against
587   with force                                N.
588   bungle           mismanage                blunder                      botch
589   buoyant           able to float           cheerful and optimistic      N. buoyancy
      bureaucracy         overregulated
      administrative system marked by
590   red tape                                  ADJ. bureaucratic
591   burgeon           grow rapidly            grow forth                   send out buds
      burlesque          give an imitation
592   that ridicules                            imitate mockingly
      burnish          make shiny by
593   rubbing                                   polish
      bust         piece of sculpture
      showing a person's head,
594   shoulders, and upper chest                V: break up                  arrest
                                                                              N. stationary structure to
595   buttress         support                  prop up                      support wall
596   buxom             full-bosomed            plump                        jolly
      cabal            small group of
      persons secretly united to
597   promote their own interests
598   cache            hiding place             V.
                                                                             N. cacophony: unpleasant
599   cacophonous          discordant           inharmonious                 mixture of loud sounds
600   cadaver           corpse                  dead human body
601   cadaverous          like a corpse         pale
      cadence           rhythmic rise and
602   fall (of words or sounds)                 beat                         regular beat of sound
      cadet            student at a military
603   school
      cajole           persuade by praise
604   or false promise                          coax                         wheedle
605   calamity          disaster                misery
      calculated        deliberately
606   planned                                   likely
607   caldron(cauldron) large kettle
                                                                          diameter of the inside of a
608   caliber       ability                 quality                      round cylinder
609   calligraphy     beautiful writing     excellent penmanship
                                                                          without sympathy for the
610   callous       hardened                unfeeling                    sufferings of others
611   callow        youthful                immature                     inexperienced
      callus        area of thick hard
612   skin
613   calorific     heat-producing          N. calorie
      calumny         malicious
614   misrepresentation                     slander

615   camaraderie         good-fellowship   CF. comrade

      cameo          shell or jewel          star's special appearance
616   carved in relief                      in a minor role in a film
      camp           group sharing a
617   common cause or opinion
      canard         unfounded false
618   rumor                                 exaggerated false report
619   candor         frankness              open honesty                 ADJ. candid
620   canine         related to dogs        doglike

621   canker         any ulcerous sore      ulcer                        any evil
      canny          shrewd in money
622   matters                               thrifty
      cant          insincere speech or                                   special words used by a
623   expression of piety                   jargon of thieves            particular group of people
624   cantankerous        ill-humored       irritable
      cantata        story set to music
      to be sung by a chorus (shorter
625   than an oratorio)
626   canter        slow gallop             V. CF. trot

                Word List - 8
      canto         division of a long
627   poem
      canvass         determine or seek      go through (a region) to
628   opinions, votes, etc.                 solicit votes or orders      conduct a survey
629   capacious          spacious
      capacity       mental or physical
630   ability                               role                         position or duty
      capillary      having a very fine
631   bore                                   resembling a hair           fine and slender
632   capitulate      surrender              give up all resistance
                                             sudden change of mind
633   caprice        whim                    without any real cause
634   capricious      unpredictable          fickle
      capsize         (of a boat) turn
635   over
636   caption        title                   chapter heading             text under illustration
637   captious        faultfinding           too critical
638   carafe         glass water bottle      decanter
      carapace         shell covering the
      back (of a turtle, tortoise, crab,
639   etc.)
      carat(karat)     unit of weight for     measure of the purity of
640   precious stones                        gold
641   carcinogenic      causing cancer       N. carcinogen
642   cardinal       chief                   most important              N: priest

      cardiologist    doctor specializing
643   in ailments of the heart
                                                                         move with irregular swinging
644   careen          lurch                  sway from side to side      movement
645   career         rush wildly             go at full speed
646   carefree        free from worries      having no problems
647   caricature      distortion             burlesque
      carillon       a set of bells (often
      in a tower) capable of being
648   played
                                                                          killing of large numbers of
649   carnage         destruction of life    slaughter                   people or animals
                                                                          concerning the desires of the
650   carnal         fleshly                 sensual                     body
651   carnivorous      meat-eating           N. carnivore                CF. herbivore
652   carousal        drunken revel          V. carouse
653   carping        petty criticism         fault-finding               fretful complaining
      carrion        rotting flesh of a
654   dead body                              CF. vulture
655   cartographer      map-maker
656   cascade          small waterfall
      caste         one of the hereditary
657   classes in Hindu society              social stratification         prestige
                                             severe criticism or
658   castigation    punishment             disapproval
      castrate       remove the sex
      organs (of a male animal or
659   person)
      casual        happening by
660   chance                                irregular                     occasional
      casualty       serious or fatal        person killed or wounded
661   accident                              in an accident or battle
662   cataclysm      deluge                 upheaval                      earthquake
      catalyst      agent which brings
      about a chemical change while it
      remains unaffected and
663   unchanged                             CF. catalysis
664   catapult      slingshot               hurling machine               V: fire from catapult

                                             eye abnormality (causing
665   cataract       great waterfall        a gradual loss of eyesight)
666   catastrophe     calamity              disaster

      catcall       shout of disapproval
      or displeasure (made at the
667   theater or a sports match)            boo                           V.
      catechism       book for religious
      instruction in question-and-           religious instruction by
668   answer form                           question and answer           V. catechize
                                         made without any doubt in
669   categorical     without exceptions mind                      unqualified
      cater         provide food and         cater to: try to satisfy
670   drink (for)                           (desires of a bad kind)
                                             purging and weakening of
      catharsis      purging or             strong emotions as a result
      cleansing of any passage of the       of experiencing a dramatic
671   body                                  work of art
                                             medicine that causes the
672   cathartic     purgative               bowels to empty               ADJ.
      catholic      (of likings and
673   interests) universal                  general                       broad
      caucus         private meeting of
      a group of people in a political
      party to select officers or            CF. the Caucus club of
674   determine policy                       Boston
      caulk(calk)     make watertight
      (by blocking up cracks as in a
675   ship)
      causal         implying a cause-
676   and-effect relationship                N. causality
                                                                          able to burn by chemical
677   caustic        burning                 corrosive                   action
      cauterize       burn (a wound or
      snakebite, etc.) with hot iron or
      caustic substance to stop
678   bleeding and prevent infection
      cavalcade        procession of
679   riders or horse-drawn carriages        parade                      CF. cavalry

680   cavalier       casual and offhand      arrogant                    N: knight

681   cavil         quibble                  make frivolous objections   find fault unnecessarily
      cede          yield (title or
      territory) to (esp. after losing a
682   war)                                   surrender formally          N. cession
683   celerity      speed                    rapidity
684   celestial      heavenly
      celibate       abstaining from
685   sexual intercourse                     unmarried                   N. celibacy
      cemetery        place for burying
686   the dead
      censor         (in ancient Rome)
      overseer of morals (also taking         person who eliminates
687   the census)                            inappropriate matter        V.
688   censorious       severely critical
689   censure         blame                  criticize                   express strong disapproval
      centaur        mythical figure, half
690   man and half horse
      centigrade      denoting a widely
      used temperature scale (basically
691   same as Celsius)

692   centrifugal     radiating              departing from the center
      centrifuge      machine that
      separates substances by whirling
693   them
      centripetal     tending toward the
694   center
      centurion       Roman army
      officer (commanding a company
695   of about 100 soldiers)
      cerebral       pertaining to the       intellectual rather than
696   brain or intellect                    emotional                       CF. cerebrum
697   cerebration      thought              working of the brain
      ceremonious          marked by         extremely formal and            CF. ceremony: conventional
698   formality                             polite                          social courtesy
699   certitude      certainty
700   cessation       stoppage

701   cession        yielding to another    ceding
702   chafe         warm by rubbing         make sore by rubbing            N.
      chaff         worthless products       husk(outer seed cover)          Ex. separate the wheat from
703   of an endeavor                        separated from grain            the chaff
704   chaffing       bantering              joking

      chagrin        annoyance and           vexation (caused by
705   disappointment                        humiliation or injured pride)
706   chalice        goblet                 consecrated cup
      chameleon            lizard that
      changes color in different
707   situations

                Word List -9
                                                                             N: person who fights for or
                                                                            supports strongly (a principle,
708   champion         support militantly   fight for                       movement, person, etc.)
      championship          position of                                      competition held to determine
709   champion                              defense or support              a champion
      chancellor      legal official of     chancellery(chancellory):
710   high rank                             position of a chancellor
      chant         tune(melody) in
      which a number of words are                                            utter (a slogan) in the manner
711   sung on the same note                 V: sing (a chant)               of a chant
712   chaotic        in utter disorder
      chapel        small church (in a
713   prison, college, or hospital)

      chaperon        older person who
      accompanies and supervises a
714   young unmarried woman
      chaplain       clergyman
715   attached to a chapel
                                           reduce or be reduced to
                                          carbon or charcoal(black
                                          substance made by
      char         make or become         burning wood) by
716   black by burning                    incomplete combustion
                                           great popular charm or
717   charisma       divine gift          appeal                       magnetism
                                           pretender to knowledge
718   charlatan      quack                (esp. in medicine)
                                                                        action or formula thought to
719   charm         quality of pleasing   amulet                       have magical power
                                                                        sparing or restrained about
720   chary         cautious              unwilling to take risks      giving
      chase         ornament a metal
721   surface by indenting                follow rapidly to catch
722   chasm          abyss                very deep crack
      chassis       framework and          framework to which
723   working parts of an automobile      components are attached
                                                                        abstaining from illicit sexual
724   chaste        morally pure          virginal                     acts

725   chasten        discipline           punish in order to correct   CF. castigate
      chastise       punish as by
726   beating                             criticize severely
      chauvinist     blindly devoted       zealous adherent of a
727   patriot                             group, cause, or sex         ADJ. chauvinistic
728   check         stop motion           curb or restrain
      checkered(chequered) marked          with many changes of         CF. checked: having a pattern
729   by great changes in fortune         fortuene                     of squares
730   cherubic       angelic              innocent-looking             N. cherub
731   chicanery      trickery             deception
                                           rebuke (someone who
732   chide        scold                  has done wrong)
      chimerical     fantastically
733   improbable                          highly unrealistic           N. chimera: unreal fancy
      chip         lose a small piece      N: small piece broken off
734   from the surface or edge            something                      CF. French fry
                                           N: wedgelike tool for
735   chisel       swindle or cheat       cutting
736   chivalrous     courteous            faithful                       brave
737   choice        delicate              of very fine quality
      choir        group of people who
      sing together (esp. during
738   religious services)                 place for choir
739   choleric      hot-tempered          bad-tempered                   irritable
      chore         daily domestic task
      (such as cleaning, cooking, and
740   shopping)                           unpleasant task
      choreography      art of
      representing dances in written
741   symbols                             arrangement of dances

742   chortle      chuckle with delight   N.
      chorus        phrase repeated
743   throughout a song or poem
      chronic       long established as
744   a disease
                                           record (in chronological
745   chronicle      report               order)
746   chuckle        laugh quietly
747   churlish      boorish               rude                           N. churl: boor

748   ciliated     having minute hairs    CF. cilium                     CF. cilia: eyelash

749   cipher       nonentity              worthless person or thing      zero
                                          band of gold, silver, jewel,
                                          etc. (worn on the head,
                                          arms, or neck as
750   circlet      small ring             decoration)
      circuit      closed circular line                                   regularly repeated journey
751   around an area                      circumference                  from place to place
752   circuitous    roundabout
      circumlocution indirect or
      roundabout expression (by using
      an uncecessarily large number of
      words esp. when trying to avoid
      answering a difficult question
753   directly)
754   circumscribe         limit              confine                     draw a line around
755   circumspect          prudent            cautious                    acting after careful thought
                                               defeat by behaving more
756   circumvent          outwit              cleverly                    outsmart
      cistern        reservoir or water
757   tank
758   citadel        fortress
                                                                           Ex. cited for bravery in an
759   cite          quote                     commend                     official record
      civil         having to do with
760   citizens                                not military or religious   courteous and polite
761   clairvoyant         having foresight    fortuneteller               N. clairvoyance
      clamber          climb by crawling
762   with difficulties                       scramble
                                               continuous demand or
      clamor          loud continous          complaint made by a large
763   noise                                   number of people            V: make a clamor
764   clandestine         secret
      clangor         loud resounding          sound of repeated
765   noise                                   clanging
      clap           strike the palms of
      the hands together with a sudden come together suddenly
766   explosive sound                  with a sharp sound                 put or send promptly
      clapper         striker (tongue) of a
767   bell
      clarion        shrill, trumpetlike       kind of trumpet used in
768   sound                                   former times
      clasp          hold firmly within
769   arms
      claustrophobia fear of being
770   locked in
771   clavicle       collarbone
772   cleave          split or sever          cling to                    remain faithful to
773   cleft         N: split

      clemency            disposition to be   mildness as of the
774   lenient in deciding punishments         weather                     ADJ. clement
      clich\'e       phrase dulled in
775   meaning by repetition                   platitude                   ADJ. clich\'ed

776   clientele       body of customers
      climactic        relating to the
777   highest point                           N. climax                   CF. climatic
778   clime         climate
                                                                           N: something clipped off (as a
779   clip         cut off with shears        fasten                      short extract from film)
      clipper         sailing vessel built
780   for great speed
      clique        small exclusive
781   group of people
      cloister        monastery or
782   convent
      clot         half-solid lump
783   formed from a liquid (or blood)         V.
      clout         great influence
784   (especially political or social)        hard blow with fist
785   clown            act stupidly           play the fool               N.
                                                                           V. cloy: become unpleasant
      cloying          distasteful (because excessively sweet or          through too much sweetness
786   excessive)                            sentimental                   or excess
787   coagulate         congeal               thicken                     clot
788   coalesce          combine               fuse                        N. coalescence
                                                                           union of separate political
789   coalition        partnership            league                      parties

790   coax            persuade by flattery
      coda             concluding section
      of a musical or literary
791   composition
792   coddle           treat gently           indulge excessively         pamper
      codicil       supplement to the
793   body of a will                          later addition to a will
                                                                           N. code: system of words
      codify          arrange (laws or                                    used instead of ordinary
794   rules) as a code                        classify                    writing
      coercion          use of force to get
795   someone to object                       compelling                  V. coerce
      coeval           living at the same      existing during the same
796   time as                                 period of time              contemporary
      cog           tooth projecting from
797   a wheel
798   cogent           convincing
799   cogitate         think over             ponder
      cognate         having a common
800   origin                              related linguistically      allied by blood
      cognitive      having to do with
      knowing or perceiving related to     N. cognition: the mental
801   the mental processes                process of knowing
802   cognizance       knowledge          ADJ. cognizant              having knowledge
803   cohabit        live together
804   cohere         stick together
      cohesion        tendency to keep
805   together
                                                                       a group of between 300 and
                                                                      600 soldiers under one
      cohorts        group of people                                  commander (in the ancient
806   who share some common quality armed band                        Rome)
807   coiffure       hairstyle
                                           invent or fabricate (a word N. coinage: word or phrase
808   coin        make coins              or phrase)                   recently invented
      coincidence   the chance
      occurrence, at the same time, of
      two or more seemingly                V. coincide: happen at the
809   connected events                    same time                   be in agreement
      colander        utensil with
      perforated bottom used for
810   straining

               Word List - 10
                                          cooperate treasonably
811   collaborate     work together       with the enemy
      collage        work of art put
812   together from fragments
      collate        examine and           arrange in order (the
      compare in order to verify          sheets of a book before
813   authenticity                        they are bound)
                                                                       descended from the same
      collateral     security given for                               person but through different
814   loan                                ADJ: secondary              sons or daughters
815   collation      a light meal         collating
816   collected      composed             calm                        self-possessed
      colloquial     pertaining to
      conversational or common                                         N. colloquialism: colloquial
817   speech                              informal                    expression

818   colloquy       informal discussion conversation
      collusion     conspiring in a
      fraudulent scheme to cheat or
819   deceive others                         V. collude
820   colossal      huge
                                              person or thing of great
821   colossus       gigantic statue         size or importance

      coma          deep prolonged
      unconsciousness caused by
822   disease, poison, or a severe blow
823   comatose         in a coma             extremely sleepy
824   combustible      easily burned         N. CF. combustion
825   comeback         retort                quick clever reply            return to former status

826   comely        attractive               agreeable                     having a pleasing appearance
      comestible       something fit to be
827   eaten
                                              well-deserved punishment
828   comeuppance        deserts             or misfortune             rebuke
829   comity     courtesy                    civility                      Ex. comity of nations
      commandeer     take (private
      property) for military use without
      needing permission or giving
830   payment                                draft for military purposes
                                                                            Ex. commemorate the 100th
      commemorate         honor the                                        anniversary/those who died in
831   memory of                              serve as a memorial to        the war

832   commemorative       remembering        honoring the memory of        Ex. commemorative stamp

833   commensurate        equal in extent    of the same size
      commiserate       feel or express
834   pity or sympathy for
      commodious         spacious and
835   comfortable
                                              N: something ordinary or
836   commonplace        ordinary            common                        trite remark
      commonwealth        nation
837   governed by the people                 republic                      people of a nation

838   communal         held in common        public                        of a group of people
      commune          small (often
      rural) community whose         V: exchange thoughts or
839   members share work and income feelings                         Ex. commune with nature
840   compact         agreement             contract                 ADJ: tightly packed
      compartment       one of the parts
      into which an enclosed space is
841   divided
      compassion       sympathy for the
842   suffering of others                   ADJ. compassionate
843   compatible      harmonious            in harmony with          able to exist together
844   compelling      overpowering          irresistible in effect   holding one's attention
      compendium        brief,
845   comprehensive summary                 ADJ. compendious
846   compensatory      making up for       repaying
      compilation     listing of
      information in tabular or book
847   form                                  compiling
848   compile        assemble               gather                   accumulate

849   complacency       self-satisfaction   smugness                 ADJ. complacent

850   complaisant      trying to please     obliging                 willing to please others
851   complement        complete            consummate               make perfect
      complementary      serving to
852   complete something
      compliance       conformity in
853   fulfilling requirements               readiness to yield       disposition to yield to others
      compliant      readily acting in
      accordance with a rule, order, or
854   the wishes or others                  yielding                 comforming to requirements
                                             involvement (in a
                                            questionable act or a
855   complicity     participation          crime)
856   component        element              ingredient
857   comport        bear one's self        behave                   Ex. comport oneself
      compost         mixture of
      decaying organic matter used as
858   fertilizer                            V: put or make compost

859   composure        mental calmness
860   compound         combine              produce by combining         increase
861   comprehend        include             understand
                                             including a lot or
862   comprehensive      broad              everything                   thorough
      compress         force into less
863   space                                 squeeze                      contract
864   comprise        include               consist of

      compromise        adjust or settle     endanger the interests or    put into danger, disrepute, or
865   by making mutual concessions          reputation of                a dishonorable position
                                             strong desire that is
866   compulsion       compelling           difficult to control         irresistible impulse
      compulsive       resulting from
867   compulsion
868   compulsory       obligatory           that must be done
                                             strong uneasiness caused
869   compunction       remorse             by guilt
870   compute         reckon                calculate

871   concatenate      link as in a chain
872   concave         hollow                curved inwards               OP. convex
                                             acknowledge as being
873   concede         admit                 true (often reluctantly)     yield
                                             too high opinion of one's    extravagant metaphor (in
874   conceit        vanity or self-love    own value                    poetry)
      concentric      having a common
875   center
876   conception       beginning            forming of an idea           fertilization
      concerted       mutually agreed       done together by
877   on                                    agreement                    Ex. concerted effort

878   concession       an act of yielding   conceding                    something conceded
879   conciliatory    reconciling           soothing                     V. conciliate: reconcile

880   concise        brief and compact
      conclave        private secret
881   meeting
882   conclusive      decisive              ending all debate
      concoct        prepare by mixing                                    devise (something false) so
883   or combining                          make up in concert           as to deceive
      concomitant       that which              Ex. Deafnes is a frequent ADJ: existing or happening
884   accompanies                              concommitant of old age    together with something else
885   concord         harmony                  accord

886   concordat        formal agreement
887   concur          agree                    coincide                      happen at the same time
      concurrent       happening at the
888   same time                                in agreement

      condescend         (derog.) bestow        descend to the level of
889   courtesies with a superior air           one considered inferior
                                                (of punishment) severe
890   condign         adequate                 and well deserved
891   condiments        seasonings             spices

                                                N. condolence: sympathy
      condole         express                  for someone who has
892   condolences                              experienced great sorrow
893   condone          overlook                forgive                       give tacit approval
894   conducive        helpful                 contributive                  V. conduce
895   conduit         aqueduct                 passageway for fluids
      confidant(confidante) trusted
      friend (to whom one tells one's
896   secret)
      confide         tell in confidence (to
897   a person one trusts)                     be confident about
                                                calm unworried feeling
                                               based on a strong belief in strong belief in the ability of a
898   confidence       self-assurance          one's abilities             person or plan
      confidential     spoken or written       trusted with private
899   in secret                                matters                       Ex. confidential secretary
      confine         shut in an enclosed
900   space                                    restrict                      keep within limits
                                                take possession of
                                               (private property) by official
                                               order (usu. as a
901   confiscate       seize                   punishment)                    commandeer
902   conflagration     great fire
                                                the place where two rivers
903   confluence       flowing together        flow together               crowd
      conformist     person who            OP. nonconformist: one
      uncritically conforms to the        who does not conform to
904   customs of a group                  accepted beliefs of norms
                                           agreement with
                                          established rules or
905   conformity     harmony              customs                     similarity
906   confound       confuse              puzzle
907   congeal        freeze               coagulate
                                                                       in agreement with one's
908   congenial      pleasant             friendly                    tastes and nature
909   congenital     existing at birth

              Word List - 11
      conglomerate     corporation
      made up of several different         mass of various material    rock consisting of small
910   companies in diversified fields     gathered together           stones held together by clay
      conglomeration mass of
911   material sticking together
      congruence       correspondence
912   of parts                            harmonious relationship     CF. congruity
913   congruent       in agreement        harmonious                  corresponding
      conifer       pine tree (usu.
914   evergreen)                          cone-bearing tree           ADJ. coniferous
915   conjecture     surmise              guess                       V.
      conjugal       pertaining to
916   marriage

      conjure       cause to appear by     summon (a devil or a        practice magic (esp. by very
917   magic                               spirit) by magical power    quick movement of the hands)
      connivance      pretense of
918   ignorance of something wrong        assistance                  permission to offend
      connoisseur    person
      competent to act as a judge of
      art, etc. (whose judgments are
919   respected)                          a lover of an art

      connotation     suggested or
920   implied meaning of an expression V. connote

      connubial      pertaining to
921   marriage or the matrimonial state
922   having a common ancestor
923   consanguinity      kinship             relationship by birth
924   conscientious      scrupulous          through and careful         Ex. conscientious worker
                                              person forced into military
925   conscript        draftee               service                      V.
926   consecrate        dedicate             sanctify                    declare as sacred
      consensus          general              opinion reached by a
927   agreement                              group
928   consequential      self-important      significant                 consequent
      school of the fine arts (especially
929   music or drama)                        glass-enclosed area         CF. conservancy
      consign          send to a person or
930   place for sale                         deliver officially          entrust
      consistency       absence of                                        degree of thickness or
931   contradictions                         uniformity                  firmness
      console          lessen sadness or
932   disappointment                         give comfort                allay the sorrow of
                                              process of becoming
933   consolidation     unification          firmer or stronger          V. consolidate: merge
934   consonance         harmony             agreement
935   consonant         harmonious           in agreement                N.

936   consort          associate with        keep company                N: husband or wife (or a ruler)
                                              secret plan against the
                                             law (by two or more
937   conspiracy        treacherous plot     people)
      conspire         take part in a
938   conspiracy                             (of events) work together   combine
939   consternation      great shock         dismay

      constituency      voters                                            group of supporters (or
940   represented by an elected official district so represented         constituents)
941   constituent      supporter             voter                       member of a constituency
942   constitution     constituting          system of laws              composition of something
943   constraint       restraint             compulsion                  repression of feelings
                                                                         Ex. construe her silence as
944   construe         explain               interpret                   meaning that she agreed
945   consummate          complete           V.
      contagion         infection (by                                     CF. infectious: that can be
946   contact)                               ADJ. contagious             passed by infection in the air
947   contaminate        pollute
948   contempt        scorn                disdain                      ADJ. contemptuous
949   contend         struggle             compete                      assert earnestly
950   contention      assertion            claim                        thesis
951   contentious      quarrelsome         controversial                likely to cause arguments
                                            argue about the rightness
952   contest        dispute               of                           compete for

      context       writings preceding  circumstance in which an
953   and following the passage quoted event occurs
954   contiguous       adjacent to         touching upon
955   continence       self-restraint      sexual chastity              sexual abstinence
      contingent      dependent on
      something uncertain or in the
956   future                               conditional                  happening by chance
                                                                         V. contort: twist violently out of
957   contortions     twistings            distortions                  shape
958   contraband       illegal trade       smuggling                    smuggled goods

959   contravene       contradict          oppose                       violate (a rule, law, or custom)
960   contrite       penitent              repentant                    N. contrition
      contrivance      something
961   contrived                            machine or apparatus         clever deceitful plan

      contrive       invent or fabricate                                 Ex. contrive to attract his
962   in a clever way (by improvisation) manage                         attention
      contrived       unnatural and
963   forced                               artificial                   not spontaneous
      controvert      oppose with
964   arguments                            attempt to refute            contradict
                                            resisting authority (esp.
      contumacious       stubborn and      disobedient to an order
965   disobedient                          made by a court)
966   contusion       bruise
967   conundrum         riddle             difficult problem
968   convene         come together        assemble                     call to meet
      convention       social or moral
969   custom                               established practice         formal meeting
970   conventional     ordinary            typical                      not nuclear
971   converge        approach             tend to meet                 come together
972   conversant       familiar with       having knowledge of
973   converse        opposite             ADJ.
      convert       one who has
      adopted a different religion or        V: change into another    (persuade to) adopt a
974   opinion                               form                      particular religion or belief
975   convex         curving outward
976   conveyance        vehicle             transfer                  act of conveying
      conviction     judgment that
977   someone is guilty of a crime          strongly held belief
978   convivial     pleasantly merry        festive                   joyous
979   convoke        call together          Ex. convoke Parliament    N. convocation
980   convoluted      coiled around         twisted                   involved
      convulsion      violent
      uncontrollable shaking movement
981   (caused by illness)                   V. convulse               ADJ. convulsive
982   copious        plentiful
                                                                       woman who tries to attract the
                                                                      admiration of men without
983   coquette       flirt                  flirtatious woman         sincere feelings
984   cordial       warmly friendly         gracious                  heartfelt
      cordon         extended line of
      men or fortifications to prevent
985   access or egress                      V.
      cornice       projecting molding
      on building (usually above
986   columns or pillars)
      cornucopia      horn (or horn-
      shaped container) overflowing
987   with fruit and grain                  symbol of abundance       horn of plenty
      corollary     natural
      consequence (which naturally
988   follows from something else)

      coroner        public official who
      investigates any death thought to
989   be of other than natural causes
      corporeal      bodily (rather than
990   spiritual)                            of a bodily form          material
991   corpulent      very fat               N. corpulence
      corpus        collection (of          Ex. the corpus of
992   writings or information)              Shakespear's works        Cf. corpse
      corpuscle      red or white cell in
993   the blood
       correlate       either of the
994    correlated things                      V.

995    correlation     mutual relationship
996    corroborate      confirm               support                     strengthen
       corrode         destroy or wear
       away gradually by chemical
997    action (over a long period)
       corrosive       eating away by
998    chemicals or disease                   (of language) fierce
999    corrugated       wrinkled              ridged
       cosmic          pertaining to the
1000   universe                               vast
       coterie        group that meets                                     close group of people with
1001   socially                               select circle               shared interests
1002   countenance         approve            support                     tolerate
1003   countermand         cancel             revoke (an order)

                Word List - 12
       counterpart      thing that                                         thing that has the same
1004   completes another                      things very much alike      purpose in a different system
       coup           highly successful                                    CF. coup de gr\^ace:
1005   action or sudden attack                coup(s) d'\'etat            deathblow or shot which kills
1006   couple         join                    unite                       OP. uncouple
1007   courier        messenger
1008   court         attempt to gain          seek                        woo

       covenant         binding agreement
1009   between two groups or people           compact                     V: enter into a covenant
1010   covert         secret                  hidden                      implied

                                               desirous of (someone        V. covet: desire eagerly
1011   covetous         avaricious            else's possessions)         (someone else's possessions)
1012   cow           terrorize                intimidate
       cower          shrink quivering as
1013   from fear                              cringe
                                               showing a (pretended)
1014   coy           shy (flirtatiously)      lack of self-confidence     modest
1015   cozen          cheat                   hoodwink                    swindle
1016   crabbed         sour                   bad-tempered                peevish
       craft         skill (esp. with one's
1017   hands)                                 skill in deceiving people   guile
1018   crass         very unrefined          grossly insensible           crude and undiscriminating
1019   crave         desire                  want intensely
1020   craven         cowardly
1021   credence        belief
                                                                           Ex. The new ambassador
       credential     evidence                written proof of a person's presented his credentials to
1022   concerning one's authority            position                     the court.
1023   credo         creed
       credulity      belief on slight
1024   evidence                              gullibility                  naivet\'e
       creed         system of religious
1025   or ethical belief
       creep         move with body
1026   close to the ground                   move stealthily or slowly    N.
       cremate         incinerate (a          N. crematory,
1027   corpse)                               crematorium
       crescendo           increase in the
       volume or intensity as in a
1028   musical passage                       climax                       CF. crescent
       crest         top (as of a hill or     showy feathers on the
1029   wave)                                 head of a bird
1030   crestfallen    dejected               dispirited
1031   crevice        crack                  fissure
       cringe        shrink back as if in
1032   fear                                  cower
1033   crinkle       wrinkle
       criteria      standards used in
1034   judging                               CF. criterion
       crochet        make (a piece of
       needlework) by looping thread
1035   with a hooked needle                  N. CF. crotchet
1036   crone         hag                     ugly old woman
1037   cross         bad-tempered            showing ill-humor            angry
1038   crossbreed          hybridize         N: hybrid                    CF. interbreed
       crotchety       (of someone old)
1039   eccentric                             odd                          whimsical
       crust         hard outer covering
1040   (as of earth or snow)
       crux          essential or main        Ex. the crux of the         ADJ. crucial: of deciding
1041   point                                 problem                     importance
       crypt          secret recess or          underground room (under
1042   vault usually used for burial           a church)
1043   cryptic        mysterious               hidden                      secret
       cubicle         small chamber used
1044   for sleeping or work
       cue            word or signal (as in
       a play to prompt another actor's
1045   speech or entrance)                     reminder or hint            V: give a cue to
1046   cuisine         style of cooking        Ex. French cuisine
       culinary        relating to cooking
1047   or kitchen

       cull          pick out from others
1048   (to kill the weakest members)           reject                      select
                                                                            V. culminate in: reach the
1049   culmination      highest point          climax                      highest point in
1050   culpable        deserving blame         blameworthy

1051   culprit        one guilty of a crime
       culvert        artificial channel for    drain crossing under a
1052   water                                   road
       cumbersome          heavy and                                        Ex. cumbersome
1053   awkward to carry or wear                burdensome                  parcel/uniform
       cumulative        growing by
1054   addition                                accumulative

1055   cunning         clever in deceiving     sly                         N: cleverness in deceiving
1056   cupidity        greed (for wealth)      CF. cupid                   CF. Cupid
                                               manager (in charge of a
1057   curator         superintendent          museum or a library)

       curb           chain or strap used
1058   with a bit to restrain a horse          something that checks       V: check
       curfew          regulation requiring     signal (as a bell)
       all people to leave the streets at      announcing the hour of a
1059   stated times                            curfew
       curmudgeon         churlish, miserly
1060   individual                              bad-tempered old person
                                                                            having the successive letters
1061   cursive         (of writing) flowing    running                     joined
                                                hastily done with little
1062   cursory         casual                  attention to detail
1063   curtail     shorten                  reduce
                                                                          CF. cynic: person who
       cynical       skeptical or                                        believes all people are
1064   distrustful of human motives         N. cynicism                  motivated by selfishness
       cynosure       object of general      person or thing that is a
1065   attention                            center of attention          CF. Ursa Minor
       debacle        sudden disastrous
1066   downfall or defeat                   complete disaster
                                                                          scattered remains of
                                                                         something broken or
1067   debris        rubble                 wreckage                     destroyed
       decollete      (of a dress) having    CF. d\'ecolletage: low
1068   a low-cut neckline                   neckline (on a dress)
                                             final development of the
                                            plot of a play or other      the end of a story when
1069   denouement        final outcome      literary work                everything is explained
       dabble        work at in a
1070   nonserious fashion                   splash around                move noisily in a liquid
1071   dainty        delicate               delicately beautiful         fastidious
       dais        raised platform for
       speakers or other important
1072   people
                                                                          treat without the necessary
1073   dally       trifle with              toy with                     seriousness
                                                                          condemn to everlasting
1074   damn          condemn                criticize severely           punishment
1075   dank          damp                   unpleasantly wet
                                             (of small men) neat in
       dapper         neat and trim (in     appearance and quick in
1076   appearance)                          movements                    neat
1077   dappled        spotted
       dart        move or throw
1078   suddenly and quickly
       daub          smear (as with          cover with something        Ex. daub one's clothes with
1079   paint)                               sticky                       mud/paint
1080   daunt         intimidate             frighten                     discourage
1081   dauntless      bold                  fearless
1082   dawdle         loiter                hang around                  waste time doing nothing
       daze          stun as with a blow
1083   or shock                             bemuse                       benumb
       dazzle        make blind with a
1084   sudden intense light                 amaze                        fill with wonder
       deadlock           standstill resulting
       from the opposition of two
1085   unrelenting forces                        stalemate
1086   deadpan            wooden                 impassive                       with no show of feeling
1087   dearth        scarcity
1088   debar         bar                         forbid                          exclude
1089   debase         degrade                    reduce in quality or value      degenerate

                                                                                  N. debauchery: wild behavior
1090   debauch            corrupt morally        seduce from virtue              (with sex and alcohol)
       debilitate    weaken (esp.
1091   through heat, hunger, illness)            enfeeble
       debonair       (of men) friendly,
       charming, and fashionably
1092   dressed                                   aiming to please                CF. of good disposition
       debunk         expose as false,
1093   exaggerated, worthless, etc.              ridicule
                                                                                  formal presentation of a
1094   debut         d\'ebut                     first public appearance         young woman to society
       debutante          young woman
       making formal entrance into
1095   society

                                                 fall to a lower level (of
1096   decadence           decay                 morality, civilization, or art) ADJ. decadent
       decant        pour off gently
1097   (wine or liquid)
1098   decapitate         behead
1099   decelerate         slow down

               Word List - 13
       deciduous          falling off at a
       specific season or stage of
1100   growth as of leaves                       Ex. deciduous tree/teeth
       decimate           kill (usually one       destroy or kill a large part
1101   out of ten or every tenth man)            of
1102   decipher       decode                     CF. indecipherable
1103   declivity     downward slope
                                                                                  break and separate into
1104   decomposition        decay                V. decompose: decay             simple parts
       decorous           proper (in
       behavior, conduct, or
1105   appearance)
                                              orderliness and good taste appropriateness of behavior
1106   decorum          propriety            in manners                  or conduct
1107   decoy          lure or bait           V.

1108   decree         authoritative order    edict                          judgment of a court of law
       decrepit       weak and in bad
       condition from old age or hard
1109   use                                   Ex. decrepit old chair/man
       decrepitude       state of collapse
       or weakness caused by illness or
1110   old age
                                              condemn openly
       decry         express strong          (something dangerous to
1111   disapproval of                        the public)                    disparage
       deducible        derived by
1112   reasoning                             V. deduce: infer               derive by reasoning
1113   deface         mar                    disfigure
1114   defalcate        embezzle
       defame           harm someone's
1115   reputation                            malign                         speak evil of
                                              failure to perform a task or
1116   default       failure to act          be present                    V.

       defeatist      resigned to defeat      accepting defeat or failure
1117   or failure                            as a natural outcome         N. CF. defeatism
                                              V: desert (in order to join
1118   defect        shortcoming             the opposite one)
1119   defection        desertion

1120   defer         give in respectfully    submit                         delay till later
                                              courteous yielding to
       deference        courteous regard     another's wish or opinion
1121   for another's wish                    (showing respect)              ADJ. deferential
1122   defiance         refusal to yield     resistance                     V. defy
1123   defile        pollute                 make filthy or dirty           corrupt morally

1124   definitive     most reliable          authorative and complete       that cannot be improved
                                              turn away from a straight
1125   deflect       turn aside              course
                                              deprive of leaves (by the
1126   defoliate      destroy leaves         use of chemicals)              N. defoliant
       defray        provide for the
1127   payment of                            undertake the payment of       pay
       defrock        strip a priest or
1128   minister of church authority         unfrock
1129   deft          neat                   skillful
                                             no longer in use or
1130   defunct        dead                  existence
       degenerate       become worse in
1131   quality                              deteriorate                   ADJ: having become worse
1132   degradation      humiliation         debasement                    degeneration
       dehydrate       remove water
1133   from                                 dry out
1134   deify         turn into a god        make a god of                 idolize
1135   deign          condescend            stoop
1136   delete         erase                 strike out
1137   deleterious     harmful
1138   deliberate      consider             ponder                        ADJ: done on purpose
1139   delineate       portray              depict                        sketch
       delirium       mental disorder
1140   marked by confusion                  uncontrolled excitement       ADJ. delirious

       delta         flat plain of mud or
1141   sand between branches of a river
1142   delude         deceive
1143   deluge         flood                 rush                          V.
1144   delusion       false belief          hallucination                 deluding
1145   delusive       deceptive             likely to delude              misleading
1146   delve         dig                    search deeply                 investigate
       demagogue            person who
1147   appeals to people's prejudice        false leader of people        CF. demagoguery
1148   demean          disgrace             humiliate                     debase in dignity
1149   demeanor         behavior            bearing
1150   demented         insane
1151   demerit        fault                 bad quality
1152   demise          death

       demographic          related to       N. demography: statistical
1153   population balance                   study of human population
1154   demolition      destruction          V. demolish
                                                                           N. demon: evil supernatural
1155   demoniac(demoniacal) fiendish        cruel                         being
       demotic          of or pertaining to
1156   the people
       demur           object (because of      raise an objection
1157   doubts, scruples)                      (showing qualms)            hesitate
       demure           (of a woman or
1158   child) grave                           quiet and serious           coy
1159   denigrate        blacken               defame
       denizen          (animal, person, or
       plant) inhabitant or resident of a
1160   particular place                       regular visitor
1161   denomination       religious group     unit in a system            name or designation
1162   denotation       meaning               distinguishing by name      V. denote: indicate
1163   denounce           condemn             criticize                   N. denunciation
1164   depict         portray
1165   deplete        reduce                  exhaust
                                               express sorrow and
                                              severe disapproval for       Ex. deplore their violent
1166   deplore        regret                  something bad               behavior
       deploy         spread out (troops)      distribute (persons or
       in an extended though shallow          forces) systematically or
1167   battle line                            strategically
       deport         send out of the
1168   country                                behave                      N. deportation, deportment
1169   depose           dethrone              remove from office          give a deposition
       deposition       testimony under
1170   oath                                   deposing                    dethroning

1171   depravity        extreme corruption wickedness                     V. deprave
       deprecate        express
1172   disapproval of                         deplore                     protest against
1173   depreciate       lessen in value       belittle                    represent as of little value
1174   depredation        plundering          destruction
                                            N. deputy: person who
                                           has the power to take
       deputize         work or appoint as charge when the leading
1175   a deputy                            person is away
1176   deranged          insane
                                               (of someone) neglectful of (of something) deserted by an
1177   derelict       negligent               duty                        owner
1178   dereliction     neglect of duty        abandonment
1179   deride         ridicule                treat with contempt         make fun of
1180   derision      ridicule               ADJ. derisive                CF. derisory
                                             origin or source of
1181   derivation      deriving             something                    Ex. the derivation of the word
                                             obtained from another
1182   derivative      unoriginal           source                       Ex. derivative prose style

       dermatologist     one who studies
1183   the skin and its diseases

                Word List - 14
       derogatory       expressing a low
1184   opinion                              disparaging                  V. derogate: detract
       descry          catch sight of
1185   (something distant)
1186   desecrate        profane             violate the sanctity of
       deserts         what someone
1187   deserves
1188   desiccate        dry up
1189   desolate        make desolate        forsake                      abandon and desert
       desperado         reckless,
1190   desperate outlaw

       desperate        having lost all                                   reckless and violent because
1191   hope                                 despairing                   of loss of hope or despair
                                             regard as worthless or
1192   despise         look on with scorn   distasteful                  ADJ. despicable: contemptible
1193   despoil       plunder                sack                         Ex. despoil the village
       despondent        without hope and
1194   courage                              depressed                    gloomy
1195   despot          tyrant               harsh, authoritarian ruler   CF. despotism
                                             lacking means of
1196   destitute       extremely poor       subsistence                  utterly lacking
1197   desultory       aimless              haphazard                    digressing at random
       detached         emotionally          free from emotional
1198   removed                              involvement                  calm and objective
                                             prevent from leaving or
1199   detain        keep waiting           going                        N. detention
       determinate       having a fixed
1200   order of procedure                   precisely defined            invariable
1201   determination     resolve            firmness of purpose          measurement or calculation
       deterrent       something that
1202   discourages or deters
1203   detonation       explosion
1204   detraction        slandering            aspersion                 detracting
1205   detrimental       harmful               damaging                  N. detriment
       deviate        turn away from (a         move away from an
1206   principle, norm)                        accepted standard         swerve
                                                                          deviating from the straight
1207   devious         roundabout              erratic                   course
1208   devise         think up                 invent                    plan
1209   devoid         empty                    lacking
                                                pass or be passed to
                                               others (power, work, or
1210   devolve         deputize                property)                 Ex. devolve on/upon/to
       devotee           enthusiastic
1211   follower                                enthusiast                Ex. devotee of Bach
1212   devout         pious                    deeply religious          sincere
                                               skill in using hands or
1213   dexterous         skillful              mind                      N. dexterity
1214   diabolical     diabolic                 devilish                  fiendish
1215   diadem           crown
       dialectical    relating to the art of
1216   debate                                  mutual or reciprocal      Ex. dialectical situation
1217   diaphanous         sheer                transparent
       diatribe       bitter scolding or
1218   denunciation                            invective                 abuse

       dichotomy          division into two                               branching into two parts
1219   opposite parts                          split                     (especially contradictory ones)
       dictum         authoritative and
       weighty statement (made by a
1220   judge in court)                         saying                    maxim
       didactic       (of speech or
       writing) intended to teach a moral
1221   lesson                                  teaching                  instructional
       die           metal block used for       device for stamping or
1222   shaping metal or plastic                impressing                mold
1223   diffidence      shyness                 lack of self-confidence   timidity
1224   diffuse        wordy                    verbose                   rambling
       dignitary      person of high rank
1225   or position
       digression        wandering away
1226   from the subject                        V. digress
1227   dilapidated       falling to pieces     in a bad condition        ruined because of neglect
                                                 dilate on/upon: speak or
                                                write at length on (a
1228   dilate         expand                    subject)
1229   dilatory         delaying                tending to delay
       dilemma           situation that
       requires a choice between                                              choice of two unsatisfactory
1230   equally unfavorable options              problem                      alternatives
       dilettante       aimless follower of
       an art or a field of knowledge (not
1231   taking it seriously)                     amateur                      dabbler

1232   diligence         steadiness of effort persistent hard work
       dilute         make (a liquid) less                                    Ex. dilute the influence of the
1233   concentrated                             reduce in strength           president
1234   diminution        lessening              reduction in size            V. diminish

1235   din            continued loud noise      V: make a din                instill by wearying repetition
       dinghy           small boat (often
1236   ship's boat)
       dingy            (of things and place)
1237   dirty and dull                           Ex. dingy street/curtain
1238   dint           means                     effort                       Ex. by dint of hard work
                                         three-dimensional scene
       diorama           life-size, three-
                                        with modeled figures
       dimensional scene from nature or against a painted
1239   history                          background
                                                                              (of needs and dangers) very
1240   dire           warning of disaster       disastrous                   great
                                                 slow mournful piece of
                                                music (sung over a dead
1241   dirge          funeral song              person)
       disabuse          correct a false
1242   impression                               undeceive                    free from a wrong belief
                                                                              V. disaffect: cause to lose
1243   disaffected       disloyal               lacking loyality             affection or loyalty
1244   disapprobation disapproval               condemnation
                                                                              Ex. with her clothes in
1245   disarray         state of disorder       a disorderly or untidy state disarray
1246   disavowal          denial                disclaiming                  repudiating
                                                                              (of a group) break up and
1247   disband           dissolve               disperse                     separate
       disbar         make (a lawyer)
       leave the bar or the legal
1248   profession
       disburse        pay out (as from a
1249   fund)                                N. disbursement                 CF. purse
1250   discernible     distinguishable      perceivable                     Ex. discernible improvement
       discerning      mentally quick and
1251   observant                            having insight                  perceptive
1252   disclaim       disown                renounce claim to               deny
1253   disclose       reveal                N. disclosure

1254   discombobulated discomposed          confused
1255   discomfit      frustrate             put to rout                     defeat
       discompose        disturb the
1256   composure of                         confuse
1257   disconcert      confuse              upset                           embarrass
       disconsolate     hopelessly sad
1258   (at the loss of something)
                                                                             dissonance (when musical
1259   discord        conflict              lack of harmony                 notes are played)
1260   discordant      not harmonious       conflicting
                                             regard (a story or news)
1261   discount        disregard            as unimportant                  deduct from a cost
       discourse       serious speech,      formal discussion (either
1262   writing, or conversation             written or spoken)              conversation
1263   discredit      defame                disgrace                        destroy confidence in
       discrepancy      lack of
       consistency or agreement as                                           Ex. discrepancy between two
1264   between facts                        difference                      descriptions
1265   discrete       separate              unconnected
                                             ability to adjust actions to
1266   discretion      prudence             circumstances                   freedom of action or judgment
                                             make distinctions on the
1267   discriminate     distinguish         basis of preference
       discriminating able to see
1268   differences                          discerning                      prejudiced
       discursive      (of a person or       rambling (without any
1269   writing) digressing                  clear plan)
       disdain        treat with scorn or
1270   contempt
1271   disembark        debark              go ashore (from a ship)         unload cargo from a ship
1272   disenfranchise disfranchise            deprive of a civil right    OP. enfranchise
1273   disengage         uncouple             separate                    disconnect
       disfigure       mar the
1274   appearance of                          spoil
       disgorge         surrender
1275   something (stolen)                     eject                       vomit

1276   disgruntle       make discontented

                Word List - 15
1277   dishearten       discourage
       disheveled        untidy (of hair or
1278   clothing)                              V. dishevel
1279   dishonor         disgrace              N. ADJ. dishonorable
1280   disinclination unwillingness
1281   disingenuous       not naive           not candid                  sophisticated
1282   disinter        dig up                 unearth                     OP. inter
                                               free from bias and self-
1283   disinterested     unprejudiced         interest                    objective
1284   disjointed      disconnected           lacking coherence           V. disjoint: disconnect
       disjunction      act or state of                                    CF. disjunctive: expressing a
1285   separation                             disunity                    choice between two ideas
                                                                           Ex. dislodge the food caught
1286   dislodge         remove (forcibly)     force out of a position     in his throat
1287   dismantle        take apart            disassemble
       dismember          cut into small       cut (a body) apart limb
1288   parts                                  from limb
       dismiss         eliminate from                                     put out of court without further
1289   consideration                          no longer consider          hearing
1290   disparage        belittle

1291   disparate        basically different   impossible to compare       unrelated
1292   disparity       difference             condition of inequality     OP. parity
                                                                           not influenced by personal
1293   dispassionate      calm                impartial                   feelings
                                                                           message sent with all due
1294   dispatch         speediness            prompt execution            speed
1295   dispel        scatter                  drive away                  cause to vanish
                                               prepare and give out
1296   dispense         distribute            (medicines)                 N. dispensation: dispensing
                                               Ex. disperse the
1297   disperse         scatter               cloud/crowd
1298   dispirited       lacking in spirit
1299   disport         amuse                   Ex. disport oneself           CF. divert
       disproportion      lack of proportion
1300   (between the parts)                     ADJ. disproportionate
1301   disputatious       argumentative        fond of argument
1302   disquietude        uneasiness           anxiety                       V. disquiet: make anxious
       disquisition      formal systematic      explanation of the results    long formal speech or written
1303   inquiry                                 of a formal inquiry           report
                                                cutting apart in order to
1304   dissection        analysis              examine
1305   dissemble          disguise             hide the real nature of       pretend
1306   disseminate         distribute          spread                        scatter (like seeds)
       dissension         disagreement of
       opinions causing strife within a
1307   group
1308   dissent          disagree
1309   dissertation      formal essay          treatise
       dissident        dissenting (with an
       opinion, a group, or a
1310   government)                             rebellious                    N.
1311   dissimulate        pretend              conceal by feigning           dissemble
1312   dissipate        squander               waste foolishly               scatter
1313   dissolution       disintegration        reduction to a liquid form    looseness in morals
1314   dissonance          discord

1315   dissuade          persuade not to do discourage                       N. dissuasion
1316   distant         reserved or aloof       cold in manner                Ex. distant greeting
1317   distend          expand                 swell out
       distill        refine (a liquid by
       evaporating and subsequent                                             separate the most important
1318   condensation)                           concentrate                   parts from
1319   distinct        clearly different       clearly noticed
1320   distinction      honor                  excellence                    difference
       distinctive      clearly different
1321   from others of the same kind
1322   distort         twist out of shape      give a false account of       misrepresent
       distract        take (one's
1323   attention) off something                upset emotionally             make anxious
1324   distrait        absentminded            distracted
                                                                              very anxious and troubled
1325   distraught      upset                  distracted by anxiety          almost to the point of madness
                                               occurring during the
1326   diurnal        daily                   daytime
1327   diva          operatic singer          prima donna
                                               go in different directions
1328   diverge        vary                    from the same point            ADJ. divergent: differing

       diverse        differing in some
1329   characteristics (from each other)      various                        N. diversity: | variety
                                                                              V. divert: turn aside from a
1330   diversion       act of turning aside pastime                          course

1331   divest         strip (as of clothes)   deprive (as of rights)         dispossess
       divine         perceive intuitively
1332   (by or as if by magic)                 foresee the future             foretell
1333   divulge        reveal
1334   docile         obedient                easily managed                 submissive
                                            book where such entries
1335   docket         program as for trial are made                          list of things to be done
       doctrinaire     unable to
       compromise about points of
1336   doctrine                               dogmatic                       unyielding
                                               particular principle
       doctrine       teachings in            (religious, legal, etc.)
1337   general                                taught                         dogma
       document          provide written
1338   evidence (for a claim)                 record with documents          N.
1339   doddering        shaky                 infirm from old age            V. dodder
1340   doff          take off                 OP. don
1341   dogged          determined             stubborn                       stubbornly persevering
1342   doggerel        poor verse
                                               holding stubbornly to
1343   dogmatic         opinionated           one's opinion                  arbitrary
                                               listlessness(lack of spirit
1344   doldrums         blues                 or energy)                     slack(inactive) period
1345   dolorous        sorrowful              N. dolor
       dolt          slow-thinking stupid
1346   person                                 CF. dull
                                               V. ADJ. domiciled: having
1347   domicile        home                   one's domicile                 Ex. He is domiciled in Britain.
       dominant          exercising the                                   stronger than the other part of
1348   most influence                         high and easily seen       a system
                                                                          enjoy a commanding position
1349   dominate          control              rule                       in
       domineer          rule over
1350   tyrannically
1351   don            put on                  OP. doff
       doom            condemnation to a                                  fate (esp. a tragic or ruinous
1352   severe penalty                         ruin                       one)
1353   dormant          sleeping              temporarily inactive       lethargic
       dormer           window projecting
1354   upright from roof                      CF. sleeping room
       dorsal          relating to the back
1355   of an animal                           Ex. dorsal fin
       dossier         file of documents                                  CF. bundle of papers labeled
1356   on a subject or person                 file                       on the back
                                               feeblemindedness of old
1357   dotage          senility               age                        Ex. In one's dotage
       dote           be excessively fond      show signs of mental
1358   of                                     decline
1359   dour           sullen                  gloomy                     stubborn
       douse           plunge into water or
1360   liquid                                 dip                        immerse
       dowdy            untidy (of a woman
1361   or clothes)                            slovenly                   dressed in an unattractive way
1362   downcast          disheartened         dejected                   sad
       dowry           money or property
       brought by a bride to her
1363   husband at marriage
       dowse            use a divining rod
       to search for underground water
1364   or minerals
1365   doze            sleep lightly          nap
1366   drab           dull                    lacking color              cheerless

1367   draconian         extremely severe     Ex. draconian punishment CF. Draco: Athenian politician
1368   draft          first rough form        conscription               draught
       drama           prose or verse
       composition to be performed by
1369   actors                                 play                       exciting and unusual situation

1370   drastic        strong                  violent and severe         Ex. drastic changes/measures
                                                                               act of swallowing liquid or
       draught        current of air                                          amount of liquid swallowed at
1371   (through a room or to a fire)            act of pulling roads          a time
       draw          choosing of a lot or
1372   card

1373   dregs         sediment in a liquid       lees                          worthless residue
                                                 let saliva flow out slowly
1374   dribble       flow or fall in drops      from the mouth                move a ball
                                                                               N: action or sound of falling in
1375   drip         fall or let fall in drops   shed drops                    drops
1376   drivel       nonsense                    foolishness                   V: talk nonsense
1377   droll        queer and amusing

1378   drone         talk dully                 buzz or murmur like a bee N.
       droop         bend or hang                                             Ex. His shoulders drooped
1379   downward                                 become weakened               with tiredness
1380   dross         waste matter               worthless impurities
1381   drudge         do drudgery               N: person who drudges
       drudgery        hard unpleasant
1382   work                                     menial work
                                                 (of something) causing
1383   dubious        questionable              doubt                         (of someone) filled with doubt
                                                                               (of metals) easily pulled into
1384   ductile       malleable                  pliable                       shape
1385   dulcet        sweet sounding             pleasing to the ear           melodious
       dull         (of colors or surfaces)
1386   not bright                               cloudy                        overcast
       dumbfound(dumfound) astonish              ADJ. dumbfounded,
1387   (making dumb)                            dumfounded, dumbstruck
       dummy           imitation of a real
1388   object used as a substitute              effigy
       dupe          someone easily
1389   fooled or deceived                       V: deceive

1390   duplicity     double-dealing             hypocrisy                     being dishonest and deceitful

                Word List - 16
       duration       length of time
1391   something lasts
       duress         forcible restraint,
1392   especially unlawfully                    coercion by threat            illegal coercion
       dutiful(duteous) (of people or         obedient (filled with a
1393   their behavior) respectful            sense of duty)
1394   dwindle         shrink                reduce gradually
1395   dynamic          energetic            vigorously active
       dynamo           generator for
1396   producing electricity                 energetic person
1397   dys-           abnormal               impaired
       dysentery        inflammatory
       disorder of the lower intestinal
1398   tract
                                              learning disorder marked
                                             by impairment of the ability
1399   dyslexia        word blindness        to read
       dyspeptic        suffering from
1400   indigestion                           N. dyspepsia: indigestion      difficulty in digesting food

       earmark          set aside (money
1401   or time) for a particular purpose
       earn           gain for the            gain (something that one
1402   performance of service or labor       deserves)                      deserve
1403   earthly        of this earth          terrestrial                    worldly
1404   earthy         unrefined              coarse                         of earth

1405   ebb            (of the tide) recede   lessen                         diminish
                                          overflowing with
1406   ebullient      showing excitement enthusiasm                         boiling
1407   eccentric       irregular             odd                            unconventional
1408   eccentricity     oddity               idiosyncrasy
1409   ecclesiastic     ecclesiastical       pertaining to the church       N: minister
                                              composed of elements
                                             drawn from disparate            selecting individual elements
1410   eclectic       selective              sources                        from a variety of sources
1411   eclipse        darken                 extinguish                     outshine
       ecliptic       path of the sun and
1412   the planets

       ecologist       person concerned
                                           person concerned with the
       with the interrelationship between detrimental effects of
       living organisms and their         human civilization on the
1413   environment                        environment                CF. ecology
       economy             efficiency or        thrifty management of
1414   conciseness in using something          resources
       ecosystem           ecological
       community together with its
1415   environment
                                                very strong feeling of joy
1416   ecstasy          rapture                and happiness                 any overpowering emotion
       eddy          swirling current of
1417   water, air, etc.                        V.
       edict        decree (especially
1418   one issued by a sovereign)              official command
       edifice       building (of imposing
1419   size)
1420   edify        instruct                   correct morally
                                                causing fear because
1421   eerie         weird                     strange
1422   efface        rub out                   remove the surface of
                                                producing a strong
1423   effective      effectual                response                      striking
       effectual      able to produce a
1424   desired effect                          valid
1425   effectuate         effect               produce                       achieve
       effeminate         having womanly
1426   traits
       effervescence        inner excitement                                  emitting bubbles forming
1427   or exuberance                           showing high spirits          inside
       effete        having lost one's
1428   original power                          barren                        worn out
       efficacy       power to produce
1429   desired effect                          ADJ. efficacious: effectual

                                                likeness of a person made Ex. burn an effigy of the
1430   effigy       dummy                      of wood, paper, or stone   President
       effluvium        noxious(harmful)
1431   smell
       effrontery       rudeness without
1432   any sense of shame                      shameless boldness            presumptousness
1433   effulgent        shining brightly       brilliant
                                                unrestrained outpouring of
1434   effusion       pouring forth            feeling                     V. effuse: pour out
       ego           one's opinion of
1435   oneself                                 self-esteem
                                                  belief that one should be
       egoism            excessive interest      interested in one's self
1436   in one's self                             rather than in others        selfishness

       egotism           tendency to speak
1437   or write of oneself excessively           conceit                      self-importance
                                                  excessively self-
1438   egotistical      egotistic                centered(egocentric)         self-important
                                                  conspicuously bad or
1439   egregious          notorious              shocking
1440   egress           exit                     opening for going out        act of going out
                                                  abrupt ejection (to
1441   ejaculation       exclamation             discharge sperm)             V. ejaculate
                                                  add more detail or
1442   elaborate         work out carefully      information                  ADJ.

1443   elaboration        addition of details    intricacy
       elastic         able to spring back        quick to recover (as from
1444   into shape                                disappointment)              able to adapt to change
       elated          filled with excited joy
1445   and pride                                 overjoyed                    in high spirits
       elegy           poem or song
       expressing lamentation (for the
1446   dead)                                     ADJ. elegiacal, elegiac
1447   elevation         elevated position       altitude                     height
       elicit        draw out fact or
       information (by discussion or
1448   from someone)
1449   elixir        cure-all                    panacea                      something invigorating
                                                  mark used to indicate an
                                                 omission (when the
       ellipsis        omission of words         meaning can be
1450   from a text                               understood without them)     PL. ellipses
1451   elliptical      elliptic                  oval                         of an ellipse
       elope           run away secretly
       with the intention of getting
1452   married
                                                                               ADJ. eloquent: movingly
1453   eloquence          expressiveness         persuasive speech            expressive
1454   elucidate         explain                 make clear                   clarify
1455   elusive          evasive                  not frank                    baffling

1456   elysian          relating to paradise     blissful
       Elysium            place or condition
1457   of bliss
       emaciated           thin and wasted
1458   (from hunger or illness)
1459   emanate            issue forth           come out
1460   emancipate          set free             liberate
1461   emasculate          weaken               castrate
       embargo             ban on commerce
1462   or other activity
1463   embark             commence              go on board a boat             begin a journey
                                                                               fix firmly in a surrounding
1464   embed(imbed)          enclose            place in something             mass
                                                                                enhance as a story (by adding
1465   embellish          adorn                 ornament                       fictitious details)

       embezzlement       taking for one's stealing (of money placed
1466   own use in violation of trust       in one's care)
                                                 fill with painful or bitter
1467   embitter          make bitter            feelings                       make sad and angry
       emblazon            ornament richly (a
1468   shield or flag)                          N. emblazonment
       embody             give a bodily form
1469   to                                       incorporate                    include
       emboss             produce a design       decorate with a raised
1470   in raised relief                         design
1471   embrace            hug                   clasp with the arms            adopt or espouse
       embroider           decorate with         ornament (a story) with
1472   needlework                               fancy or fictitious details    embellish
                                               involve in strife, dispute,
1473   embroil           throw into confusion or quarrel                       entangle
                                                                                N. embryo: organism in the
1474   embryonic           undeveloped          rudimentary                    early stage of development
       emend              correct (usually a     N. emendation: correction
1475   text)                                    of errors                  improvement
       emetic            substance causing
1476   vomiting                                 ADJ.

1477   eminent            rising above others high                             lofty
       emissary           agent (sent on a
1478   mission to represent another)            messenger
       emollient         soothing or
1479   softening remedy (for the skin)          ADJ.
1480   emolument        salary                payment for an office       compensation
       empathy         ability to identify     identification with and
       with another's feelings, ideas,        understanding of another's
1481   etc.                                   feelings                   V. empathize
       empirical      based on
1482   experience
                                                                           try to equal or excel (through
1483   emulate        imitate                 rival                       imitation)

1484   enact         make (a bill) into law
                                               Ex. enamored of his own
1485   enamored         in love               beauty                      V. enamor: inspire with love
                                               convert a message into
1486   encipher       encode                  code                        put into cipher
1487   encircle      surround
       enclave        territory enclosed
1488   within an alien land
                                                                           N. encomium: very high
1489   encomiastic     praising               eulogistic                  praise

                                                                           Ex. His activities encompass
1490   encompass        surround              include                     publishing and computers.
                                               Ex. I resent all these      V. encroach: take another's
       encroachment       gradual             encroachments on my         possessions or right gradually
1491   intrusion                              valuable time               or stealthily

               Word List - 17
1492   encumber        burden                 N. encumbrance
                                               Ex. endear her to
1493   endear        make beloved             everyone                    ADJ. dear: loved

1494   endearment       fond word or act      expression of affection

       endemic        prevailing among
       a specific group of people or in a      peculiar to a particular
1495   specific area or country               region or people            CF. pandemic
                                                                           write one's signature on the
1496   endorse        approve                 support                     back of
       endue         provide with some
1497   quality                                endow
                                                                           V. endure: bear (pain or
1498   enduring       lasting                 surviving                   suffering) for a long time
1499   energize       invigorate              give energy to              make forceful and active
1500   enervate       weaken                  take away energy from
       enfranchise       admit to the rights
       of citizenship (especially the right
1501   to vote)                                CF. franchise
1502   engage           attract                employ                          hire
1503   engaged           employed              busy                            betrothed
1504   engaging          charming              attractive
1505   engender          cause                 produce                         give rise to
1506   engross          occupy fully           absorb
       engulf         surround and
1507   swallow up

                                                make greater (as in value,
1508   enhance           increase              reputation, or usefulness) improve
1509   enigma           puzzle                 mystery                         ADJ. enigmatic: obscure
1510   enjoin         command                  order                           forbid
       enlist         (cause to) join the       obtain (help, sympathy, or
1511   armed forces                            support)
       enliven         make lively or
1512   spirited                                animate
1513   enmity          ill will                hatred                          hostility
                                                listlessness and
                                               dissatisfaction resulting
1514   ennui          boredom                  from lack of interest           CF. annoy
       enormity         hugeness (in a bad
1515   sense)                                  excessive wickedness            Ex. enormity of the crime

1516   enrapture        please intensely       fill with rapture and delight
                                             place comfortably (in a
1517   ensconce          settle comfortably secure place)

1518   ensue           follow (as a result)
1519   entail         make necessary           require                         necessitate
       enterprise       willingness to take
1520   new ventures                            initiative                      business organization
1521   enterprising      full of initiative    showing enterprise
1522   enthrall       capture                  enslave                         captivate
                                                persuade to do
1523   entice         lure                     (something wrong)               attract
1524   entity         real being

1525   entomology         study of insects
       entourage         group of
1526   attendants                              retinue                        CF. surround
       entrance          put under a
       spell(condition caused by                carry away(fill with strong
1527   magical power)                          feeling) with emotion          put into a trance
1528   entreat          plead                  ask earnestly
1529   entree(entr\'ee) entrance               a way in                       right to enter
       entrepreneur       businessperson
       (who assumes the risk of a
1530   business venture)                       contractor                     ADJ. entrepreneurial
1531   enumerate          list                 mention one by one
                                                                               utter or speak, especially
1532   enunciate         announce              proclaim                       distinctly
                                                                               N. environs: surrounding area
1533   environ          enclose                surround                       (as of a city)
                                                                               longest division of geologic
       eon(aeon)         long period of                                       time containing two or more
1534   time                                    an age                         eras
       epaulet(epaulette) ornament
       worn on the shoulder (of a
1535   uniform, etc.)
1536   ephemeral          short-lived          fleeting
       epic         long heroic poem,
       novel, or similar work of art            ADJ: (of stories or events)
1537   (celebrating the feats of a hero)       resembling an epic           grand
       epicure          connoisseur of food
1538   and drink                               gourmet                        ADJ. epicurean
       epicurean         believing that
       pleasure is good and suffering is
1539   bad and should be avoided               N.
       epigram           witty thought or
1540   saying, usually short
       epilogue         short speech at
1541   conclusion of dramatic work
       episodic         (of a story or play)    made up of separate and        N. episode: incident in the
1542   loosely connected                       loosely connected parts        course of an experience

       epistemologist philosopher who
1543   studies the nature of knowledge         N. epistemology
       epitaph          inscription in
       memory of a dead person (as on
1544   a tombstone)
       epithet       word or phrase          descriptive phrase to
       characteristically used to           characterize a person
1545   describe a person or thing           (often contemptous)
       epitome         perfect example or
1546   embodiment                           brief summary               Ex. epitome of good manners
1547   epoch          period of time
1548   equable         tranquil             of even calm temper         (of temperature) steady
       equanimity       calmness of
1549   temperament                          composure

1550   equestrian       rider on horseback ADJ.
       equilibrium     balance of
1551   opposing forces                      balance of the mind         equanimity

1552   equine         resembling a horse    Ex. equine face
       equinox         period of equal       the beginning of spring
1553   days and nights                      and autumn                  Ex. vernal/autumnal equinox
1554   equipoise       balance              balancing force             equilibrium
1555   equitable       fair                 impartial                   OP. inequitable
1556   equity        fairness               justice                     OP. inequity
       equivocal       (of words or
1557   statements) ambiguous                intentionally misleading    (of behavior) questionable
       equivocate       use equivocal
1558   language to deceive people           lie                         mislead
                                             wear away gradually by
1559   erode         eat away               abrasion                    Ex. The sea erodes the rocks.
       erotic        pertaining to
1560   passionate love or sexual love
       errant        wandering (esp. in      straying from proper moral
1561   search of adventure)                 standards                   Ex. knight-errant
                                             irregular in movement or
1562   erratic       odd                    behavior                    unpredictable
1563   erroneous        mistaken            wrong                       incorrect
       erudite       (of a person or
1564   book) learned                        full of learning            scholarly
                                                                         reckless adventure that
1565   escapade         prank               flighty conduct             disobeys rules
                                             Ex. eschew alcoholic
1566   eschew          avoid habitually     drinks
                                          known only to the chosen
1567   esoteric       hard to understand few, esp. initiates            N. esoterica
1568   espionage        spying
1569   espouse         adopt                  support (an idea or aim)    marry
1570   esteem         respect                 value                       judge
       estimable      (of a person)
1571   worthy of esteem                       admirable                   deserving esteem
                                                                           V. estrange: alienate (people
1572   estranged       separated              alienated                   in a family)

1573   ethereal      like a spirit or fairy   unearthly light             heavenly
1574   ethnic        relating to races
       ethnology      study of                 study of the different races
1575   humankind                              of human beings               CF. anthropology

                                           character or ideas peculiar
       ethos         underlying character to a specific person, group,
1576   of a culture, group, etc.          or culture                   Ex. the company ethos
       etymology        study of word         study of the origins of
1577   parts                                  words
                                               N. eugenics: study of
       eugenic        pertaining to the       hereditary improvement of
1578   improvement of race                    the human race
1579   eulogistic    praising                 full of eulogy

                Word List - 18
       eulogy        expression of
       praise, often on the occasion of
1580   someone's death                        V. eulogize

       euphemism         mild expression
1581   in place of an unpleasant one          ADJ. euphemistic
1582   euphony         sweet sound            ADJ. euphonious
       euphoria       feeling of                                           feeling of great happiness or
       exaggerated or                                                     well-being (when
1583   unfounded(ungrounded                   baseless) well-being        unreasonable)
1584   euthanasia       mercy killing
1585   evanescent       fleeting              vanishing                   soon disappearing
1586   evasive        not frank               trying to hide the truth    eluding
1587   evenhanded        impartial            fair
       eventual       happening at last
1588   as a result                            Ex. eventual victory
1589   evince        show clearly
       evocative      tending to call up
1590   (emotions, memories)
       evoke          call forth (memory      Ex. That old film evoked
1591   or feeling)                            memories of my childhood    N. evocation
1592   ewe           female sheep
1593   exacerbate       worsen                aggravate                   embitter
       exact         demand and obtain         Ex. exact a promise from
1594   by force                               him                         N. exaction
       exacting        extremely               Ex. exacting standard of
1595   demanding                              safety
       exalt         raise in rank or
1596   dignity                                praise highly               inspire
                                               annoy or make angry (by
1597   exasperate       vex                   testing the patience)
1598   except         exclude                 N. exception: objection     exclusion
1599   exceptionable     objectionable        likely to cause dislike     offensive
       excerpt        selected passage
       (written or musical) taken from a
1600   longer work                            V.
                                               Ex. Chancellor of the
1601   exchequer        treasury              exchequer
                                                                           N: government tax on good
                                                                          produced and used inside a
1602   excise         cut away                cut out                     country
1603   exclaim        cry out suddenly        N. exclamation              ADJ. exclamatory
       excoriate       scold with biting
1604   harshness                              censure strongly            strip the skin off
       exculpate       clear from blame
1605   or guilt
1606   execrable       very bad               detestable
1607   execrate        curse                  express abhorrence for      detest
1608   execute         put into effect        carry out                   kill as a lawful punishment

       executioner      person
1609   administering capital punishment

       executive       person having           one branch of government
1610   administrative authority               executing laws            ADJ: relating to executing

       executor        person designated
1611   to execute the terms of a will
       exegesis        explanation,
       especially of biblical(of the bible)
1612   passages
       exemplary        serving as a                                         Ex. exemplary
1613   model                                    outstanding                 punishment/behavior

1614   exemplify       show by example          furnish an example          serve as an example of
       exempt          not subject to a
1615   duty or obligation                       free from a duty            V.
                                                 expenditure of much         V. exert oneself: make a great
1616   exertion       effort                    physical work               effort
1617   exhale         breathe out               OP. inhale
       exhilarating    invigorating and                                      V. exhilarate: make cheerful
1618   refreshing                               cheering                    and excited

       exhort         urge (by strong            Ex. The general exhorted
1619   argument or advice)                      his men to fight bravely    N. exhortation
       exhume           dig out of the
1620   ground                                   remove from a grave
1621   exigency        urgent situation         ADJ. exigent
1622   exiguous        small in amount          minute
                                                 pertaining to the
       existential     pertaining to            philosophy of
1623   existence                                existentialism
       exodus          departure (of a
1624   large number of people)
1625   exonerate        acquit                  exculpate                   free from blame or guilt
       exorbitant      (of costs or              exceeding reasonable
1626   demands) excessive                       bounds

1627   exorcise        drive out evil spirits
                                                from another part of the
1628   exotic         not native                world                       strange
       expansive        (of a person)
1629   outgoing and sociable                    broad and extensive         able to increase in size
1630   expatiate       talk at length           speak or write in detail
                                                 someone who has
                                                withdrawn from his native
1631   expatriate      exile                    land                        V: exile
       expedient        suitable (for a
       particular purpose although not
1632   necessarily morally correct)             practical                   politic(prudent)
1633   expedite        hasten                   make go faster

1634   expeditious      done with speed         quick                       N. expedition
       expenditure      payment or
1635   expense                                  expending                    something expended
       expertise       specialized
1636   knowledge (in a particular field)        expert skill
       expiate         make amends for (a
1637   sin)

1638   expletive       meaningless word         interjection                 profane oath
1639   explicate       explain in detail        interpret                    clarify
1640   explicit      totally clear              definite                     outspoken
       exploit       make use of,
1641   sometimes unjustly                       N. exploitation
       expos\'e        public revelation of
1642   something discreditable
1643   expository       explanatory             serving to explain           N. exposition: explaining
                                                                              reasoning with someone to
1644   expostulation     protest                remonstrance                 correct or dissuade
       exposure         risk, particularly of
       being exposed to disease or to
1645   the elements                             unmasking                    act of laying something open
1646   expound          explain
       expropriate      take possession
       of (often for public use and
1647   without payment)
                                                 remove a word or name
1648   expunge          cancel                  (from a book or list)        erase
                                                 remove offensive parts of
1649   expurgate        clean                   a book
1650   exquisite       delicate                 very finely made             extremely beautiful
       extant         (of something
       written or painted) still in
1651   existence
1652   extemporaneous not planned               impromptu                    extempore
                                                                              lessen the seriousness of
1653   extenuate        weaken                  mitigate                     (bad behavior)
1654   extirpate       root up                  uproot                       destroy completely
1655   extol         praise very highly         glorify

1656   extort        wring from                 get money by threats, etc. obtain by force or threats

       extradition     surrender of
1657   prisoner by one state to another         Ex. extradition treaty       V. extradite
1658   extraneous         not essential      irrelevant                   superfluous
                                                                           V. extrapolate: infer (unknown
                                                                          information) from known
1659   extrapolation      projection         conjecture                   information
       extricate        free from an
1660   entanglement or difficulty            disentangle
1661   extrinsic        external             not essential or inherent    extraneous
       extrovert        person interested
       mostly in external objects and
1662   actions
                                                                           shape (plastic or metal) by
1663   extrude          force or push out    thrust out                   forcing through a die
       exuberance          overflowing
1664   abundance                             joyful enthusiasm            flamboyance
1665   exude            flow out slowly      discharge (gradually)        give forth
1666   exult           rejoice
                                                                           make up (a story) in order to
1667   fabricate        build                lie                          deceive
       facade(fa\c{c}ade) front or face       superficial or false
1668   (of building)                         appearance

       facet           small plane surface
1669   (of a gem(precious stone))            a side
       facetious        joking (often
1670   inappropriately)                      unserious                    humorous

1671   facile          easily accomplished   ready or fluent              superficial
1672   facilitate      help bring about      make less difficult
1673   facsimile        copy
                                              clique (within a large
1674   faction         party                 group)                       dissension
       factious         inclined to form
1675   factions                              causing dissension
1676   factitious       artificial           produced artificially        sham
                                              person who does all kinds
1677   factotum          handyman            of work                    CF. do everything
       faculty         mental or bodily
1678   powers                                teaching staff

                Word List - 19
1679   fake            not genuine           N: one that is not genuine   impostor
1680   fallacious       false                based on a fallacy           misleading
1681   fallible      liable to err
       fallow        (of land) plowed but
       not sowed (to improve the
1682   quality)                                uncultivated
       falsify       make (something
1683   written) false by changing
                                                weaken in purpose or          walk or move unsteadily
1684   falter        hesitate                  action                        through weakness
                                                extreme devotion to a
1685   fanaticism      excessive zeal          belief or cause               N. fanatic
1686   fancied        imagined                 unreal
                                            one who has a special
       fancier        breeder or dealer of interest, as for raising
1687   animals                             specific plant or animal
1688   fanciful      whimsical                 visionary                     imaginary
       fancy          imagination (of a
1689   whimsical or fantastic nature)          capricious liking             V: imagine
       fanfare        call by bugles or
1690   trumpets                                showy display                 spectacular public display
                                                                              humorous play full of silly
1691   farce         broad comedy              mockery                       things happening
       far-fetched      too improbable to
1692   be believed                             implausible                   Ex. far-fetched story

1693   fashion        give shape to            make                          Ex. fashion the pot out of clay

1694   fastidious      difficult to please     squeamish                     fussy
       fatalism       belief that events
       are determined by forces or fates
1695   beyond one's control                    ADJ. fatalistic               CF. fatal: causing death
1696   fathom          comprehend              investigate                   determine the depth of
       fathomless       too deep to be
1697   measured or understood                  unfathomable
       fatuous        smugly and
1698   unconsciously foolish                   inane                         silly
       fauna          animals of a period
1699   or region                               CF. flora

       favoritism      display of partiality
1700   toward a favored person
       fawning         courting favor by        V. fawn: exhibit affection    seek favor or attention by
1701   cringing and flattering                 as a dog                      obsequiousness
1702   faze          disconcert                dismay                        embarrass
1703   feasible         practical             able to be carried out        practicable

       feature       distinctive part of features: overall
1704   the faces (as the eyes or mouth) appearance of the face              prominent or distinctive quality
1705   febrile         feverish
                                                                             ADJ. fecund: very productive
1706   fecundity        fertility             fruitfulness                  of crops or young
       feebleminded           deficient in
1707   intelligence                           very stupid
1708   feign           pretend
1709   feint          trick                   shift                         sham blow
       felicitous       (of a word or
1710   remark) apt                            suitably expressed            well chosen
                                               appropriateness (of a
1711   felicity       happiness               remark, choice, etc.)         quality of being felicitous
       feline          of a member of the
1712   cat family                             N.
       fell           cut or knock down (a
1713   tree or a person)                      bring down (with a missile)
       felon           person convicted of
1714   a grave crime                          CF. felony: serious crime
       feral          (of an animal) not
1715   domestic                               wild
                                               commotion(noisy and
1716   ferment          agitation             excited activity)             unrest (of a political kind)
       fermentation       chemical reaction
       that splits complex organic
1717   compounds                              unrest                        agitation
1718   ferocious         fierce               violent                       N. ferocity
       ferret          drive or hunt out of                                  drive out (as from a hiding
1719   hiding                                 hunt with ferrets             place)
       fertile        producing many           (of land) producing good
1720   young, fruits, or seeds                crops                         V. fertilize
1721   fervent          ardent                zealous                       hot
1722   fervid          ardent                 zealous                       hot
                                                                             quality of being fervent or
1723   fervor          glowing ardor          intensity of feeling          fervid
                                               produce irritation or         (of a cut or wound) generate
1724   fester          rankle                 resentment                    pus or rot
1725   festive         joyous                 celebratory                   relating to a feast or festival
                                               celebrate or honor with a
1726   fete(f\^ete)     honor at a festival   feast                         N. (outdoor) festival or feast
1727   fetid(foetid)     malodorous             foul
       fetish(fetich) object believed to         object of excessive
1728   have spiritual powers                    attention or reverence        CF. fetishism
                                                                               N. chain or shackle for the
1729   fetter          shackle                  restrict the freedom of       foot of a prisoner
       feud             bitter prolonged
       quarrel (usually between two
1730   peoples or families)                     V. CF. Romeo and Juliet       CF. feudal, feudalism
1731   fiasco           total failure           CF. bottle
1732   fiat         command                     arbitrary order               Ex. presidential fiat
       fickle          changeable (in
1733   affections or friendship)                faithless

1734   fictitious       imaginary               non-existent                  purposely invented to deceive
1735   fidelity        loyalty                  accuracy
1736   fiend           evil spirit              devil
1737   figment           invention              something invented            imaginary thing

       figurative        not literal but         using a figure(impression)
1738   metaphorical                             of speech
                                                                               amount represented in
1739   figure           written symbols         number                        numbers
       figurine         small ornamental
1740   statuette(very small statue)
       filch           steal (things of small
1741   value)
       filial       pertaining to or
1742   befitting a son or daughter              Ex. filial respect
       filibuster    block legislation or
       prevent action in a lawmaking
       body by making very slow long
1743   speeches                                 N                             freebooter
       filigree        delicate ornamental
1744   lacelike metalwork
       filing          particle removed by a
1745   file
1746   filth        dirty matter                ADJ. filthy
1747   finale          conclusion               concluding part
       finery          beautiful clothes for
1748   a special occasion
1749   finesse           delicate skill         V: handle with finesse
1750   finicky          too particular          fussy                         difficult to please
                                                completeness of
1751   finish         surface texture          execution
       finished        properly made and        Ex. finished
1752   complete                                product/performance
1753   finite        limited
       firebrand        piece of burning
1754   wood                                    hothead                       troublemaker
1755   fissure         crevice                 crack
       fit          sudden outburst of an       convulsion caused by
1756   illness or feeling                      epilepsy
1757   fitful        spasmodic                 intermittent                  irregular
1758   flaccid        flabby                   lacking firmness              weak
1759   flag          droop                     grow feeble                   decline in vigor or strength
       flagrant        conspicuously
1760   wicked, bad, or offensive               blatant                       outrageous
       flail         beat with or as if with
1761   a flail                                 move wildly                   thresh grain by hand
1762   flair         talent
1763   flamboyant        ornate                highly elaborate              richly colored

1764   flashy          showy                   gaudy                         giving a momentary brilliance
       flaunt         display                   Ex. ``Honey, if you've got
1765   ostentatiously                          it, flaunt it !''
1766   flay          strip off skin            plunder                       remove the skin from
1767   fleck          spot                     mark with flecks              N: small mark or spot
                                                N: young bird that has
       fledgling(fledgeling)                   acquired wing feathers and
1768   inexperienced                           is learning to fly         inexperienced person

1769   fleece          wool coat of a sheep V: shear the fleece from         rob by a trick
                                                                              N. ADJ. fleeting: passing
1770   fleet         fast                      rapid                         quickly
       flick         light stroke as with a     V: move with a light quick strike with a light quick blow
1771   whip                                    blow                        (as from a whip)
       flicker        burn unsteadily or                                      N: flickering movement or
1772   fitfully                                move waveringly               light
       flighty        (esp. of a woman's        often changing, esp. from
1773   behavior) capricious                    one lover to another          impulsive
                                                shrink back (in fear of       Ex. She did not flinch in the
1774   flinch         hesitate                 something unpleasant)         face of danger.

                  Word List - 20
       flip        send (something)
       spinning, often into the air, by
1775   striking with a light quick blow       turn over                    Ex. flip over
       flippant          lacking proper       Ex. flippant remarks about
1776   seriousness                           death                       N. flippancy
       flirt       behave in a way that                                     N: one (or woman) given to
1777   attracts (sexual) attention            deal triflingly with         flirting
                                              fly or move lightly or
1778   flit        fly                       quickly                       dart lightly
       floe          flat mass of floating
1779   ice
       flora         plants of a region or
1780   era
       florescence         condition or
1781   period of flowering

1782   florid        ruddy                    (of a complexion) reddish    flowery
1783   flotsam           drifting wreckage
                                              proceed clumsily or falter
       flounder          struggle and thrash (as in water, mud, snow,
1784   about                                 etc.)                         proceed in confusion
1785   flourish          grow well            prosper                      make sweeping gestures
1786   flout         reject                   mock                         show contempt for

1787   flowery           full of flowers      full of ornate expressions
1788   fluctuate         waver                shift                        rise and fall as if in waves
       fluency           smoothness of
1789   speech                                 ADJ. fluent

1790   fluke         unlikely occurrence      stroke of fortune            accidental stroke of good luck

1791   flush         redden                   blush                        flow suddenly and abundantly
                                              make nervous and
1792   fluster       confuse                 confused                      N.
                                                                            N. flute: long rounded groove
       fluted        having vertical          V. flute: make long parallel incised on the shaft of a
1793   parallel grooves (as in a pillar)     inward curves in              column
       flutter       (of a bird with large
       wings) wave (the wings) lightly,       vibrate rapidly or
1794   rapidly, and irregularly              erratically                   fly by waving quickly
1795   flux          flowing                  series of changes            fluctuation
       fodder            coarse food for
1796   cattle, horses, etc.                   feed for livestock           CF. food
       foible        small weakness of
1797   character                            slight fault                   CF. feeble

1798   foil         defeat                  frustrate                      prevent from being successful
                                             impose upon another by
1799   foist        insert improperly       coercion                       palm off
1800   foliage       masses of leaves       CF. defoliate
1801   foment          stir up              incite                         instigate
1802   foolhardy       rash                 reckless                       foolishly daring
                                             N. fop: man who takes too
       foppish         vain about dress     much interest in his clothes
1803   and appearance                       and appearance
                                             sudden raid or military
1804   foray         raid                   advance                        V.
                                                                            V. forbear: refrain from (in a
1805   forbearance       patience           forgiveness                    generous and forgiving way)
       ford         place where a river
1806   can be crossed on foot               V.
1807   forebears(forbears) ancestors
                                                                       V. forebode: be a warning of
1808   foreboding      premonition of evil  feeling of coming evil    (something unpleasant)
                                            of or used in legal
       forensic       suitable to debate proceedings and the
1809   or courts of law                    tracking of criminals       Ex. forensic science/medicine
                                            one that comes before
                                           and indicates the approach
1810   forerunner      predecessor         of another
       foreshadow        give an indication be a sign of (what is
1811   beforehand                           coming)                        portend
       foresight       ability to foresee    prudence in providing for
1812   future happenings                    the future
       forestall     prevent by taking
1813   action in advance
       forfeit      something
       surrendered as punishment for a
1814   crime or breach of contract          V: lose as a forfeit           N. forfeiture
                                                                            form by heating in a forge and
1815   forge         counterfeit            reproduce fraudulently         hammering into shape
1816   forgo(forego)     give up            do without
1817   forlorn       sad and lonely         wretched                       desolate
                                            ceremonious adherence           something done just for form's
1818   formality       ceremonious quality to rules                        sake
1819   formidable       menacing            arousing fear                  threatening
1820   forsake         desert                 abandon                      renounce
       forswear        renounce under                                       make a solemn promise to
1821   oath                                   abandon                      give up
       forte         strong point or
       special talent in a person's
1822   character
       forthcoming      happening in the
1823   near future                            ready                        willing to help
1824   forthright     straightforward         direct                       frank
1825   fortitude      bravery                 courage                      strength of mind
1826   fortuitous      accidental             by chance                    N. fortuity
       forum          public square of an      public place for open
1827   ancient Roman city                     discussion                   court of law
       forward         presumptuous or
1828   bold
                                               bring up (for a certain
1829   foster         rear                    period only)                 encourage
                                                                            Ex. foul
       foul          very bad or                                           smell/flavor/temper/language/a
1830   disagreeable                           very dirty                   ir/deed/weather/means
       founder         person who
       establishes (an organization or
1831   business)
       fracas         brawl(noisy quarrel
       or fight) in which a number of
1832   people take part                       melee
1833   fractious      unruly                  peevish                      cranky
1834   frail         weak                     N. frailty
       franchise       right or privilege                                   license to sell a product in a
1835   granted by authority                   right to vote                particular territory
                                              distraught as from fear or
1836   frantic       wild                     worry                        Ex. frantic with fear
1837   fraudulent      cheating               deceitful                    Ex. fraudulent means
       fraught        filled (with                                          Ex. fraught with danger and
1838   something unpleasant)                  full                         difficulties
                                                                            V: wear away or unravel by
1839   fray          brawl                    fight                        rubbing
       freebooter       pirate or plunderer
       who makes war in order to grow
1840   rich
1841   frenetic(phrenetic) frenzied           frantic
                                               N. frenzy: violent wild
1842   frenzied       madly excited           excitement
       fresco        painting on wet
1843   plaster (usually fresh)
                                         Ex. fret over your poor
1844   fret         be annoyed or vexed grades                            N: irritation of mind
       friction      clash or conflict in
1845   opinion                                rubbing against
       frieze        ornamental
1846   horizontal band on a wall
1847   frigid       intensely cold            cold in manner              Ex. frigid zone
       fringe        decorative edge of
1848   hanging threads                        edge

1849   frisk        move about playfully      froric                      ADJ. frisky: playful
       fritter      waste (time or money
1850   on unimportant things)
       frivolous      lacking in
1851   seriousness                            flippant                    self-indulgently carefree
       frock         long loose garment
1852   (worn by monks)
       frolic       play and jump about
1853   happily                                frisk                       Ex. frolicking young lambs
1854   frolicsome      prankish               gay                         playful
1855   frond         fern leaf                palm or banana leaf
1856   fructify      bear fruit               produce fruit
                                                                           ADJ. frugal: practicing
1857   frugality     thrift                   economy                     economy
1858   fruitful     producing results         profitable                  prolific
1859   fruition      bearing of fruit         fulfillment                 realization
                                                                           prevent from accomplishing a
1860   frustrate      thwart                  defeat                      purpose
       fuddle        make stupid or
1861   confused as with alcholic drink        N. in a fuddle: confused

1862   fugitive      fleeting or transitory   lasting only a short time   roving(wandering)
       fulcrum        support on which a
1863   lever rests or pivots
1864   fulminate       thunder                explode                     issue a severe denunciation
       fulsome         disgustingly                                        Ex. fulsome
1865   excessive                              offensively flattering      praise/expressions of admire
       fumble          move the fingers
       and hands awkwardly (in search          mishandle or drop a ball
1866   of something)                          that is in play                bungle

       functional       made for practical                                    Ex. functional modern
1867   use only (without decoration)          functioning                    furniture
       functionary       official (who
1868   performs a particular function)
1869   fundamental        basic               primary                        essential
1870   funereal         sad                   solemn                         suitable for a funeral
                                               great anger and
1871   furor          frenzy                  excitement                     CF. fury
       furrow          long shallow trench
1872   made by a plow                         deep wrinkle in the skin       V.
                                               quiet and secret (trying to
1873   furtive        stealthy                escape notice)                 sneaky
       fusillade       simultaneous firing
       or outburst (of missiles,
1874   questions, etc.)
1875   fusion          union                  coalition                      V. fuse
       fuss:          trouble or worry over
1876   trifles                                make nervous                   pay too much attention to
1877   fussy           fastidious             finicky                        easily upset
1878   futile         useless                 hopeless                       ineffectual
1879   gadfly          animal-biting fly      irritating person
1880   gaffe          social blunder

                 Word List - 21
1881   gainsay          deny
       gait           manner of walking or
1882   running                                speed
       galaxy          large isolated
       system of stars, such as the            collection of brilliant
1883   Milky Way                              personalities
                                                                              emotional outburst (laughters,
1884   gale           windstorm               gust of wind                   tears)
1885   gall           annoy                   exasperate                     chafe
       galleon         large three-masted
1886   sailing ship
       galley          low ship with sails
1887   (rowed along by slaves)
       gallows       framework from
       which a noose is suspended
1888   (used for execution by hanging)
       galvanic      of the production of
       electricity by the action of an acid having the effect of an
1889   on a metal                           electric shock                Ex. galvanic cell
       galvanize      stimulate or shock
1890   by an electric current               stimulate by shock            shock into action
       gambit       opening in chess in action made to produce a
1891   which a piece is sacrificed      future advantage
1892   gambol        romp                   skip about                    leap about playfully
       gamely        in a spirited                                         Ex. fight gamely against a
1893   manner                               with courage                  superior boxer
1894   gamut         entire range
       gangrene       decay of body
       tissue caused by insufficient
       blood supply (usually following
1895   injury)                              ADJ. gangrenous
                                                                          stare wonderingly with the
1896   gape         open widely             open the mouth wide           mouth open
1897   garbled       mixed up               jumbled                       distorted
1898   gargantuan      huge                 enormous                      gigantic

       gargoyle      waterspout carved
1899   in grotesque figures on a building
1900   garish       overbright in color     unpleasantly bright           gaudy
1901   garner        gather                 store up                      amass
                                                                           decorate (food or drink) with
                                                                          small items such as lemon
1902   garnish       decorate               add a garnish to              slices
1903   garrulous      loquacious            wordy                         talkative
       gastronomy      art and science
       of preparing and serving good
1904   food                                 CF. gastronome
       gauche        clumsy (in social
1905   behavior)                            coarse and uncouth
1906   gaudy         flashy                 showy
1907   gaunt        lean and angular        thin and bony                 emaciated
                                             mallet(wooden hammer)
                                            used by a presiding officer
1908   gavel        hammerlike tool         or an auctioneer              V.
1909   gawk           stare foolishly          look in open-mouthed awe
       gazette        official periodical
1910   publication                             newspaper

1911   genealogy           record of descent   lineage                     ancestry
                                                general statement which
1912   generality      vague statement         is not detailed             quality of being general
1913   generate        cause                   produce                     create
       generic        characteristic of an
1914   entire class or species                 of a genus
1915   genesis         beginning               origin
1916   geniality      cheerfulness             kindliness                  sympathy
       genre          particular variety of
1917   art or literature
                                                                            striving to convey an
1918   genteel        well-bred                elegant                     appearance of refinement

1919   gentility     those of gentle birth     high social class           refinement
1920   gentle         kindly                   soft                        mild
       gentry         people of                 people of good family or    class of people just below
1921   standing(rank or position)              high social position        nobility
       genuflect       bend the knee as
1922   in worship
       genus          division of animals
       or plants, below a family and
1923   above a species
       geriatrics     medical treatment
1924   and care of old age
                                                                            something that may develop
       germ           earliest form of an                                  into something larger or more
1925   organism                                seed or bud                 important
                                                bearing upon(having
                                               connection with) the case
1926   germane             pertinent           at hand                     appropriate
       germinal        pertaining to a
1927   germ                                    creative                    Ex. germinal idea
1928   germinate           cause to sprout     sprout
       gerontocracy         government
1929   ruled by old people
       gerontology         study of the
       sociological phenomena
1930   associated with old age
       gerrymander          change voting
       district lines in order to favor a         N. CF. Elbridge Gerry +
1931   political party                           (sala)mander
                                                  N. gestation: period of
       gestate           evolve as in            development from
1932   prenatal growth                           conception until birth
                                                                                   V. gesticulate: make gestures
1933   gesticulation      motion                 gesture                          (while speaking)
1934   ghastly           horrible                terrifying                       resembling ghosts

                                                  nonsensical or
1935   gibberish         nonsense                unintelligible talk or writing   babbling
1936   gibe           mock                       make jeering remarks             N: jeering remarks
1937   giddy           light-hearted             not serious                      frivolous
       gild           cover with a thin layer
1938   of gold
1939   gingerly          very carefully          ADJ.
       girth          distance around
1940   something                                 circumference
1941   gist           essence                    main point                       substance
1942   glacial         like a glacier            of an ice age                    extremely cold

1943   glamor            compelling charm        ADJ. glamorous
       glare           shine intensely and
1944   blindingly                                stare fixedly and angrily        N.
       glaring         (of something bad)                                          shining intensely and
1945   highly conspicuous                        harshly bright                   blindingly
       glaze           cover with a thin and                                       N: thin, smooth, shiny coating
1946   shiny surface                             apply a glaze to                 (as for pottery)

1947   gleam             brief flash of light    glow                             V.

                                                  gather grain left behind by gather bit by bit (facts or
1948   glean           gather leavings           reapers                      information) often with difficulty
       glib           fluent (with insincerity
1949   or superficiality)                        facile                           slick
1950   glimmer           shine erratically       twinkle                          N: dim or unsteady light
       glitter        shine brightly with
1951   flashing points of light                  Ex. glittering diamond ring N: sparkling light
       gloat          express evil                look at or think about with
1952   satisfaction                              evil satisfaction                view malevolently
       gloss           brief explanation
       note or translation of a difficult
1953   expression                              V.
       gloss_over        explain away with
       the intention of deceiving or
1954   hiding faults
       glossary         brief explanation of
1955   words used in the text
                                           N. gloss: shiny brightness superficially attractive
1956   glossy          smooth and shining on a surface                appearance

       glow            shine brightly           show redness and heat (in
       without a flame (as of eyes or          the face) after hard work or N: light produced by a heated
1957   metals)                                 because of strong feelings body
1958   glower           scowl                  glare                         look or stare angrily
                                                fill beyond capacity (with
1959   glut          overstock                 food)                         fill to excess
1960   glutinous        sticky                 viscous                       gluey
       glutton         someone who eats         ADJ. gluttonous: given to
1961   too much                                gluttony                      greedy
       gnarl           protruding knot on a
1962   tree                                    V.
1963   gnarled          twisted
                                                underground spirit who
1964   gnome            dwarf                  guards treasure hoards
                                                                              cause (someone) to do
                                                                             something by continued
1965   goad            urge on                 drive with a goad             annoyance
1966   gobble           eat very quickly
       gorge           stuff oneself (with                                    CF. gorgeous: dazzlingly
1967   food)                                   glut                          beautiful
                                               N. gore: blood (from a
1968   gory            bloody                  wound)
1969   gossamer           sheer                very light                    like cobwebs

               Word List - 22
       gouge            overcharge (with
1970   high price)                             extort from                   Ex. gouge the public
                                                person who takes
                                               excessive pleasure in food
1971   gourmand           epicure              and drink
       gourmet           connoisseur of
1972   food and drink                          epicure
       gracious         kind in a generous
1973   way (to someone less important)
       gradation        series of gradual        degree in such a
1974   stages                                   progression
                                                 divide into marked
       graduate         arrange into            intervals (for use in
1975   categories or grades                     measurement)                 Ex. graduated ruler

       graduated         arranged by
1976   degrees (of height, difficulty, etc.)
       granary          storehouse for
1977   grain
1978   grandeur          impressiveness         stateliness                  majesty
       grandiloquent      (of a person or
       speech) using high sounding or
1979   important-sounding language              pompous                      bombastic
1980   grandiose         affectedly grand       pretentious                  high-flown
       granulate        form into grains or      N. granule: grain or
1981   granules                                 particle
       graphic          pertaining to the art
1982   of delineating                           vividly described
       graphite         black form of
1983   carbon used in lead pencils

1984   grapple          wrestle                 come to grips with           take hold of and struggle with
                                                                           shred by rubbing against a
1985   grate         make a harsh noise         have an unpleasant effect rough surface
1986   gratify       please                     satisfy                      Ex. gratify a desire
1987   gratis        free                       without charge               ADJ.
1988   gratuitous       given freely            unwarranted                  uncalled for

       gratuity      n. money given to
1989   sb who has done one a service            tip
1990   gravity       seriousness                ADJ. grave
       graze          (of an animal) feed        cause (an animal) to feed scrape (esp. the skin) or
1991   on growing grass                         on grass                   touch lightly in passing
                                                 (of an animal) tending to
1992   gregarious        sociable               form a group

1993   grievance         cause of complaint complaint
1994   grill        question severely           cook on a grill              broil
1995   grim            causing great fear       unrelenting                determined in spite of fear
       grimace           facial distortion to
       show feeling such as pain,
1996   disgust, etc                             V.
                                                                            Ex. grisly remains of the
1997   grisly         ghastly                   horrifying                 bodies
       groom            man employed to
1998   take care of horses                      V: make neat and trim      clean and brush (an animal)
       groove        long narrow
       channel made in a surface to
       guide the movement of
1999   something                                Ex. groove of the record
2000   gross           total                    fragrant                   clearly wrong
                                                                            strange and unnatural
2001   grotesque          fantastic             comically hideous          (causing fear or amusement)
2002   grotto          small cavern
       grouch           bad-tempered             person who keeps
2003   complaint                                complaining                V: complain
2004   grouse           complain                fuss                       grumble
       grovel          crawl or creep on
2005   ground                                   remain prostrate           behave in a servile manner
       growl           low, guttural,
2006   menacing sound (as of a dog)
       grudge           deep feeling of
2007   dislike                                  Ex. grudge fight           V.
2008   grudging          unwilling              reluctant                  stingy(giving reluctantly)
2009   gruel           thin liquid porridge
                                                 Ex. grueling marathon
2010   grueling         exhausting              race
2011   gruesome           grisly                horrible
2012   gruff          rough-mannered            (of a voice) rough         hoarse
2013   grumble           complain               mutter discontentedly      grouch
       grunt           utter a deep guttural
2014   sound (as a pig does)                    N.

2015   guffaw           boisterous laughter     V.
2016   guile          deceit                    duplicity                  wiliness
2017   guileless        without deceit

2018   guise           outward appearance costume                          Ex. in a new guise
2019   gull           trick                     deceive                    hoodwink
2020   gullible        easily deceived
                                              make an excessive
       gush          (of liquid) pour out in display of feeling (without   Ex. Blood gushed from the
2021   large quantities from a hole          true feeling)                 wound.
       gust          strong abrupt rush of
2022   wind                                      V. CF. bluster
       gustatory         affecting or relating
2023   to the sense of taste
2024   gusto           eager enjoyment           zest                      enthusiasm
2025   gusty           windy
       guy           cable or chain
       attached to something that needs
2026   to be braced or steadied                  CF. guide
       gyroscope          apparatus used to
       maintain balance, ascertain
2027   direction, etc.
       habitat         natural home of a
2028   plant or animal                           CF. habitation
       habituate         accustom or
2029   familiarize                               addict
       hackles           hairs on back and        Ex. make someone's
2030   neck, especially of a dog                 hackles rise
2031   hackneyed           commonplace           trite
                                                                            Ex. haggard faces of the
2032   haggard           wasted away             gaunt                     rescued miners

       haggle            argue about prices
2033   (in an attempt to bargain)
2034   hail          frozen rain drop            V: salute or greet        precipitate hail
2035   halcyon           calm                    peaceful                  Ex. halcyon days
2036   hale          healthy
       halfhearted        exhibiting little
2037   interest or enthusiasm
2038   hallowed          blessed                 consecrated               Ex. hallowed ground
                                                                            false perception of objects
                                                                           with a compelling sense of
2039   hallucination      delusion               false idea                their reality
2040   halting         hesitant                  faltering                 not fluent
                                                 prevent the free
2041   hamper            obstruct                movement of

2042   handsome            large in quantity     generous                  Ex. handsome reward
2043   hap            chance                   luck
                                                                             happening in an unplanned
2044   haphazard         random                by chance                     manner
2045   hapless         unfortunate             luckless

       harangue         long, passionate,
2046   and vehement speech                     V.
       harass         annoy by repeated
2047   attacks

       harbinger       forerunner (which
2048   foreshadows what is to come)
       harbor         give protection (by
2049   giving food and shelter)                provide a refuge for          hide
       hardy          (of people or                                           (of plants) able to stand
2050   animals) sturdy                         robust                        inclement(stormy) weather
                                                V. harp: dwell on(think or
       harping         tiresome dwelling       speak a lot about)
2051   on a subject                            tediously
2052   harrowing        agonizing              distressing                   traumatic
       harry          harass, annoy,
2053   torment (by repeated attacks)           raid
                                                lid covering a deck
2054   hatch          deck opening             opening                       V: emerge from an egg
2055   haughtiness       pride                 arrogance                     ADJ. haughty
       haunt          (of a spirit) visit (a
2056   place)                                  come to mind continually      visit (a place) regularly
2057   haven          place of safety          refuge                        harbor
       havoc          widespread
2058   damage                                  disorder                      chaos
2059   hazard          venture                 put in danger                 risk
2060   hazardous         dangerous
2061   hazy           slightly obscure         misty                         unclear
       headfirst      moving with the
2062   head leading                            headlong
2063   headlong         hasty                  rash                          headfirst
2064   headstrong        willful               stubborn                      unyielding
       healthful      conducive to good
2065   health                                  Ex. healthful mountain air
       healthy        possessing good
2066   health                                  healthful
                                        V. heckle: verbally harass
                                       as with gibes (by
       heckler     person who verbally interrupting a speaker or
2067   harasses others                 speech)
       hedonist         one who believes         CF. hedonism: practice of
       that pleasure is the sole aim in         living one's life purely for
2068   life                                     pleasure
2069   heed            pay attention to         N: close attention
2070   heedless          not noticing           disregarding
       hegemony           dominance
       especially of one nation over
2071   others
2072   heinous          atrocious               wicked                         hatefully bad
       helm            steering wheel of a
2073   ship                                     position of control

       hem             surround tightly so
2074   that movement is impossible              Ex. hem in                     N.

2075   herald          messenger                sign of something to come V: announce
2076   herbivorous       grain-eating           CF. herbivore
2077   herd          group of animals           crowd                          one who looks after a herd
2078   hereafter        life after death
       heresy           opinion contrary to      opinion contrary to
2079   popular belief                           accepted religion              ADJ. heretical
       hermetic         concerning
2080   alchemy or magic                         obscure and mysterious         occult

2081   hermitage         home of a hermit
                                                 CF. herpetology: branch
       herpetologist     one who studies        of zoology that deals with
2082   reptiles                                 reptiles and amphibians
       heterodox         (of beliefs) against
2083   accepted opinion                         unorthodox                     unconventional
2084   heterogeneous         dissimilar         mixed                          not homogeneous
       hew             cut to pieces with ax
2085   or sword                                 chop                           N.
       heyday           time of greatest
2086   success or power                         prime
                                                                                gap or interruption in space or
2087   hiatus          gap                      pause                          time

                Word List - 23
2088   hibernal        wintry                 wintery                       of or like winter
       hibernate        sleep throughout
2089   the winter                             N. hibernation
2090   hide           skin of an animal
       hideous         repulsive to the
2091   sight                                  ugly                          repugnant
       hierarchy        arrangement by         authoritarian body divided body of persons having
2092   rank or standing                       into ranks                  authority
2093   hieroglyphic      picture writing      ADJ.
       high-flown       highly pretentious
2094   or inflated
       hilarity       boisterous
2095   mirth(merriment                        laughter)                     ADJ. hilarious: full of laughter
2096   hindmost         furthest behind       farthest to the rear
2097   hindrance        block                 obstacle                      V. hinder
       hindsight       understanding the
       nature of an event after it has
2098   actually happened
2099   hinterlands      back country          inner part of a country       OP. foreland
       hireling       one who serves for
       hire (usually used                      one who works solely for
2100   contemptuously)                        compensation                  Ex. hireling politician
2101   hirsute        hairy                   having a lot of hair

2102   historic       important in history    Ex. historic battle
                                               based on events in history
       historical      connected with         (whether regarded as
2103   history                                important or not)
                                               excessively dramatic or
2104   histrionic      theatrical             emotional                     affected
2105   hive           box for bees            V: cause to go in a hive

2106   hoard           stockpile              accumulate for future use     N: supply stored for future use
2107   hoary          white with age
       hoax           trick which makes
2108   someone take action                    practical joke                Ex. hoax mail

2109   holocaust        destruction by fire   CF. burnt whole               CF. Holocaust
       holster        leather pistol case
       (that hangs on a belt around the
2110   waist)
2111   homage            honor               tribute                       great respect
2112   homely      not good-looking          unattractive
       homeostasis   tendency of a
       system or organism to maintain
       relative stability or internal
2113   equilibrium                           CF. homeo-: constant          Ex. homeotherm
2114   homespun           domestic           made at home                  spun or woven at home

2115   homily          sermon                tedious moralizing lecture    serious warning
       homogeneous             of the same    uniform in composition
2116   kind                                  throughout
                                              N: whetstone for
2117   hone            sharpen (a tool)      sharpening a tool
2118   hoodwink          deceive             delude
2119   horde           crowd                 swarm
       horoscope         diagram of the
       positions of stars at a given
       moment (eg. of a person's birth)
2120   used by astrologers
2121   hortatory        encouraging          exhortive                     marked by exhortation
                                              N. horticulture: science or
                                             art of cultivating fruits,
       horticultural    pertaining to        vegetables, or ornamental CF. agriculture: science or art
2122   cultivation of gardens                plants                       of farming or growing crops

       hostage          person who is kept
       as a prisoner by an enemy so
       that the other side will do what
2123   the enemy demands
2124   hostility       unfriendliness        hatred                        enmity

       hothead        person who does
2125   things too quickly without thinking ADJ. hotheaded
2126   hovel           shack                 small wretched house
                                              (of birds or aircraft) stay in
2127   hover           hang about            the air in one place            (of people) wait nearby
2128   hubbub           confused uproar      loud noise                    din
2129   hubris          arrogance             excessive self-conceit
2130   hue             color                 aspect                        Ex. opinions of every hue
2131   hue_and_cry          outcry           loud cry or clamor            strong protest
                                              dry outer covering of a
2132   hull          husk                    seed                          frame or body of a ship
       humane            marked by
2133   kindness or consideration              kind and compassionate     humanitarian
       humanitarian       one devoted to
2134   the promotion of human welfare         CF. humanism
                                                                          having a low opinion of
       humble           of low rank or                                   oneself and a high opinion of
2135   position                               modest                     others
2136   humdrum            dull                monotonous
2137   humid            damp                  N. humidity

2138   humility        humbleness of spirit
2139   hummock            small hill          hillock
                                                                         N. quality that makes
2140   humor            indulge               comply with the wishes of something amusing
       humus            substance or rich
       soil formed by decaying
2141   vegetable matter                       CF. soil
2142   hurl           throw forcefully        shout out violently
2143   hurtle          crash                  rush                       move with great speed
2144   husband           use sparingly        conserve                   save
2145   husbandry         frugality            thrift                     economy
2146   hut            crude dwelling          shack
2147   hybrid          mongrel                mixed breed                V. hybridize
2148   hydrophobia        fear of water       rabies
                                               ADJ. hygienic: showing
       hygiene          science and           careful attention to
       practice of the promotion and          cleanness (to prevent
2149   preservation of health                 disease)                   Ex. hygienic condition

2150   hyperbole         exaggeration         overstatement              ADJ. hyperbolic: of hyperbole
       hypercritical    excessively            too critical (without
2151   exacting                               noticing good qualities)
       hypnosis         induced sleeping
2152   state                                  ADJ. hypnotic              V. hypnotize
                                                                          ADJ. CF. hypochondria:
       hypochondriac       person unduly       worrier without cause     neurosis that one is or is
2153   worried about his health               about illness              becoming ill

       hypocritical     pretending to be                                  N. hypocrisy: profession of
2154   virtuous                               deceiving                  beliefs one does not possess
       hypothetical      based on
2155   assumptions or hypotheses              supposed                   N. hypothesis
       hysteria         excessive or            N. hysteric: person          CF. hysterics: attack of
2156   uncontrollable excitement               suffering from hysteria      hysteria
2157   ichthyology        study of fish        CF. ichthyo-: fish
2158   icon(ikon)        religious image       idol                         image or representation
       iconoclastic       attacking             N. iconoclast: one who       one who destroys sacred
2159   cherished traditions                    attacks traditional ideas    images
       ideology          system of ideas
       characteristic of a group or
2160   culture
       idiom           expression whose
       meaning as a whole differs from
       the meanings of its individual           distinctive style (of        Ex. idiom of the modern
2161   words                                   expression)                  popular music
       idiosyncrasy        individual trait
2162   usually odd in nature                   behavioral peculiarity       eccentricity
2163   idle           not working              not employed or busy         lazy
                                                excessive admiration or
2164   idolatry        worship of idols        devotion                     ADJ. idolatrous
       idyll(idyl)     short poem               simple happy period of life
2165   idealizing rural life                   (in the country)             scene from such a time

2166   idyllic        charmingly carefree      simple and happy             Ex. idyllic scene
2167   igneous           produced by fire      of fire                      volcanic
2168   ignite          kindle                  light                        catch fire or set fire to
2169   ignoble          unworthy               not noble                    dishonorable
2170   ignominy           deep disgrace        shame or dishonor            ADJ. ignominious
2171   illicit       illegal
2172   illimitable      infinite               limitless
                                                clear up or make
2173   illuminate        brighten              understandable               enlighten
       illusion        misleading vision or
2174   visual image                            false idea or belief         CF. delusion
2175   illusive        deceiving               based on illusion            causing illusion
2176   illusory        illusive                deceptive                    not real
       imbalance          lack of balance or
2177   symmetry                                disproportion

2178   imbecility       weakness of mind       state of being an imbecile   N. imbecile: stupid person
2179   imbibe           drink in
                                               painful or complex
       imbroglio       complicated            misunderstanding (as in a
2180   situation (as in a play)               play)                        entanglement
       imbue          saturate(soak                                         Ex. imbue someone with
2181   thoroughly)                            fill                         feelings

                Word List - 24
2182   immaculate        spotless             flawless                     absolutely clean
2183   imminent        impending              near at hand
       immobility      state of being
2184   immovable
       immolate        offer or kill as a
2185   sacrifice (by fire)
2186   immune           resistant to          free or exempt from          N. immunity
2187   immure          imprison               shut up in confinement       CF. wall
2188   immutable        unchangeable
2189   impair         injure                  hurt                         damage
       impale         pierce (with a sharp
2190   point)                                 Ex. impaled by the spear

       impalpable       imperceptible(not
2191   easily understood)                     intangible                   OP. palpable: tangible
2192   impart         grant a share of        make known                   Ex. news to impart
2193   impartial      not biased              fair                         N. impartiality
       impassable        not able to be
2194   traveled or crossed
       condition) from which there is no       situation allowing for no
2195   escape                                 further progress
       impassioned       (of speech) filled
2196   with passion                           fervent
2197   impassive        without feeling       expressionless               imperturbable
       impeach         charge (a public
2198   official) with crime in office         raise doubts about           indict
2199   impeccable        faultless
2200   impecunious       without money
                                               retard or obstruct the
2201   impede          hide                   progress of                  block
                                                                            speech defect preventing
2202   impediment        hindrance            stumbling-block              clear articulation
       impel         drive or force
2203   onward                                drive to take action          urge to action
2204   impending        nearing              approaching                   about to happen
       impenetrable      not able to be
2205   pierced or entered                    beyond understanding          impossible to understand
2206   impenitent       not repentant
       imperative       absolutely
2207   necessary                             that must be done             critically important
2208   imperceptible     unnoticeable        impossible to perceive        undetectable
2209   imperial        like an emperor       related to an empire          CF. imperialism
2210   imperil       put in danger
2211   imperious        domineering          too commanding                haughty
                                              not permitting passage
2212   impermeable        impervious         through its substance         impossible to permeate
       impersonal       not being a           not showing personal          Ex. impersonal
2213   person                                feelings                      force/manner/organization
2214   impertinent      insolent             rude                          not pertinent

2215   imperturbable     unshakably calm placid
                                          incapable of being                incapable of being affected (in
2216   impervious       impenetrable     damaged or distressed             one's opinions)
2217   impetuous        violent              hasty                         rash
2218   impetus         moving force          momentum                      force of a moving body
                                              lack of respect for God or
2219   impiety        irreverence            piety
2220   impinge         infringe              encroach                      influence
2221   impious         irreverent
       implacable       incapable of being
2222   pacified                              impossible to appease         Ex. implacable enemy
       implausible      unlikely (to be
2223   true)                                 unbelievable                  Ex. implausible alibi
2224   implement        put into effect      enforce                       carry out
                                                                            show to be involved (in a
2225   implicate       incriminate           involve incriminatingly       crime)
       implication     something hinted
2226   at or suggested                       implying                      implicating
       implicit      understood but not
2227   stated                                implied                       unquestioning and complete
2228   implode         burst inward          CF. vaccum tube
       implore         v. ask or beg
2229   earnestly                             beseech
       imply         suggest a meaning
2230   not expressed                        signify
2231   impolitic       not wise             not expedient                  not politic
                                             that cannot undergo
2232   imponderable       weightless        precise evaluation             CF. pound
2233   import          significance         importance                     meaning
                                                                            troublesomely urgent or
2234   importunate       urging             always demanding               persistent
                                             make repeated requests
2235   importune        beg persistently    (in an annoying way)
       imposture        assuming a false
2236   identity                             masquerade                     CF. impostor
                                                                            lacking in physical strength or
2237   impotent         weak                ineffective                    power

                                             deprive of natural strength
2238   impoverish        make poor          or something important       Ex. impoverished soil
2239   imprecation       curse              swearword
                                             impossible to capture or       Ex. impregnable
2240   impregnable        invulnerable      enter by force                 fort/argument
2241   impregnate        make pregnant      fill thoroughly                saturate
       impromptu         without previous    off the cuff(end of a
2242   preparation                          sleeve)                        on the spur of the moment
2243   impropriety      improperness        unsuitableness

2244   improvident       thriftless         not providing for the future
       improvise        compose on the
2245   spur of the moment
2246   imprudent        lacking caution     not prudent                    injudicious
2247   impudence         impertinence       insolence
       impugn           dispute or
       contradict (often in an insulting     attack as false or
2248   way)                                 questionable                   challenge

2249   impuissance        powerlessness     feebleness
       impunity        freedom from
2250   punishment or harm                   CF. punish
2251   impute          attribute            ascribe                        charge
2252   inadvertently     unintentionally    by oversight                   carelessly
       inalienable      not to be taken
2253   away                                 nontransferable                Ex. inalienable rights
       inamorata         woman whom a
2254   man loves
2255   inane          silly                   senseless                    Ex. inane remarks
2256   inanimate        lifeless              not animate
                                               producing indistinct
2257   inarticulate    speechless             speech                       not articulate
2258   inasmuch_as            since           owing to the fact that
                                                                            induct into office by a formal
2259   inaugurate        begin formally       install in office            ceremony
                                                                            emitting visible light when
2260   incandescent       strikingly bright   shining with intense heat    heated
       incantation      singing or chanting                                (the saying of) words used in
2261   of magic spells                        magical formula              magic
                                               N. incapacity: lack of
2262   incapacitate      disable              capacity
2263   incarcerate       imprison

2264   incarnate        endowed with flesh invested with bodily form       personified

       incarnation      act of assuming a      one who personifies
2265   human body and human nature            something                    personification
2266   incendiary       arsonist              ADJ: causing fire            of arson
2267   incense         enrage                 infuriate(make furious)      make extremely angry

                                                                            something which encourages
2268   incentive       spur                   motive                       one to greater activity
2269   inception       start                  beginning
2270   incessant        uninterrupted         unceasing

                Word List - 25
       inchoate         (of desire, wish,                                  at the beginning of
2271   plan) recently begun                   not explicit                 development
                                                                           Ex. high incidence of infant
2272   incidence        rate of occurrence    particular occurrence        mortality

2273   incident        event                  event that causes a crisis
2274   incidental      not essential          minor                        N: something incidental
2275   incinerate       burn to ashes
2276   incipient       beginning              in an early stage
       incisive       (appreciatively)
2277   cutting                                sharp                        Ex. incisive remarks
2278   incite         arouse to action        goad                         motivate
2279   inclement        stormy               unkind                     unmerciful
2280   incline        slope                  slant                      Ex. steep incline
       inclined       tending or leaning
2281   toward                                bent                       V. incline: slant
       inclusive       tending to include
2282   all                                   all-inclusive              Ex. inclusive charge
       incognito       with identity
2283   concealed                             using an assumed name      ADJ.

                                                                         unable to express one's
2284   incoherent       unintelligible       muddled                    thoughts in an orderly manner
2285   incommodious         not spacious     inconvenient
2286   incompatible      inharmonious        N. incompatibility
                                                                         ADJ. incongruous: lacking in
2287   incongruity      lack of harmony      absurdity                  harmony
2288   inconsequential insignificant         unimportant

       inconsistency     state of being       lack of uniformity or      ADJ. inconsistent: displaying
2289   self-contradictory                    steadiness                 a lack of consistency
       incontinent      lacking self-
2290   restraint                             not continent              licentious
2291   incontrovertible indisputable         impossible to dispute      not open to question
       incorporate      introduce
2292   something into a larger whole         include                    embody
       incorporeal      without a material
2293   body                                  insubstantial
2294   incorrigible    uncorrectable
       incredulity     tendency to
2295   disbelief

2296   incredulous      withholding belief   skeptical                  showing disbelief
2297   increment        increase
       incriminate     accuse of or                                     cause to seem or make guilty
2298   implicate in a crime                  serve as evidence against of a crime
       incrustation     hard coating or
2299   crust                                 V. incrust: encrust        cover with a crust
                                                                         maintain at optimal
                                              warm (eggs) with the body environment conditions for
2300   incubate        hatch                 to promote hatching        development
2301   incubus         burden                very worriying problem     mental care
       inculcate       teach (ideas or
2302   principles)                           instill
2303   incumbent         obligatory          imposed as an obligation      currently holding an office
2304   incur          bring upon oneself
                                           CF. excursion: short
2305   incursion       temporary invasion journey
                                           inability to make up one's
2306   indecision       irresolution      mind
       indecisive       marked by
2307   indecision                            inconclusive                  Ex. indecisive battle
                                                                            showing no sign of getting
2308   indefatigable     tireless            untiring                      tired
       indelible       not able to be
2309   erased
       indemnify        make secure           compensate for damage
2310   against damage or loss                or loss                       CF. make uninjured
2311   indentation      notch                deep recess                   V. indent

                                                                            N: contract binding one party
                                                                           into the service of another for
       indenture        bind as servant or                                 a specified time (as between
2312   apprentice to master                  bind by indenture             an apprentice and his master)
2313   indeterminate      uncertain          not clearly fixed             indefinite
2314   indicative      suggestive            implying                      serving to indicate
                                                                            Ex. indices of a student's
2315   indices         signs                 indications                   potential
2316   indict         charge                 N. indictment
       indifferent     unmoved or
2317   unconcerned by                        having no interest in         mediocre
2318   indigence        poverty
                                             Ex. plant indigenous to the
2319   indigenous        native              New World
2320   indigent        poor                  destitute
       indignation      anger at an
2321   injustice                             Ex. righteous indignation     ADJ. indignant
       indignity       treatment or
       situation that causes shame or         offensive or insulting        humiliating or degrading
2322   loss of dignity, respect              treatment                     treatment
       indiscriminate choosing at                                          not based on careful
2323   random                                confused                      distinctions
       indisputable     too certain to be
2324   disputed                              beyond doubt
                                              impossible to dissolve or
2325   indissoluble     permanent            disintegrate
2326   indite         write                  compose

       indoctrinate      cause to accept a   Ex. indoctrinated with
2327   doctrine without questioning it       mindless anti-communism
2328   indolent        lazy
2329   indomitable       unconquerable       unyielding
       indubitable      unable to be
2330   doubted                               which cannot be doubted   unquestionable
2331   induce          persuade              lead to do something      bring about
       induct          place formally in
2332   office                                install                   admit as a member
       inductive        pertaining to
       induction or proceeding from the
2333   specific to the general
                                                                        allow oneself a special
2334   indulge         yield to              gratify                   pleasure
2335   indulgent        humoring             yielding                  lenient
2336   industrious      diligent             hard-working              N. industry
2337   inebriate       make drunk            intoxicate                N. intoxicated person
       inebriated       habitually
2338   intoxicated                           drunk                     N. inebriety
2339   ineffable       unutterable           not to be uttered         taboo

2340   ineffectual      not effective        not having a desired effect weak
2341   ineluctable      irresistible         not to be escaped         unavoidable
2342   inept          unsuited               inappropriate             lacking skill
2343   inequity        unfairness            ADJ. inequitable
2344   inerrancy        infallibility
2345   inert          inactive               lacking power to move     unable to move or act
       inestimable       impossible to
2346   estimate                              (apprec) invaluable       of immeasurable worth
2347   inevitable       unavoidable
2348   inexorable        relentless          unyielding                implacable
       inextricable     from which it is
2349   impossible to get free                that cannot be untied     Ex. inextricable troubles
2350   infallible     unerring               never making mistakes
2351   infamous          notoriously bad     notorious                 well known for being bad
2352   infantile      childish               infantlike
2353   infer          deduce                 conclude                  N. inference
                                                                                N. inferno: place of fiery heat
2354   infernal        pertaining to hell       devilish                       or destruction
       infest          inhabit in numbers        Ex. Mice infested the
2355   large enough to be harmful               house                          Ex. shark-infested waters
       infidel         unbeliever (with
2356   respect to a particular religion)
                                                 penetrate or enter (an         Ex. infiltrate the troops into
2357   infiltrate      pass into or through     organization) sneakily         enemy territory
2358   infinitesimal     very small
2359   infirmity       weakness
2360   inflated        exaggerated              pompous                        enlarged (with air or gas)
2361   influx          flowing into
       infraction        violation (of a rule
2362   or regulation)                           breach

                 Word List - 26
                                                 encroach (the right of
2363   infringe        violate (a law)          another person)
       ingenious          marked by
2364   inventive skill                          clever                         resourceful
2365   ingenue           ing\'enue              young innocent girl

2366   ingenuous           naive and trusting young                            unsophisticated

2367   ingrained         deeply established firmly rooted                      Ex. ingrained dirt/prejudice
       ingrate          ungrateful person
2368   (not expressing thanks)
       ingratiate        become popular          bring (oneself) in favor of    Ex. ingratiate himself with the
2369   with                                     another                        boss
       inherent          firmly established
2370   by nature or habit                       intrinsic
2371   inhibit         restrain                 prohibit                       retard or prevent

       inhibited         (of a person) unable
2372   to express what one really feels
       inimical         (of someone)
2373   unfriendly                               hostile                        (of something) harmful
2374   inimitable        matchless              not able to be imitated
2375   iniquitous        wicked                 immoral                        unrighteous
2376   initiate        begin                    originate                      receive into a group
2377   injurious         harmful                causing injury
2378   inkling         hint                     slight indication
2379   innate         inborn
2380   innocuous        harmless
                                               something newly
2381   innovation       change                introduced                   introduction of something new
       innuendo         indirect or subtle
2382   (derogatory) hint                      insinuation                  Ex. sexual innuendo
2383   inopportune       untimely             inappropriate or ill-timed   poorly chosen
       inordinate      beyond reasonable
2384   limits                                 unrestrained                 excessive
       inquisitive     eager for
2385   knowledge                              unduly curious
       inquisitor     questioner
2386   (especially harsh)                     investigator                 person making an inquisition
                                               advance that lessens the
                                              quantity or difficulty of     Ex. The long illness made
2387   inroad         hostile invasion        something                    serious inroads on his savings
2388   insalubrious     unwholesome           not healthful                Ex. insalubrious place

2389   insatiable      not easily satisfied   unquenchable                 Ex. insatiable appetite
       inscrutable      difficult to
2390   understand                             impenetrable                 not readily understood
2391   insensate        without feeling       lacking sense                foolish
2392   insensible      unconscious            unresponsive                 insensitive
2393   insidious       treacherous            stealthy                     sly
2394   insightful     discerning              perceptive
2395   insinuate       hint                   imply                        suggest indirectly
2396   insipid        lacking in flavor       lacking interest             dull
       insolence        impudent
2397   disrespect                             haughtiness                  ADJ. insolent
2398   insolvent       bankrupt               lacking money to pay         N. insolvency
2399   insomnia         wakefulness           inability to sleep
       insouciant       without concern or
2400   care                                   unconcerned                  indifferent
2401   instigate      start                   urge                         provoke
       institute      organization for a
2402   special purpose                        V: establish

                                               (building for the)           established custom, practice,
2403   institution    instituting             organization                 or relationship in a society
       institutionalize make into an           put or confine in an
2404   institution                            institution
2405   insubordination disobedience         rebelliousness                 ADJ. insubordinate

2406   insubstantial     lacking substance insignificant                   frail

2407   insularity      narrow-mindedness isolation                         ADJ. insular: of an island
2408   insuperable       insurmountable     unbeatable                     Ex. insuperable difficulties
2409   insurgent        rebellious          N.
2410   insurmountable overwhelming          unbeatable                     insuperable
2411   insurrection      rebellion          uprising
       intangible       not able to be
2412   perceived by touch                   vague
                                            necessary for
2413   integral        complete            completeness                    Ex. integral part
2414   integrate        make whole          combine                        make into one unit
2415   integrity       honesty              uprightness                    wholeness
       intellect       higher mental        person of great intellectual
2416   powers                              ability
                                            members of the educated
                                           elite (often used
2417   intelligentsia intellectuals        derogatorily)
2418   inter          bury                  N. interment
2419   interdict       prohibit             forbid                         N.
                                                                            ADJ. taking place during an
2420   interim         meantime             Ex. in the interim             interim
2421   interjection     exclamation         Ex. ``Ouch''
2422   interloper       intruder            one who interferes
2423   intermediary      intermediate       acting as a mediator           N: mediator
2424   interminable      endless
                                                                            stopping and starting at
2425   intermittent     periodic            on and off                     intervals
       internecine       mutually
2426   destructive
2427   interpolate      insert between
       interregnum        period between
       two successive reigns or
2428   governments
2429   interrogate      question closely    cross-examine                  cross-question
       interstice      narrow space
2430   between things
                                                                            Ex. intervened to prevent a
2431   intervene        come between        interfere                      fight
2432   intimate        hint                    suggest                      imply
2433   intimidate       frighten               N. intimidation
       intolerant      not willing to accept
       ways of thinking different from
2434   one's own                               CF. tolerant                 CF. tolerate
                                                                            Ex. intoxicated by all the
2435   intoxicate       make drunk             stimulate or excite          money he might win

2436   intractable      unruly                 difficult to manage          Ex. intractable problem/child
       intransigence      refusal of any                                     ADJ. intransigent:
2437   compromise                              stubbornness                 uncompromising
2438   intrepid        fearless

2439   intrigue        make secret plans       plot                         arouse the curiosity of
2440   intrinsic     essential                 inherent                     built-in
       introspective     looking within         N. introspection: self-
2441   oneself                                 examination
       introvert       one who is
       introspective or inclined to think
2442   more about oneself                      ADJ. introverted
       intrude         put or force in
2443   without being asked                     trespass                     enter as an uninvited person
                                                power of knowing without
2444   intuition       immediate insight       reasoning                    ADJ. intuitive
2445   inundate          flood                 overflow                     submerge

2446   inured          accustomed              hardened                     Ex. inured to the Alaskan cold
       invalid       one
       incapacitated(disabled) by a             ADJ: incapacitated by
2447   chronic illness                         illness                      not valid
2448   invalidate       weaken                 destroy                      make invalid
2449   invective        abuse
                                                                             Ex. inveigh against the evils of
2450   inveigh         denounce                utter censure or invective   drink
2451   inveigle        deceive                 lead astray by deception     wheedle(cajole)
2452   inverse         opposite
       invert        turn upside down or        reverse the position or
2453   inside out                              condition of

                Word List - 27
2454   inveterate        deep-rooted           habitual                     CF. grow old
       invidious          designed to create     tending to rouse ill will or
2455   ill will or envy                         envy                            Ex. invidious comparison
2456   invincible         unconquerable
       inviolable         secure from
       corruption, attack, or violation(or
2457   profanation)                             unassailable                    Ex. inviolable oath/rights
       invocation          prayer for help       calling upon as a
2458   (used in invoking)                       reference or support            act of invoking
       invoke             call and bring into    call on/upon (a higher
2459   use (a right or law)                     power or god) for help          ask for
                                                 impossible to damage or
2460   invulnerable         incapable of injury injure

2461   iota          very small quantity
2462   irascible          irritable             easily angered
2463   irate           angry                    CF. ire: anger                  wrath
       iridescent         exhibiting
2464   rainbowlike colors                       Ex. iridescent oil slick        N. iridescence
2465   irksome             annoying             tedious                         V. irk: annoy
                                                 occurring in an
                                                unexpected and contrary
2466   ironic          expressing irony         manner
                                                 use of words that seem to use of words to convey the
       irony           hidden sarcasm or        mean the opposite of what opposite of their literal
2467   satire                                   they actually mean         meaning
       irreconcilable impossible to
2468   reconcile                                incompatible                    not able to be resolved
2469   irrefutable        indisputable          incontrovertible                undeniable
2470   irrelevant         not applicable        unrelated
2471   irremediable         incurable           uncorrectable                   impossible to remedy
       irreparable         not able to be
2472   corrected or repaired                    impossible to repair
       irrepressible       unable to be
2473   restrained or held back                  impossible to hold back

2474   irreproachable beyond reproach blameless                                 impeccable
       irresolute         uncertain how to
2475   act                                      weak                            lacking in resolution
       irretrievable       impossible to
2476   recover or regain                        CF. retrieve
       irreverence          lack of proper
2477   respect or reverence                     ADJ. irreverent
2478   irrevocable         unalterable          irreversible                  impossible to revoke
       isotope           varying from of an
2479   element
       isthmus            narrow neck of
       land connecting two larger bodies
2480   of land
                                                 traveling from place to
2481   itinerant        wandering               place (to perform work)       Ex. itinerant preacher
2482   itinerary        plan of a trip          record of a trip
       jab           poke abruptly with
2483   something sharp                          punch with short blows
       jabber           chatter rapidly or
2484   unintelligibly
       jaded            tired or uninterested
2485   by surfeit                               fatigued                      surfeited
       jargon           language used by
2486   special group                            technical terminology         gibberish

       jaundice           medical condition
       in which the skin, the white part                                       affect with prejudice, envy, or
2487   of the eyes, etc. turn yellow            V: affect with jaundice       hostility
                                                 prejudiced (envious,
                                                hostile, or resentful) from
                                                long and disappointing
                                                experience of human
2488   jaundiced          yellowed              affairs                       Ex. with a jaundiced eye
2489   jaunt            trip                    short journey
       jaunty           cheerful and
2490   pleased with life                        lighthearted                  animated
2491   jeopardize          endanger             imperil                       put at risk

2492   jest          playful remark or act      V. act or speak playfully
       jetsam            things thrown from
2493   a ship (to lighten the ship)
       jettison         throw overboard
2494   (from a ship or plane)
2495   jibe          agree                      be in harmony with            gibe
       jingoist         extremely                                              N. jingoism: extreme
2496   aggressive and militant patriot          warlike chauvinist            nationalism
       jocose            given to(having a
2497   tendency of) joking
       jocular         said or done in jest
2498   or playfully                            marked by joking
2499   jocund           merry
2500   jollity        gaiety                   cheerfulness                  ADJ. jolly: merry
                                                                              push against (someone)
2501   jostle         shove                    bump                          rather roughly
2502   jovial         good-natured             merry                         cheerful
2503   jubilation      rejoicing               great joy
       judiciary        judicial branch of
2504   government

2505   judicious        sound on judgment wise
                                           container for holding
2506   jug            pitcher             liquids
                                                overwhelming advancing
       juggernaut        irresistible          force that crushes
2507   crushing force                          everything in its path
       jumble           mix in a confused
2508   way
2509   juncture         crisis                 point in time                 joining point
       junket          trip especially one
       taken for pleasure by an official
2510   at public expense
                                                                              group of military officers ruling
       junta           group of persons                                      a country after seizing power
2511   joined in political intrigue            cabal                         (by force)
       juridical       of the law and its       CF. judicial: of courts of
2512   administration                          law                           CF. judiciary
       jurisdiction     right and power to
2513   apply the law                           authority
2514   jurisprudence      science of law

2515   juxtapose   place side by side          CF. next
       kaleidoscope tube in which
       patterns made by the reflection in
       mirrors of colored pieces of
       glass, etc. produce interesting                                    Ex. kaleidoscope of European
2516   symmetrical effects                     series of changing events history

2517   ken             range of knowledge      Ex. beyond one's ken

2518   kernel          central or vital part   core                          whole seed (as of corn)
                                                                             one who intentionally spoils
2519   killjoy      grouch                      spoilsport                  the pleasure of others
2520   kindle         start a fire              ignite                      inspire
                                                 belonging to the same
2521   kindred          related                 group                       similar in nature or character
2522   kinetic        producing motion          of motion
                                                                             Ex. Kismet is the Arabic word
2523   kismet           fate                    destiny                     for fate.

       kleptomaniac        person who has
2524   a compulsive desire to steal
2525   knack            special talent          art
       knave            untrustworthy
2526   person                                   rogue                       scoundrel
                                                                            mix and work into a uniform
2527   knead            mix                     work dough                  mass (with the hands)
       kneel            go down on one's
2528   knee(s)
       knell        tolling of a bell
       especially to indicate a funeral,
2529   disaster, etc.                           sound of the funeral bell   V.

2530   knit         contract into wrinkles      grow together               join together closely
2531   knoll        little round hill           hillock
2532   knotty           intricate               difficult                   tangled
                                                                             acclaim or praise for
2533   kudos            honor                   glory                       exceptional achievement
2534   labile       likely to change            unstable                    Ex. emotionally labile
       laborious         demanding much
2535   work or care                             tedious
2536   labyrinth        maze
       lace         cord used to draw
       and tie together two opposite             delicate fabric made of     V: draw together by tying a
2537   edges (as of a shoe)                     fine threads                lace

                                            V. lacerate: tear (the skin
2538   laceration        torn ragged wound as with broken glass)            wound

2539   lachrymose          producing tears      tearful
       lackadaisical      lacking interest or
2540   effort                                   lacking purpose or zest     lazy
2541   lackluster      lacking luster(shine gloss)                           dull
       laconic        brief and to the
2542   point                                 using few words                 terse
       lag           move or develop
2543   more slowly                           straggle                        Ex. lag behind the rest
2544   laggard         slow                  sluggish                        N: one who lags

                  Word List - 28
       lagoon         shallow body of         lake separated from a sea
2545   water or lake near a sea              by sandbars or coral reefs
                                                                              persons not connected with
2546   laity         laypersons              laymen                          the clergy
2547   lament         grieve                 express sorrow                  N. lamentation

                                              N: written attack ridiculing
                                             or satirizing a person,
2548   lampoon          ridicule             group, or institution

2549   lance          pierce with a lance    cut into                        N: spearlike weapon
       lancet         small surgical tool
2550   for making incisions
       languid        lacking energy or
2551   vitality                              weary                           sluggish
       languish        lose animation or
2552   strength
       languor         lack of physical or
2553   mental energy                         lassitude                       depression
                                              Ex. Lank, gaunt, Abraham
2554   lank          long and thin           Lincoln
       lap           take in food or drink
2555   with one's tongue                     splash gently                   Ex. waves lapping the shore
2556   larceny        theft                  Ex. petit larceny
2557   larder         pantry                 place where food is kept
       largess        generous gift (given
       to people who do not have
2558   enough)
2559   lascivious      lustful
2560   lassitude       languor               weariness                       listlessness
       latch         fastening or lock
       consisting of a movable bar that
2561   fits into a notch                     V: close with a latch
       latent         present but not yet
2562   noticeable or active                    dormant                    hidden
       lateral        of or coming from the
2563   side
       latitude       freedom from
2564   narrow limitations
                                                N. ADJ. laudable:          ADJ. laudatory: expressing
2565   laud           praise                   praiseworthy               praise
                                                                           generous or wasteful in giving
2566   lavish         liberal                  wasteful                   or using
2567   lax           careless                  negligent                  not paying enough attention
       layman          man who is not a         man who is
2568   cleric                                  nonprofessional
       leash          restraining rope
       fastened to the collar of an
2569   animal (to control it)                  Ex. a dog on a leash
                                                cause to rise or grow
2570   leaven          add leaven to           lighter                    enliven
       leave-taking      farewell or
2571   departure
2572   lechery         gross lewdness          lustfulness                ADJ. lecherous
       lectern        reading desk or
2573   stand for a public speaker
       leery          (of someone)
2574   suspicious                              wary                       cautious
2575   leeway          room to move            margin                     latitude
                                                something handed down
2576   legacy          gift made by a will     from an ancestor
       legato         (of music) played
2577   smoothly
       legend          explanatory list of
2578   symbols on a map
       legerdemain        sleight(dexterity)
2579   of hand                                 CF. light of hand
       legislature     legislating branch
2580   of government                           CF. legislate: make laws
                                                                           ADJ. lenient: not severe in
2581   leniency        mildness                permissiveness             judgment or punishment
2582   leonine         like a lion
2583   lethal         deadly
                                                                           N. lethargy: state of
2584   lethargic       drowsy                  dull                       sluggishness and inactivity
       levee          earthen or stone
2585   embankment to prevent flooding          CF. raise

       levitate      rise and float in the
2586   air (especially by magical means) CF. light
       levity        lack of seriousness
2587   or steadiness                           frivolity                    lightness of manner
2588   levy          impose (a fine)           collect (a payment)          impose or collect (a tax)
2589   lewd           lustful
       lexicographer     compiler of a          CF. lexicography: work of
2590   dictionary                              compiling a dictionary
2591   lexicon        dictionary
2592   liability     drawback                  handicap                     debts

       liaison        contact that keeps        communication between        one that maintains
2593   parties in communication                groups                       communication
                                                act of writing something
       libel         defamatory written        that smears a person's
2594   statement                               character                    V. ADJ. libelous
                                                dissolute or licentious
2595   libertine      debauched person         person                       rou\'e
2596   libidinous      lustful
       libido        psychic and
       emotional energy or urges behind
2597   human activity                          sexual desire
       libretto      text of an opera or
2598   oratorio                                CF. book
       license        official or legal         latitude of action or        excessive freedom that
2599   permission                              speech                       causes harm or damage
2600   licentious      amoral                  lewd and lascivious          unrestrained
       lien          legal claim or right on
2601   a property
2602   ligneous        like wood
                                               CF. Lilliput in Gulliver's
2603   lilliputian   extremely small           Travels
2604   limber         flexible                 supple                       pliable
       limbo          region near heaven
       or hell where certain souls are
2605   kept                                    prison (slang)               Ex. Purgatory and Limbo
2606   limn          draw                      outline                      describe
2607   limp          walk lamely              ADJ: lacking firmness          weak
2608   limpid         crystal clear
2609   lineage         descent                ancestry
       lineaments        features              distinctive shape or
2610   especially of the face                 contour of the face            CF. line
2611   linger        loiter or dawdle         be slow in leaving             delay going
       linguistic     pertaining to
2612   language
       lionize        treat (a person) as a
2613   celebrity
2614   liquidate      settle accounts         pay off (a debt)               clear up
2615   list         tilt (as of a ship)       lean over (to one side)
       listless      lacking in spirit or
2616   energy                                 languid

                                               prayer in which the priest
                                              calls out and the people
2617   litany        supplicatory prayer      replies in the same words
2618   lithe        flexible                  supple                         CF. limber
                                               N. litigant: one party in a
2619   litigation     lawsuit                 lawsuit                        V. litigate
       litotes       understatement for        Ex. ``not bad(=pretty
2620   emphasis                               good)''
       litter       waste material thrown
       away (as bits of paper scattered        V: cover untidily with
2621   untidily)                              scattered litter
                                               black and blue (as from a
2622   livid        lead-colored              bruise)                        ashen
2623   loath         reluctant                unwilling                      disinclined
                                               ADJ. loathsome: arousing
2624   loathe         detest                  loathing                  offensive
       lode          metal-bearing
2625   vein(long deposit of an ore)
       loft         room or space under
2626   the roof                               attic
2627   lofty        very high
       log           record of a voyage or record of day-to-day
2628   flight                              activities                        section of a trunk
2629   loiter        hang about/around        stand idly about               linger
2630   loll         lounge about
2631   longevity       long life              long duration
       lookout           act of keeping            high place commanding a
2632   watch                                       wide view                     person who keeps watch
                                                    Ex. The shadow of the
                                                   gallows loomed
       loom          appear or take                threateningly. N: apparatus
       shape (usually in an enlarged,              for making thread into
2633   indistinct, or distorted form)              cloth
2634   lope          gallop slowly
       lopsided      heavier or larger on Ex. lopsided way of
2635   one side than the other            walking
2636   loquacious         talkative                N. loquacity

       lot          object used in making
2637   a determination at random                   fate                          piece of land
       lottery       contest in which
       winners are selected in a drawing
2638   of lots
       lounge            stand, sit, or lie in a
2639   lazy, relaxed way

                 Word List - 29
2640   lout         clumsy person                  ADJ. loutish                  CF. from countrysides ?

2641   low           moo                           make the sound of a cow
                                               N. lubricant: substance
2642   lubricate         apply a lubricant to that reduces friction
2643   lucid         easily understood             clear                         intelligible
2644   lucrative         profitable                producing wealth
2645   lucre         money                         profit                        Ex. filthy lucre
2646   ludicrous         laughable                 ridiculous                    trifling
2647   lugubrious         mournful                 sorrowful
2648   lull         moment of calm                 period of reduced activity    Ex. a lull in the rain
       lumber            move heavily or            Ex. The bear lumbered
2649   clumsily                                    through the woods             N: timber
       lumen             unit of light energy
2650   (one candle's worth)
       luminary          celebrity (in a                                          object that gives light (as a
2651   specific field)                             dignitary                     celestial body)
       luminous           shining (esp. in the
2652   dark)                                       issuing light                 Ex. luminous paint/road signs
       lunar         pertaining to the
2653   moon
2654   lunatic        insane                  Ex. lunatic asylum
2655   lurid         wild                     sensational                    graphic

2656   lurk          stealthily lie in waiting slink                         exist unperceived
       luscious        pleasing to taste or
2657   smell                                  delicious
       lush          (of a plant or grass)
2658   growing very well

2659   lust          intense sexual desire    intense eagerness              V.
                                               gloss (of a polished
2660   luster        shine                    surface)
2661   lustrous        shining                brilliant                      Ex. lustrous hair
                                               growing healthily and in
2662   luxuriant       abundant               large amounts                  excessively ornate
       luxuriate       take pleasure in
2663   great comfort
2664   macabre          gruesome              grisly                         ghastly
       mace            ceremonial staff
2665   used as a symbol of authority          clublike medieval weapon
       macerate         soften by soaking                                     Ex. macerate powdered wood
2666   in liquid                              waste away                     to make paper
                                                                              of the political doctrine of
                                                                             Machiavelli, which holds that
                                                                             craft and deceit are justified in
2667   Machiavellian        crafty            double-dealing                 pursuing political power
       machinations         evil schemes or    schemes or plots to
2668   plots                                  achieve an evil end            V. machinate
2669   maculated         spotted              stained                        CF. immaculate
                                              song for several singers
2670   madrigal        pastoral song          without instruments

2671   maelstrom         violent whirlpool    violent or tublent situation   CF. stream
2672   magisterial      authoritative         imperious                      commanding
       magistrate       official with power
2673   to administer the law
                                               ADJ. magnanimous:
2674   magnanimity          generosity        generous
                                               powerful or influential
       magnate          person of             person (in business or
2675   prominence or influence                industry)                      Ex. oil magnate
2676   magniloquent         boastful          pompous
       magnitude       greatness (in size
2677   or extent)                            extent
2678   maim          mutilate                injure lastingly               disable
       makeshift       temporary
       expedient or substitute (in the
2679   case of urgent need)                  Ex. makeshift shelter
2680   maladroit      clumsy                 not skillful                   awkward
2681   malady         illness

                                              vague feeling of ill health
                                             (without any particular pain
2682   malaise        uneasiness             or appearance of disease)
       malapropism       comic misuse of
2683   a word                                CF. Mrs. Malaprop
2684   malapropos       inappropriate        ADV.
       malcontent      person
       dissatisfied with existing state of
2685   affairs                               discontented person            ADJ: discontented
2686   malediction     curse
2687   malefactor      evildoer              criminal
2688   maleficient    doing evil             N. maleficience
2689   malevolent      wishing evil          exhibiting ill will            N. malevolence
                                              misconduct (by a public
2690   malfeasance       wrongdoing          official)
2691   malicious      hateful                spiteful                       expressing malice
2692   malign        speak evil of           spitefully)                    defame
       malignant       tending to cause
2693   death                                 highly injurious               aggressively malevolent
       malingerer      one who feigns         V. malinger: feign illness
2694   illness to escape duty                to avoid work
       malleable      (of a metal)                                           (of someone)
       capable of being shaped by                                           impressionable(easily
2695   pounding(beating)                     pliable                        influenced)
2696   malodorous       foul-smelling

       mammal          vertebrate animal
2697   whose female suckles its young
2698   mammoth          gigantic             enormous
2699   manacle         restrain              handcuff                       N.
2700   mandate         order                 charge                         authoritative command
2701   mandatory          obligatory           compulsory                  of a mandate

       maneuver(manoeuver) strategic
       military or naval movement (done
2702   for training purposes)                  carefully planned process   stratagem
       mange            skin disease (esp.
       of domestic animals) marked by
2703   loss of hair
       mangle           tear or cut to
2704   pieces                                  mutilate or disfigure       Ex. badly mangled bodies
2705   mangy            shabby                 wretched                    suffering from mange
2706   maniacal         raging mad             insane                      N. maniac: insane person
2707   manifest         evident                visible                     obvious
       manifestation       outward                                          indication of the presence of
2708   demonstration                           manifesting                 something
       manifesto          public declaration
2709   of principles                           statement of policy
       manifold         many in number or
2710   kind                                    numerous                    varied
                                              control or play upon
       manipulate         operate with one's (people, forces, etc.)
2711   hands                                 artfully                      maneuver

2712   mannered            affected            not natural                 Ex. mannered way of speech
                                                affected style in art
       mannerism           distinctive         (according to a set of
2713   behavioral trait                        styles)
       mantle          loose sleeveless                                     something that covers or
2714   outer garment                           cloak                       envelops
                                                free from slavery or
2715   manumit            emancipate           bondage
       mar             spoil the appearance
2716   of
       maraud           move in search of
2717   plunder                                 Ex. marauding army
                                                                            allowance beyond what is
2718   margin           border                 room                        needed
                                                                            Ex. marginal effect/writing
2719   marginal         of a margin            barely within a limit       ability
       marital         pertaining to
2720   marriage
       maritime         bordering
2721   on(adjacent to) the sea                 nautical                    of the ships or the sea
                                               targeted for vengeance or
2722   marked         noticeable              attack                     Ex. marked improvement/man
       maroon          leave helpless on
2723   a deserted island or coast             ADJ. red brown
2724   marred         damaged                 disfigured                 V. mar: spoil
       marrow         soft fatty tissue
       that fills most bone cavities and is
2725   the source of blood cells
                                               guide ceremoniously to     Ex. marshal the children into
2726   marshal        put in order            the correct place          the museum
       marsupial      one of a family of
       mammals that nurse their
       offspring in a pouch(pocket of         CF. kangaroo, opossum,
2727   skin or leather)                       wombat
2728   martial       warlike                  of war                     Ex. martial art/law
                                               person who demands total
                                              obedience to rules and
2729   martinet       strict disciplinarian   orders                    CF. Jean Martinet
       martyr        one who voluntarily
       suffers death for his or her
2730   religion or cause                      great sufferer             Ex. martyr to his rheumatism
                                                                          N: mixture of ground grain
                                                                         and nutrients fed to livestock
2731   mash           crush into mash         convert into mash          and fowl
       masochist          person who
2732   enjoys his own pain                    CF. masochism
       mason          one who builds or       N. masonry: work of a
2733   works with stone or brick              mason                      stonework or brickwork
       masquerade          wear a mask or                                N: costume party or ball at
2734   disguise                               pretend                    which masks are worn
       mass           Christian religious      CF. Mass: ceremony of
2735   ceremony                               the Eucharist
2736   masticate       chew
2737   mat           not shiny                matte                      having a dull finish

                                          excessive regard for
       materialism        preoccupation  worldly concerns (rather
2738   with physical comforts and things than spiritual matters)

2739   maternal       motherly                N. maternity: motherhood
       matin\'ee(matinee) dramatic or
       musical performance given in the
2740   afternoon
       matriarch      woman who rules
2741   a family or larger social group
       matriculate    enroll (in college
2742   or graduate school)                   CF. matrix
       matrimony       state of being
2743   married
                                              array of numbers or
2744   matrix        point of origin         algebraic symbols             mold or die
       maudlin        effusively
2745   sentimental
2746   maul          handle roughly          batter                        injure by beating

                Word List - 30
       mausoleum         monumental
2747   tomb                                  large stately tomb            CF. Mausolos
2748   mauve          pale purple

2749   maverick       rebel                  nonconformist (in a group)
       mawkish                                                              excessively and objectionably
2750   mushy(sentimental) and gushy          icky-sticky sentimental       sentimental
2751   maxim          proverb                truth pithily stated

                                              crime of willfully maiming
2752   mayhem          injury to body        or crippling a person         violent disorder
2753   meager         scanty                 inadequate
       mealymouthed       indirect in
       speech (when something
2754   unpleasant must be said)              hypocritical                  evasive
       meander         wind or turn in its    follow a winding or turning
2755   course                                course                       move aimlessly and idly
2756   meddlesome        interfering         V. meddle: interfere
       mediate        settle a dispute
       through the services of an
2757   outsider                              act as an intermediary        produce by mediating
2758   mediocre        ordinary              commonplace                   neither good nor bad
2759   meditation     reflection             thought                       V. meditate

                                              nutrient setting in which
       medium          element that is a     microorganisms are            appropriate occupation or
2760   creature's natural environment        cultivated                    means of expression
2761   medley         mixture

2762   meek          submissive              patient and long-suffering
                                         mental disorder
                                        characterized by delusions
       megalomania      mania for doing of wealth, power, or
2763   grandiose things                 importance
2764   melancholy        gloomy                 morose                      blue
2765   melee           fight
       mellifluous     (of words or a
       voice) sweetly or smoothly
2766   flowing                                  melodious                   having a pleasant tune
2767   memento           token                  reminder of the past        keepsake
2768   memoir          memoirs                  autobiography               biography
       memorial        something, such
       as a monument or holiday,
       intended to honor the memory of
2769   a person or event                        ADJ: commemorative
2770   memorialize       commemorate
2771   menace           threat                  V: threaten
       menagerie         collection of wild
2772   animals on exhibition                    zoo
2773   mendacious         lying                 habitually dishonest        N. mendacity
2774   mendicant         beggar                 ADJ: living as a beggar
       menial          suitable for
2775   servants                                 lowly                       mean
2776   mentor          counselor                teacher
       mercantile       concerning trade
2777   or merchants
       mercenary         motivated solely
2778   by money or gain                         N.
2779   mercurial       capricious               quick and changing          fickle
                                                                             attractive on the surface but of
2780   meretricious      flashy                 tawdry                      no real value
       merger          combination (of two
2781   business corporations)                   act of merging

                                                ADJ. meritorious:
2782   merit          deserve                  deserving reward or praise
2783   mesmerize         hypnotize              N. mesmerism                CF. Franz Mesmer

                                         N. metallurgy: science that
       metallurgical    pertaining to the
                                        deals with extracting
2784   art of removing metals from ores metals from ores
                                               Ex. metamorphosis of         V. metamorphose: change by
2785   metamorphosis           change of form caterpillar to butterfly      metamorphosis
       metaphor         implied
2786   comparison                           CF. simile
                                                                         N. metaphysics: branch of
       metaphysical      pertaining to                                  philosophy that examines the
2787   speculative philosophy               of metaphysics              nature of reality
2788   mete           measure               distribute                  administer
2789   meteoric        like a meteor        swift                       momentarily brilliant
       meter          arrangement of
       words in the form of poetry (by
2790   accentual rhythm)
                                            N. method: systematic
2791   methodical       systematic          method of procedure
       meticulous       excessively
       careful (with great attention to
2792   detail)                              painstaking                 scrupulous
                                             written in the form of     Ex. metrical translation of
2793   metrical       metric                poetry                      Homer
2794   metropolis      large city

       mettle        courage (to continue
2795   bravely in spite of difficulties)    spirit                      ADJ. mettlesome
                                             heavy vaporous
                                            atmosphere often
                                            emanating from decaying
2796   miasma          swamp gas            matter                      pervasive corrupting influence
       microcosm         small                                           Ex. microcosm of English
2797   representative world                 world in miniature          society

2798   migrant        changing its habitat wandering                    Ex. migrant birds/workers
                                            V. migrate: move from
                                           one region and settle in      move periodically from one
2799   migratory       wandering           another                      region to another

2800   milieu        social environment     means of expression         Ex. feel out of one's milieu
2801   militant      combative              bellicose                   N.
                                             Ex. militate against the
2802   militate      work against           chances of promotion        CF. serve as a soldier
       militia      army composed of
       ordinary citizens rather than
2803   professional soldiers

       millennium       thousand-year    hoped-for period of
2804   period (as in the New Testament) happiness and prosperity
       mime           pantomime(act
2805   without dialogue)                        mimicry                       mimer
2806   mimicry        imitation
2807   minatory        menacing                 threatening

       mincing        affectedly                 V. mince: cut (esp. meat)     walk with exaggerated
2808   dainty(delicate)                         into very small pieces        primness
       mingle         mix together in
2809   close association
2810   miniature      small model               small painting                ADJ: small

2811   minion         servile dependent         obsequious follower
       minuscule(miniscule) extremely
2812   small
                                                 CF. minutes: official
                                                record of the proceedings
2813   minute         extremely small           at a meeting
       minutiae       petty or trivial
2814   details                                  CF. minutia
2815   mirage         unreal reflection         optical illusion
2816   mire          entangle                   stick in swampy ground        stick or sink in mire
2817   mirth         merriment                  laughter
2818   misadventure        mischance            ill luck                      Ex. death by misadventure
       misanthrope         one who hates
2819   mankind                                  misanthropist
2820   misapprehension error                    misunderstanding              V. misapprehend
       miscellaneous       made up of a
2821   variety of parts
       miscellany         mixture of writings
2822   on various subjects                      collection of various items
2823   mischance          ill luck
       mischief       behavior (of
       children) causing trouble with no
2824   serious harm                             damage                        harm

2825   misconduct         immoral behavior bad management                     V.
       misconstrue         interpret
2826   incorrectly                              misinterpret                  misjudge
2827   miscreant       wretch                   wrongdoer                     villain
2828   misdemeanor          minor crime         misdeed                       wrongdoing
2829   miserly        stingy                    mean
2830   misgivings       doubts
       mishap          unfortunate
2831   accident
       misnomer          wrong or
2832   improper name                         incorrect designation

              Word List - 31
       misogamy          hatred of
2833   marriage
2834   misogynist       hater of woman       CF. misogyny
       missile        object to be thrown
2835   or projected
2836   missive         letter                written statement            CF. sent
       mite           very small object or
2837   insect-like creature                  small coin
                                                                           make or become less in force
2838   mitigate        appease               moderate                     or intensity
                                                                           N: device, such as as formula
       mnemonic          pertaining to                                    or rhyme, used as a
2839   memory                                assisting the memory         mnemonic aid
2840   mobile          movable               not fixed                    N. mobility
2841   mock            ridicule              deride                       imitate often in derision
2842   mode            prevailing style      current fashion              manner
                                                                          Ex. He does not have a
2843   modicum           limited quantity    small amount                 modicum of sense
                                              conforming to the current
2844   modish          fashionable           fashion
       modulate         tone down in          change the intensity or
2845   intensity                             tone of                      regulate
2846   mogul           powerful person       Ex. oil moguls               CF. Mogol, Moghul
       molecule         the smallest
       particle (one or more atoms) of a
       substance that has all the
2847   properties of that substance
       mollify        soothe an angry
2848   person
2849   mollycoddle       pamper              coddle                       baby

       molt(moult)      periodically shed
       or cast off hairs or feathers (for
2850   replacement by a new growth)
2851   molten          melted                Ex. molten lava
2852   momentous         very important      N. moment                    CF. momentary
       momentum          quantity of
2853   motion of a moving body               impetus                      moving force
       monarchy         government
2854   under a single ruler
       monastic       related to monks        removed from worldly
2855   or monasteries                        concerns
       monetary         pertaining to
2856   money
       mongrel       plant or animal
2857   (esp. a dog) of mixed breed           ADJ.
       monochromatic       having only
2858   one color
       monochrome         painting in only
2859   one color                             ADJ.
       monogram          design
       composed of one or more initials
2860   of a name                             V.

2861   monograph         scholarly article
2862   monolithic     solidly uniform        unchangeable                 unyielding

2863   monotheism        belief in one God
       monotony         sameness
2864   leading to boredom                    monotonousness               ADJ. monotonous
2865   monumental        massive             impressively large           built as a monument
       moodiness        fits of depression ADJ. moody: given to            subject to periods of
2866   or gloom                            changeable moods               depression

       moratorium       legal delay of        Ex. declare moratorium on
2867   payment or action                     the building of new houses
       morbid        given to
       unwholesome or unhealthy
2868   thought                               moody                        characteristic of disease
2869   mordant        biting                 sarcastic                    stinging
2870   mores         conventions             moral standards              moral customs
                                              place where bodies are
                                             kept before burial or
2871   morgue         mortuary               cremation
2872   moribund         dying                at the point of death        CF. death
2873   morose        ill-humored             sullen                       sullenly melancholy
       mortar         vessel in which
       substances are crushed with a
2874   pestle
2875   mortician       undertaker            CF. death
       mortify        humiliate by
2876   embarassing excessively               shame                       punish the flesh
       mosaic          picture made of
2877   small colorful inlaid tiles           ADJ.
       mote           small speck (esp. of
2878   dust)
                                              recurrent thematic
                                             element in a musical or
2879   motif          theme                  literary work               single or repeated pattern
       motility       ability to move         ADJ. motile: moving
2880   spontaneously                         spontaneously
       motley         multi-colored (as of
2881   a garment worn by a jester)           mixed                       heterogeneous

2882   mottled         blotched in coloring spotted                      Ex. mottled face
       motto          brief statement used
2883   to express a principle
2884   mountebank         charlatan          boastful pretender
2885   muddle          confuse               mix up confusedly           N: state of confusion
       muggy           (of weather) warm
2886   and damp
       mulct          defraud a person of
2887   something                             swindle                     Ex. mulct the boy of his legacy
2888   multifarious     varied               greatly diversified         Ex. multifarious activities

2889   multiform       having many forms
       multilingual    having many            fluent in several
2890   languages                             languages
       multiplicity   state of being
2891   numerous or multiple                  large number                Ex. multiplicity of details
       mundane           worldly as
2892   opposed to spiritual                  everyday                    of the ordinary
       munificent       very generous in
2893   giving                                Ex. munificent benefactor   N. munificience
2894   mural          wall painting
2895   murky           dark and gloomy       thick with fog              vague
       murmur           low, indistinct,
2896   continuous sound                      V. CF. mumble
                                              N: source of inspiration
2897   muse           ponder at length       (esp. of a poet)
                                              N. musk: odorous
       musky          having the odor of     substance secreted by an
2898   musk                                  Asian deer
                                                                          Ex. muster up one's strength
2899   muster         gather                 assemble (troops)           for the ordeal
       musty          stale (in odor or
2900   taste)                                spoiled by age              CF. moist
       mutablility    ability to change in
2901   form                                  fickleness                  ADJ. mutable: able to change
2902   mute          silent                  without speech              not pronounced
2903   muted          silent                 muffled                     toned down
                                                                          deprive of a limb or an
2904   mutilate       maim                   injure lastingly            essential part
2905   mutinous        unruly                rebellious                  Ex. mutinous teenagers

       mutter        utter (complaining
2906   words) indistinctly in low tones
2907   myopic         nearsighted            lacking foresight           N. myopia

2908   myriad         very large number      ADJ. CF. ten thousand
       mystic        of hidden meaning
2909   and spiritual power                   Ex. mystic ceremonies       N. CF. mysticism
                                              point on the celestial
                                             sphere diametrically
2910   nadir         lowest point            opposite the zenith
       naivet\'e(naivety) quality of being
2911   unsophisticated                       simplicity                  artlessness

2912   narcissist     conceited person       N. narcissism               CF. narcissus
       narrative      related to telling a
2913   story                                 N: narrated account         story
                                              coming into being or
2914   nascent        incipient              existence                   Ex. nascent ability in music

2915   natal         connected with birth    CF. prenatal                CF. postnatal

                Word List - 32
2916   natation       swimming
       natty         neatly or smartly
2917   dressed                               dapper                      smart
       nausea         feeling of sickness
2918   and desire to vomit                   disgust                     CF. seasickness
       nauseate            cause to become
2919   sick                                       fill with disgust               fill nausea

2920   nauseous            causing nausea         feeling nausea
       nautical          pertaining to ships
2921   or navigation
       navigable          (of a body of
       water) wide and deep enough to              (of a ship or aircraft) able
2922   allow ships to pass through                to be steered
       nebula            diffuse mass of
2923   interstellar dust or gas                   galaxy
2924   nebulous            vague                  hazy                            cloudy
2925   necromancy            black magic          sorcery                         dealings with the dead
                                                   sweet liquid collected by
2926   nectar            drink of the gods        bees
2927   nefarious          very wicked
2928   negate            cancel out               nullify                         cause to have no effect
                                                   failure to take reasonable
2929   negligence          neglect                care                            ADJ. negligent: neglectful
       negligible        so small, trifling, or
       unimportant as to be easily
2930   disregarded
       nemesis            someone seeking
2931   revenge                                    source of downfall or ruin      CF. Nemesis
       neologism           new or newly
2932   coined word or phrase
                                                   new member of a religious
2933   neophyte            recent convert         group                      beginner
       nepotism            favoritism (to a
2934   relative)                                  CF. nephew
                                                   Ex. nether
2935   nether            lower                    garments/regions
2936   nettle           irritate                  annoy                           vex
2937   nexus             connection
2938   nib          beak(bill)                    pen point
                                                                                   minute distinction or
2939   nicety           precision                 accuracy                        difference
2940   niggardly          meanly stingy           parsimonious                    N. niggard: stingy person
       niggle           spend too much
       time on minor points (esp. when
2941   finding fault)                             find fault                      Ex. niggle over details
       nihilist      one who considers
       traditional beliefs to be
       groundless and existence
2942   meaningless                           absolute skeptic            revolutionary terrorist

2943   nimble         quick in movement      agile                       quick in understanding
                                              stop something's growth
2944   nip           snip off                or development              bite
       nirvana         in Buddhist
       teachings, the ideal state in which
       the individual loses himself in the
       attainment of an impersonal
2945   beatitude
       nocturnal       done or active at      Ex. nocturnal
2946   night                                 animals/raids               CF. nocturne
2947   noisome          foul smelling        very unpleasant             unwholesome
                                              N. nomad: tribe who
                                             migrates from place to
2948   nomadic          wandering            place
       terminology(system of                  system of names or
2949   specialized words)                    naming things
2950   nominal         in name only          of a name                   trifling
2951   nonchalance       indifference        lack of concern             composure
                                              refusing commitment to a
2952   noncommittal      neutral             particular opinion           unpledged
2953   nondescript      undistinctive        ordinary                    ordinary-looking
       nonentity       person of no
2954   importance                            nonexistence
                                              bring to a halt by
2955   nonplus         put at a loss         confusion                   perplex
       nonsense         speech or writing     foolish behavior or         Ex. make (a) nonsense of:
2956   with no meaning                       language                    spoil
       noose          loop formed in a
2957   rope
                                                                          Ex. nostalgia for the clothes of
2958   nostalgia       homesickness          longing for the past        1920s
       nostrum         questionable
2959   medicine                              quack medicine              CF. our (remedy)
2960   notable        conspicuous            worthy of note              remarkable
       notch          V-shaped cut in a
2961   surface                               V.
2962   notoriety      disrepute              ill fame
       nourish          provide with food
2963   necessary for life and growth
       nourishment        something that
2964   nourishes                            food

       nova          star that suddenly
       becomes much brighter and then
2965   returns to its original brightness
2966   novelty       something new          newness                       ADJ. novel: new
2967   novice        beginner
2968   noxious          harmful             CF. obnoxious
       nuance           shade of slight
2969   difference in meaning or color       subtle distinction
2970   nubile        marriageable           of marriageable age           CF. connubial
2971   nugatory         worthless           futile
2972   nullify      make invalid            make null                     invalidate
                                             N. numismatics: study or
       numismatist        person who        collection of money, coins,
2973   collects coins                       and medals

       nuptial       related to marriage     N. nuptials: wedding
2974   or the wedding ceremony              ceremony
2975   nurse         suckle                 take care of (as a nurse)     bear in mind
2976   nurture       nourish                feed                          educate
       nutrient      nourishing              ADJ: providing
2977   substance                            nourishment
       nutrition     process of
2978   nourishing or being nourished        CF. malnutrition
       nutritious       providing
2979   nourishment
       oaf          stupid awkward
2980   person                               CF. elf
                                             blasphemous use of
                                            sacred words to express
2981   oath          solemn promise         strong feelings               swear-word
       oatmeal          crushed oats used
2982   for making porridge
                                             refusing to change one's
2983   obdurate         stubborn            belief
       obeisance         bow (to show
2984   respect and obedience)
       obelisk        tall column
       tapering(becoming gradually
       narrower toward the end) and
2985   ending in a pyramid
2986   obese          excessively fat        N. obesity
2987   obfuscate       confuse               muddle                      cause confusion
       obituary       death notice (esp.
2988   in a newspaper)                       ADJ.
       objective      not influenced by
2989   emotions                              fair                        N: goal
2990   obligatory     binding                required                    compulsory
                                              slanting (deviating from
                                             the perpendicular or from a
2991   oblique        indirect               straight line)              Ex. oblique reference

2992   obliterate     destroy completely     wipe out                    Ex. obliterate the village
                                              condition of being
2993   oblivion       obscurity              completely forgotten        forgetfulness
       oblivious      inattentive or
2994   unmindful                             unaware                     wholly absorbed
2995   obloquy        slander                disgrace                    infamy
2996   obnoxious        offensive            disagreeable                Ex. obnoxious smell
2997   obscure         dark                  vague                       unclear

2998   obsequious       slavishly attentive servile                      full of servile compliance

2999   obsequy         funeral ceremony

       obsessive       related to thinking
3000   about something constantly            of an obsession             preoccupying

3001   obsidian       black volcanic rock

               Word List - 33
3002   obsolete       outmoded               no longer used

       obstetrician    physician
       specializing in delivery(assisting
3003   in giving birth) of babies            N. obstetrics               CF. midwife
3004   obstinate      stubborn               hard to control or treat    Ex. obstinate cough
3005   obstreperous      boisterous          noisy and uncontrollable
       obtrude          push (oneself or       impose (oneself or one's
3006   one's ideas) forward or intrude        ideas) on others              butt in
3007   obtuse         blunt                   not sharp                     stupid

3008   obviate        make unnecessary        get rid of                    Ex. obviate the need
3009   Occident         the West
3010   occlude          shut                  close                         obstruct
3011   occult        mysterious               secret                        supernatural
       oculist       physician who
       specializes in treatment of the
3012   eyes
3013   odds          chances                  probability                   disagreement
       odious         arousing strong
3014   dislike                                hateful(causing hatred)       vile
3015   odium          detestation             quality of being odious       hatefulness

3016   odoriferous       giving off an odor
3017   odorous          having an odor
       odyssey          long, eventful,
3018   adventurous journey
3019   offensive        attacking             insulting                     distasteful
                                               done without prior thought
3020   offhand          casual                or preparation
                                               excessively pushy in          overly eager in offering
3021   officious     meddlesome               offering one's services       unwanted services or advices

3022   ogle          look at amorously        make eyes at                  Ex. old men ogling young girls
       olfactory      concerning the
3023   sense of smell
       oligarchy        government by a
3024   privileged few
3025   ominous          threatening           of an evil omen
3026   omnipotent        all-powerful         having unlimited power
       omnipresent        universally
3027   present                                ubiquitous
3028   omniscient        all-knowing
       omnivorous         eating both plant
3029   and animal food                        devouring everything
3030   onerous          burdensome
       onomatopoeia        words formed in
3031   imitation of natural sounds
                                                                             Ex. unexpected onslaught of
3032   onslaught        vicious assault     fierce attack                   the enemy
3033   onus           burden                responsibility
       ooze           (of a thick liquid)    N: mud or thick liquid as at
3034   pass or flow slowly                  the bottom of a river
3035   opalescent       iridescent          lustrous                        like an opal
3036   opaque          dark                 not transparent                 N. opacity
                                             something that relieves
       opiate         medicine to induce    emotions or causes               sleep-producing drug
3037   sleep or deaden pain                 inaction                        containing opium
3038   opportune         timely             well-chosen
       opportunist      individual who
       sacrifices principles for
       expediency by taking advantage
3039   of circumstances                     N. opportunism
                                             disgrace arising from
3040   opprobrium        infamy             shameful conduct                vilification(slander)
       optician       maker and seller of
3041   eyeglasses
       optimist       person who looks
3042   on the bright side                   N. optimism
3043   optimum          most favorable      optimal                         N: most favorable condition
3044   optional       not compulsory        left to one's choice            N. option: act of choosing

       optometrist      one who fits
3045   glasses to remedy visual defects
3046   opulence         extreme wealth      luxuriousness                   abundance
       opus           work (esp. musical    Ex. magnum opus:
3047   composition)                         masterpiece                     CF. opera
                                                                             uttered as if with divine
3048   oracular       of an oracle          prophetic                       authority
3049   orator         public speaker
       oratorio       dramatic poem set      long musical work with
3050   to music                             singing but without acting      CF. cantata

3051   ordain         decree or command grant holy orders                   predestine
       ordeal         severe trial or                                        trial(test of patience or
3052   affliction                           difficult experience            endurance)
3053   ordinance        decree              authoritative order
       ordination      ceremony              ceremony of ordaining a
3054   conferring holy orders               priest
                                             unrestrained indulgence in
3055   orgy            wild drunken revelry an activity                 Ex. orgy of shopping

3056   orient          get one's bearings     adjust                        make familiar with a situation
       orientation      act of finding
3057   oneself in society                     orienting
                                               small opening (esp. to a
                                              cavern or passage of the
3058   orifice         mouthlike opening      body)                         CF. mouth
       ornate          excessively or
3059   elaborately decorated
       ornithologist     scientific student    N. ornithology: scientific
3060   of birds                               study of birds
                                               (of someone)                  adhering to an established
3061   orthodox          traditional          conservative in belief        doctrine
3062   orthography        correct spelling    CF. ortho-: straight          correct
       oscillate       vibrate
3063   pendulumlike                           waver
3064   osseous           made of bone         bony

       ossify          change or harden        become hard and
3065   into bone                              unchanging in one's ideas
3066   ostensible        apparent             appearing as such             professed(pretended)
3067   ostentatious      showy                trying to attract attention   pretentious
       ostracize        banish from a
3068   group                                  exclude from public favor     ban
3069   oust            expel                  drive out                     force out
       outcast          one that has been
3070   excluded from a society                ADJ.

       outfit        clothing or equipment
3071   for a special purpose                  Ex. cowboy outfit
                                               eager to mix socially with
3072   outgoing         sociable              others
3073   outlandish        bizzare              peculiar                      unconventional

       outlaw       fugitive from the law V: declare (someone) to            deprive of the protection of
3074   (excluded from legal protection) be an outlaw                        the law
                                           view from a particular
3075   outlook      point of view         place                             expectation for the future
       outmoded           no longer in
3076   fashion or use                         no longer stylish             old-fashioned
       outrage        act of extreme
3077   violence or viciousness             resentful anger                V: commit an outrage on

3078   outskirts     fringes               outer borders (as of a city) Ex. outskirts of Boston
3079   outspoken        candid             blunt
3080   outstrip      outrun                surpass                        outdo
                                            defeat by behaving more
3081   outwit        outsmart              cleverly
       ovation       enthusiastic
3082   applause

3083   overbearing      bossy              domineering and arrogant decisively important
3084   overblown        inflated           exaggerated
                                                                           N. oversight: unintentional
       oversee         watch over and                                     failure to notice or do
3085   direct                              supervise                      something
3086   overt         open to view          public                         not secret
3087   overthrow       topple              N.
       overture       musical               first offer or proposal (to
       introduction to a long musical      begin talks in the hope of
3088   piece                               reaching an agreement)         Ex. overtures for peace
3089   overturn       turn over            capsize                        topple
3090   overweening       arrogant          presumptuous
       overwhelm        (of water) cover   defeat completely by
3091   completely                          much greater force             Ex. overwhelmed by grief

                Word List - 34
       overwrought      nervous or
3092   excited                             extremely agitated             hysterical
3093   ovoid         egg-shaped            CF. ovum                       CF. ovulate
       pachyderm        thick-skinned
3094   animal
                                                                           ADJ. N. pacifism: opposition
       pacifist      one opposed to                                       to war as a means of resolving
3095   force                               antimilitarist                 disputes
3096   pacify        soothe                make calm or quiet             subdue
       padre         chaplain (in the
3097   armed forces)
       paean          song of praise or     Ex. paeans celebrating
3098   joy                                 the victory
3099   painstaking     taking pains        showing hard work              taking great care
3100   palatable       agreeable           pleasing to the taste
3101   palate         roof of the mouth     sense of the taste
       palatial      of or suitable for a
3102   palace                               magnificent
       paleontology       study of           CF. paleo-: ancient or       Ex. paleography: study of
3103   prehistoric life or fossils          prehistoric                  ancient written documents
       palette        board on which
       painter mixes pigments(coloring
3104   matters)
       palimpsest         parchment or
       piece of writing material used for
       second time after original writing
3105   has been erased
3106   pall          become boring          grow tiresome
3107   pallet        small poor bed         Ex. straw pallet
                                             make less severe or
       palliate      ease pain (without     offensive (a crime or
3108   curing)                              illness)
3109   pallid        pale                   wan                          Ex. pallid complexion
                                                                          Ex. palm off some bad
       palm           conceal in the palm                                oranges onto the lady/the
3110   of the hand                          palm off: pass off           painting as a real Renoir
                                             (of something bad) easily
3111   palpable          tangible           perceptible                  obvious
3112   palpitate      throb                 beat rapidly                 flutter
3113   paltry        insignificant          petty                        trifling
3114   pan           criticize harshly
3115   panacea           cure-all           remedy for all diseases
                                             manner of doing things
                                            without any difficulty
3116   panache           flair              (causing admiration)         flamboyance
                                             affecting the majority of
3117   pandemic           widespread        people                       N: pandemic disease
       Pandemonium           wild
3118   tumult(commotion)                    wild noisy disorder          CF. Paradise Lost
       pander          cater to (the low
3119   desires of others)
                                                                          Ex. I don't deserve such
3120   panegyric         formal praise      encomium                     panegyrics.
       pang           sudden sharp
3121   feeling of pain
       panoramic          denoting an
       unobstructed and comprehensive N. panorama: unbroken
3122   view                           view of a wide area
       pantomime        acting without
3123   dialogue                             V.

       papyrus         ancient paper
3124   made from stem of papyrus plant
       parable        short simple story
3125   teaching a moral
                                            example that serves as a
3126   paradigm        model                model                          pattern

       paradox         something
       apparently contradictory in nature statement that looks false
3127   (that may nonetheless be true)     but is actually correct

3128   paragon         model of perfection Ex. paragon of virtue
3129   parallel      similar                analogous                      corresponding
       parallelism     state of being
3130   parallel                             similarity                     analogy
                                                                            Ex. parameters of the
3131   parameter       limit                independent variable           problem
       paramount        foremost in
3132   importance                           supreme                        CF. para-: beyond
3133   paramour        illicit lover
       paranoia        psychosis marked
       by delusions of grandeur or           N: ADJ: paranoid,
3134   persecution                          paranoiac
                                             odds and ends used in a
3135   paraphernalia    equipment           particular activity            personal belongings

       paraphrase       restate a
       passage in one's own words            N: restatement of a text in
3136   while retaining thought of author    other words
       parasite      animal or plant
3137   living on another                    toady                          sycophant
                                                                            V. parch: make or become
                                                                           extremely dry (by exposure to
3138   parched         extremely dry        very thirsty                   heat)
       parchment        writing material
       made from the skin of a sheep or
3139   goat

       pare          cut away the outer
3140   covering or skin of (with a knife)   trim                           Ex. pare apples/expenses
3141   pariah        social outcast          Ex. Mariah the pariah
       parish        area in the care of a
       single priest and served by one
3142   main church
3143   parity        equality                close resemblance              CF. disparate
3144   parlance       language               manner of speaking             idiom
       parley        conference
3145   (between opponents)                   CF. speak
       parochial      narrow in scope or
3146   outlook                               provincial                     related to parishes

3147   parody         humorous imitation     spoof                          takeoff
       paroxysm         fit or attack of
3148   pain, laughter, rage                  sudden outburst
       parquet        floor made of wood
       strips inlaid in a mosaic like         CF. strip: long narrow
3149   matter                                piece

                                                                             Ex. He parried the unwelcome
3150   parry         ward off a blow         deflect                        question very skillfully
3151   parsimony        stinginess           excessive frugality            ADJ. parsimonious
                                              favoring one side over
3152   partial       incomplete              another                        having a liking for something

3153   partiality    state of being partial inclination                     favorable bias
                                                                             committed to a party (with
3154   partisan       one-sided              prejudiced                     dislike of any others)
3155   partition     divide into parts
3156   parvenu         upstart               newly rich person
3157   pass\'e       old-fashioned           past the prime
3158   pass_off       present falsely        represent falsely to be
                                                                             receiving an action without
3159   passive        not active             acted upon                     acting in return
       paste         smooth viscous
       mixture as of flour(powder made
       by crushing grain) and water           V: cause to adhere by
3160   (used as an adhesive)                 applying paste
       pastiche       imitation of            work of art openly
       another's style in musical            imitating the works of other
3161   composition or in writing             artists
3162   pastoral       rural                  of rural life                  idyllic
       pastry           paste of flour and
3163   water (eaten when baked)
3164   patent           obvious                  easily seen               open for the public to read
       pathetic         causing sadness,
3165   compassion, pity                          touching
       pathological       pertaining to           N. pathology: study of
3166   disease                                   disease
                                                                            quality in art or literature that
3167   pathos            tender sorrow           pity                      produces these feelings
       patina           green crust on old        tone slowly taken by
3168   bronze works or copper                    varnished painting
       patois           local or provincial
3169   dialect
       patriarch         father and ruler of a
3170   family or tribe
3171   patrician        noble                    aristocratic              N: person of high rank
       patrimony          property inherited
3172   from a father
                                                                           treat in a condescending
3173   patronize         support                 act superior toward       manner
3174   paucity          scarcity                 dearth
3175   pauper            very poor person
       peccadillo        slight offense or
3176   fault                                     CF. sin

                Word List - 35
       pecuniary          pertaining to
3177   money
3178   pedagogue           teacher               CF. child leader
3179   pedagogy            teaching              art of education
       pedant            scholar who
       overemphasizes book learning,
       trivial details of learning, or
3180   technicalities
                                                                            marked by an excessive
                                                                           ostentatious concern for book
3181   pedantic          bookish                 showing off learning      learning
       peddle            travel about selling
3182   (wares)                                   CF. foot
       pedestal          support or base as
3183   for a pillar or statue
                                                                            unimaginative(lacking in
3184   pedestrian         ordinary               dull                      imagination)
       pediatrician      physician
3185   specializing in children's diseases N. pediatrics
3186   pedigree          ancestry                 lineage
       peer           one who has equal
3187   standing with another                      nobleman                     V: look intently
3188   peerless          having no equal          incomparable
3189   peevish          bad-tempered              irritable                    V. peeve: make angry
       pejorative        (of a word or
       phrase) suggesting that someone
3190   is of little value                         negative in connotation      having a belittling effect
3191   pell-mell        in confusion              disorderly                   Ex. dash pell-mell
3192   pellucid         transparent               limpid(crystal clear)        clear in meaning
       pen            fenced enclosure for
3193   animals                                    confining space              Ex. sheep pen
       penance              self-imposed           Ex. do penance for one's
3194   punishment for sin                         sins                         CF. penitent
                                                   strong liking (esp. for
                                                  something that is
                                                  disapproved of by other
3195   penchant             strong inclination    people)                      Ex. penchant for fast cars
       pendant(pendent) hanging down                                            N: ornament (hanging from a
3196   from something                             pending                      necklace etc.)
       pending           not yet decided or
3197   settled                                    impending                    Ex. pending decision
3198   pendulous            hanging               suspended
3199   penetrate         enter into               pierce                       permeate
3200   penitent         repentant                 N.
       penology             study of prison
       management and criminal
3201   rehabilitation
       pensive          dreamily or deeply                                      thoughtful with a hint of
3202   thoughtful                                 sadly thoughtful             sadness
       penumbra              partial shadow (in
3203   an eclipse)                                CF. almost shadow
3204   penury           extreme poverty           stinginess                   ADJ. penurious: very poor
       peon             landless agricultural
3205   worker                                     bond servant                 menial worker
                                                   showing a good ability at
                                                  perceiving and
3206   perceptive           insightful            understanding                aware
       percussion          striking one object                              N: striking together of two
3207   against another sharply                   Ex. percussion instrument bodies
3208   perdition       damnation                 complete ruin                  hell
3209   peregrination       journey               V. peregrinate
       peremptory           demanding and
3210   leaving no choice                         imperative                     Ex. peremptory decree/knock
       perennial          something long-                                        ADJ: lasting through the year
3211   lasting                                   perennial plant                or many years
3212   perfidious         treacherous            disloyal                       N. perfidy: treachery
3213   perforate          pierce                 put a hole through
       perfunctory         done routinely and
3214   with little care                          superficial                    not thorough

       perigee            point of moon's
3215   orbit when it is nearest the earth        CF. apogee
                                                  length of the outer
3216   perimeter          outer boundary         boundary                       circumference
       peripatetic        walking about from                                     Ex. peripatetic school of
3217   place to place (to work)                  moving                         philosophy
3218   peripheral         of a periphery         marginal                       outer
       periphery          outside edge
3219   especially of a round surface             perimeter                      Ex. periphery of the town
       perjury         false testimony            V. perjure oneself: testify
3220   while under oath                          falsely under oath
       permeable           that can be
3221   permeated                                 penetrable                     porous
       permissive          allowing much
3222   freedom                                   lenient                        Ex. permissive society
3223   pernicious         very harmful           deadly                         very destructive
       peroration         conclusion of an                                       V. perorate: conclude a
3224   oration                                   perorating                     speech

3225   perpetrate         commit an offense do (something wrong)
3226   perpetual          everlasting
                                                  make something last for a
3227   perpetuate          make perpetual        long time                  preserve from extinction
       perquisite(perk) any gain above            Ex. perquisites such as
3228   stipulated salary                         free meals and a car
       persevere           continue steadily
3229   in spite of difficulties
       persist        continue in                                              continue in a course of action
3230   existence                                last                          in spite of opposition
       personable         attractive (in
3231   personality or appearance)
       personify        represent (an           be the embodiment or           Ex. She is evil/patience
3232   inanimate object) as a person            perfect example of            personified
       perspicacious       (of someone)
3233   having insight                           penetrating                   astute
       perspicuity      clearness of
3234   expression                               freedom from ambiguity
       perspicuous        (of something)
3235   plainly expressed                        easy to understand            Ex. perspicuous comments
       pert          (esp. of a girl or
3236   young woman) impertinent                 forward                       trim
       pertinacious      holding
3237   tenaciously to an action                 stubborn                      persistent
3238   pertinent        suitable                to the point                  relevant
3239   perturb         disturb greatly
       peruse           read through with
3240   care                                     N. perusal
                                            V. pervade: (of smells,
                                           ideas, feelings) spread
3241   pervasive         spread throughout throughout                         charge

       perverse       purposely
3242   continuing to do something wrong stubbornly wrongheaded                perverted

3243   perversion        corruption             turning from right to wrong
3244   pervert         corrupt                  turn from right to wrong      misuse
                                                                               tendency to take the
       pessimism          belief that life is                                 gloomiest possible view of a
3245   basically bad or evil                    gloominess                    situation
       pestilential(pestilent) causing
3246   plague                                   tending to cause death        baneful
       pestle         tool for mashing or
       grinding substances in a hard
3247   bowl or mortar
                                                 cause to become
3248   petrify        turn to stone             stonelike                     stun or paralyze
3249   petty          trivial                   unimportant                   very small
3250   petulant        touchy                   peevish                       ill-tempered
       phalanx          formation of          group of men packed
       infantry carrying overlapping         together (for attack or
3251   shields and long spears               defense)
       pharisaical      pertaining to the
       Pharisees, who paid scrupulous
3252   attention to tradition                self-righteous                 hypocritical

       pharisee         Pharisee: member
       of an ancient Jewish group that
       emphasized strict observance of
       the Mosaic law (considering            hypocritical self-righteous
3253   themselves very holy)                 person
                                            subjects of scientific           SG. phenomenon: observable
3254   phenomena          observable facts investigation                    fact
3255   philanderer      faithless lover      flirt

               Word List - 36
3256   philanthropist lover of mankind       doer of good                   N. philanthropy
                                              N. philately: stamp
3257   philatelist     stamp-collector       collecting
       Philistine      narrow-minded
       person, uncultured and              uncultured person who is
       exclusively interested in material indifferent to artistic and        member of an ancient people
3258   gain                               cultural values                   in Palestine
       philology       study of language
3259   or words
                                                                             CF. phlegm: sticky mucus
       phlegmatic        calm and                                           produced in the respiratory
3260   unexcitable                           not easily disturbed           tract
3261   phobia          morbid fear
       phoenix          symbol of             Ex. phoenix rising from its
3262   immortality or rebirth                ashes
       phylum           major              category ranking below a
       classification, second to kingdom, kingdom and above a
3263   of plants and animals              class                             division
       physiognomy        face (as            art of judging human
       showing the character and the         character from facial
3264   mind)                                 features
       physiological     pertaining to the
       science of the function of living
3265   organisms                             N. physiology
                                                                             spotted in different colors
3266   piebald         of different colors   mottled                        (esp. in black and white)
3267   piecemeal          one part at a time   gradually                    in stages

3268   pied            piebald                 variegated(many-colored)     multicolored
3269   piety           devoutness              reverence for God            ADJ. pious
       pigment           coloring matter
       (usually powder to be mixed with
3270   water or oil)
       pilfer        steal things of small
3271   value                                   filch                        snitch
3272   pillage         plunder
       pillory         punish by placing in     subject or expose to
3273   a wooden frame or pillory               criticism and ridicule       N.

                                                Ex. I had to pinch myself
                                               to make sure I wasn't
       pinch           squeeze between         dreaming. N: amount that
       the thumb and a finger, or other        can be held between the
3274   edges                                   thumb and a finger

3275   pine            long for                yearn                        languish from longing or grief
       pinion          restrain or
       immobilize by binding the wings
3276   or legs                                 N: bird's wing
3277   pinnace           small boat
3278   pinnacle         peak                   highest point                acme
3279   pious           devout                  religious                    N. piety
       piquant          pleasantly tart-
3280   tasting                                 spicy                        pleasantly stimulating

                                                resentment from wounded
3281   pique           irritation              pride (eg. loss in a contest) V: provoke

3282   piscatorial      pertaining to fishing CF. Pisces
3283   pitfall       hidden danger             concealed trap
                                                spongelike substance in
3284   pith          core or marrow            the center of stems          essence
       pithy           concise and
3285   meaningful                              substantial                  meaty
       pittance         small amount (of
3286   money)                                  small allowance or wage
3287   pivotal         of a pivot              central                      critical
3288   placate          pacify                 bring peace to               conciliate
       placebo          harmless
       substance prescribed as a
3289   dummy pill
3290   placid        peaceful                 calm                          Ex. placid child/lake
       plagiarize       steal another's
       ideas or writings and pass them        Ex. ideas plagiarized from
3291   off as one's own                       my article                 N. plagiarism

3292   plaintive       expressing sorrow      mournful                      Ex. plaintive song
                                                                             interweave strands or lengths
3293   plait        braid                     interwine                     of

       plane           carpenter's tool for
3294   smoothing and leveling wood            V. CF. flat
       plaster         paste that hardens
       to a smooth solid and is used for
3295   coating walls                          V.
                                             ADJ. plastic: capable of        Ex. plastic material such as
3296   plasticity      ability to be molded being shaped or molded          clay
3297   platitude       trite remark           commonplace statement         ADJ. platitudinous
3298   platonic        purely spiritual       theoretical                   without sensual desire
                                                                             round(succession or series) of
3299   plaudit       praise                   enthusiastic approval         applause
                                               having a show of truth but
3300   plausible       conceivably true       open to doubt                 specious
                                                                             pertaining to the common
3301   plebeian         common                vulgar                        people
       plebiscite      direct vote by the
       entire electorate (on an important
3302   issue)
                                                                            fully attended by all qualified
3303   plenary         (of power) complete full                             members
3304   plenitude        abundance             plenty                        great amount
3305   plethora        excess                 overabundance                 Ex. a plethora of excuses
3306   pliable       flexible                 easily influenced             yielding
3307   pliant       flexible                  easily influenced
                                               condition or state (esp. a
3308   plight       difficult condition       bad state or condition)       predicament
       ploy         strategem to gain an
3309   advantage                              tactic                        Ex. management ploy

3310   pluck         courage                  V: pull off or out            pull out the hair or feathers of
3311   plumage           feathers of a bird

                                               N: weight on the end of a    V: examine very carefully or
3312   plumb           exactly vertical       line                         critically in order to understand
       plumber          one who installs
       and repairs pipes and
3313   plumbing(pipes)
                                               something that rises into
       plume           feather, esp. large    the air (like the shape of a Ex. plume of smoke: ¹ö¼¸
3314   or showy one                           feather)                     ±¸¸§

3315   plummet           fall sharply         fall straight down           Ex. Stock prices plummeted.
3316   plump           pleasantly fat         nicely rounded
       plutocracy       society ruled by
3317   the wealthy
       podiatrist      doctor who treats
3318   ailments of the feet                   chiropodist                  N. podiatrics
3319   podium           pedestal              raised platform
       poignancy         quality of being
3320   deeply moving                          keenness of emotion          ADJ. poignant: touching
       poise           good judgment with                                   V: place in a carefully
3321   composure                              balance                      balanced position
                                               characterized by opposite
3322   polar         of a pole                extremes                     Ex. polar opposites
       polarity        state of having two
3323   opposite qualities
       polarize        split into opposite
3324   extremes or camps
       polemic          attack or defense                                   argument in support of point
3325   of an opinion                          controversy or refutation    of view
                                         disputatious (rather than
       polemical(polemic) aggressive in simply expressing
3326   verbal attack                    opinions)
3327   politic       prudent                  judicious                    well judged
       polity        (particular form of)      form of government of
3328   political organization                 nation or state              Ex. student polity

       polygamist        one who has
3329   more than one spouse at a time         CF. bigamy                   CF. polyandry
       polyglot        speaking several
3330   languages                              multilingual                 Ex. polyglot person/society
       pomposity         self-important       acting like a stuffed
3331   behavior                              shirt(pompous person)        ADJ. pompous: self-important
       ponderous         having great
3332   weight                                weighty                      unwieldy
       pontifical    pertaining to a
3333   bishop or pope                        pompous or pretentious       CF. pontiff: pope

3334   pore          study industriously     ponder                       scrutinize
3335   porous         full of pores          like a sieve
       porridge       soft food made by
3336   boiling oatmeal
3337   portend        foretell               presage                      be a sign or warning of
3338   portly        stout                   corpulent
       pose          assume a particular
3339   posture                               put forward                  present
       poseur         person who
       pretends to be sophisticated,
3340   elegant, etc., to impress others      person who poses             CF. pose
3341   posterity  descendants                future generations           Ex. go down to posterity
       posthumous    after death (as
       of child born after father's death
       or book published after author's       coming or occurring after
3342   death)                                one's death                  Ex. posthumous fame/novel

3343   postmortem         autopsy            ADJ: occurring after death of a postmortem
                                             something assumed             V: assume the truth of (as a
3344   postulate      self-evident truth     without proof                basis of an argument)
       posture        assume an affected
3345   pose                                  act artificially             N: pose

3346   potable        suitable for drinking drinkable
3347   potent        powerful                convincing                   persuasive
3348   potentate       monarch               sovereign
       potential      expressing
3349   possibility                           latent                       N: capacity for growth
3350   potion        dose (of liquids)       liquid dose
                                                                           mixture of dried flower petals
       potpourri      heterogeneous                                       a pot (to give a pleasant smell
3351   mixture                               medley                       to a room)
       poultice       soothing application
       applied to sore and inflamed
3352   portions of the body
                                                 concise summing up of
3353   pr\'ecis        abstract                  main points                  concise summary of a text
3354   practicable       feasible
                                                  of or acquired through
       practical        based on                 practice (rather than
3355   experience                                theory)                      useful
                                                  concerned with practical
       pragmatic         practical (as           worth or impact of
3356   opposed to idealistic)                    something                    Ex. pragmatic test of the skill

                                                 N. pragmatism: pragmatic
3357   pragmatist        practical person        way of dealing with things
       prance           move about in a
       spirited manner (proudly and
3358   confidently)
3359   prank           mischievous trick
3360   prate           talk idly                 speak foolishly              boast idly
3361   prattle         talk idly                 babble                       N. CF. prate
       preamble           introductory
3362   statement
3363   precarious        unsafe                  lacking in stability         uncertain
       precedent          preceding (in time,
3364   rank, etc.)
       Word List - 37
       precept          practical rule
3365   guiding conduct                           Ex. mother's precept
       precinct         division of a city for    precincts: space that
3366   election or police purposes               surrounds a building         Ex. precincts of the college
                                                                               Ex. on the edge of the
3367   precipice        cliff                    dangerous position           precipice
       precipitant      something that
       causes a substance in a
       chemical solution to separate out
3368   in solid form                             OP. solvent
3369   precipitate      hurl downward            throw headlong               hasten
3370   precipitous       steep                   overhasty                    precipitate
3371   precise          exact

3372   preclude          make impossible         prevent                      exclude
       precocious         advanced in
3373   development                               N. precocity
3374   precursor         forerunner              predecessor
       predator       predatory animal or                                     creature that seizes and
3375   bird                                    predatory person              devours another animal
       predecessor       former occupant
3376   of a post
       predetermine      determine in
3377   advance                                 predestine                    settle or decide beforehand
                                                tricky or dangerous
3378   predicament       difficult situation   situation                     dilemma
3379   predilection    preference              partiality
       predispose       give an inclination                                   Ex. predispose people to
3380   toward (in advance)                     make susceptible to           certain cancer
3381   preeminent       outstanding            superior

3382   preempt         prevent in advance head off(forestall)                forestall by acting first
       preen      make oneself tidy in feel self-satisfaction or              (of a bird) smooth or clean
3383   appearance                      pride                                 (feathers) with the beak
3384   prefatory      introductory             of a preface
3385   prefigure      be a sign of             foreshadow
       prehensile      capable of
       grasping or holding (esp. by
3386   wrapping around)                        Ex. prehensile tails
                                                priest of high position in
3387   prelate        church dignitary         the church (esp. bishop)
                                                introductory performance
3388   prelude        introduction             or event                      forerunner

3389   premeditate      plan in advance        Ex. premeditated murder
                                                                              proposition upon which an
3390   premise         assumption              postulate                     argument is based
3391   premonition      forewarning            presentiment                  foreboding
3392   premonitory      serving to warn
                                                V. preponderate: be
       preponderance      superiority of       greater in power, weight, or
3393   power, quantity, etc.                   importance                   ADJ. preponderant
3394   prepossessing      attractive           CF. preoccupying ?

3395   preposterous      absurd                completely unreasonable       ridiculous
3396   prerogative     privilege               unquestionable right          CF. ask before
3397   presage         foretell                be a warning or sign of       N: presentiment
       prescience       ability to foretell     knowledge of actions
3398   the future                              before they occur             ADJ. prescient
3399   presentiment       premonition           foreboding                   feeling something will happen

       prestige         respect or               impression produced by
3400   admiration                               achievements or reputation ADJ: causing admiration
3401   presume           take for granted       assume                       act overconfidently
       presumptuous            going beyond
3402   what is right                            excessively forward          arrogant
                                                 pretend to: claim to
3403   pretend          feign                   possess                      make pretensions to
                                                                            Ex. I make no pretensions to
3404   pretension        pretentiousness        claim (without foundation) skill as an artist.
3405   pretentious       ostentatious           showy                        pompous
       preternatural     beyond what is                                      Ex. preternatural
3406   normal in nature                         supernatural                strength/forces
3407   pretext         excuse
3408   prevail         be widespread            triumph over                 gain victory
3409   prevalent        widespread              generally accepted
                                                 hide the truth (by
3410   prevaricate       lie                    equivocating)
3411   prey            target of a hunt         victim                       V: hunt and eat as prey
       prim            proper to the point of
3412   affectation                              very precise and formal      exceedingly proper
       primal          first in rank or
3413   importance                               being first in time          original
       primary          first in rank or
3414   importance                               principal                    earliest in time
       primate          group of mammals
3415   including humans
       prime           period of ideal or
3416   peak condition                           earliest or beginning stage Ex. in the prime of life
                                                                             right of the eldest child (to
                                              state of being the first-     inherit the entire property of
3417   primogeniture      seniority by birth born child                     one or both parents)
       primordial       existing at the
3418   beginning (of time)                      rudimentary
       primp           groom oneself with
3419   care                                     adorn oneself

3420   pristine        unspoiled                remaining in a pure state    characteristic of earlier times
       privation        lack of the basic
3421   necessities or comforts of life          hardship                     want
3422   privy           secret                   hidden                       not public
3423   prize          pry                     move with a lever             value highly

       probe           explore with a probe                                 N: slender instrument used to
3424   or tools                               investigate                  explore a wound or body cavity
3425   probity        uprightness             honesty                       incorruptibility
       problematic       causing a
3426   problem                                open to doubt                 doubtful
                                               natural tendency (esp.
3427   proclivity      inclination            towards something bad)
3428   procrastinate        postpone          delay or put off
                                                                            obtain (a prostitute) for
3429   procurement          obtaining         V. procure: obtain by effort another
       prod           poke (with a pointed
3430   object)                                stir up                       urge
3431   prodigal        wasteful               reckless with money           profuse
3432   prodigious       enormous              marvelous                     extraordinary
                                               person with exceptional
3433   prodigy         highly gifted child    talents                       marvel
                                               desecrate (something
3434   profane         violate                holy)                         treat unworthily

3435   profligate      wasteful (of money) dissipated                       wildly immoral
3436   profound         deep                  not superficial               complete
3437   profusion        great amount          plenty                        overabundance
3438   progenitor       ancestor
3439   progeny          children              offspring                     descendants
       prognosis        forecasted course
3440   of a disease                           prediction                    CF. prognostic

       prognosticate        predict
3441   (according to present indications)
                                               tending to prevent the
       prohibitive     so high as to          purchase or use of
3442   prohibit purchase or use               something                     prohibiting
                                               fired or thrown object
3443   projectile      missile                (such as stone or bullet)
       proletarian      member of the                                       N. proletariat: working class
3444   working class                          blue collar guy              (who have to work for wages)
       proliferate     grow rapidly (in
3445   numbers)                               spread                        multiply
       prolific      producing offspring
3446   or fruit in abundance                  fertile                       fecund
3447   prolixity      tedious wordiness        verbosity                  ADJ. prolix: wordy
       prologue          introduction (to a
3448   poem or play)
3449   prolong          lengthen               extend                     draw out
       prominent         protruding(sticking
3450   out)                                    conspicuous                notable
       promiscuous         mixed
3451   indiscriminately                        indiscriminate             not choosing carefully
3452   promontory         headland
3453   promote           advance in rank       advance                    help to flourish
3454   prompt           cause                  urge                       provoke
                                                                           make known by official
3455   promulgate         announce             proclaim a doctrine or law publication
3456   prone            inclined to            likely to (suffer)         prostrate
       prong            pointed projecting
3457   part
3458   pronounced          distinct            very noticeable            Ex. pronounced limp
       prop           support placed
3459   under or against something              V.
       propagate          increase in
3460   number by producing young               multiply                   spread

       propellant(propellent) substance
       which propels or drives forward
       (such as an explosive charge or
3461   a rocket fuel)

3462   propensity        natural inclination
       prophetic         of a prophet or        having to do with
3463   prophecy                                predicting the future      N. prophecy
       prophylactic       used to prevent
3464   disease                                 N: something prophylactic condom
       propinquity       nearness (in
3465   space or relationship)                  proximity                  kinship
3466   propitiate       appease                conciliate                 make peaceful

               Word List - 38
3467   propitious       favorable              auspicious                 advantageous
3468   proponent          supporter            backer                     opposite of opponent
       propound           put forth for                                    Ex. propound a
3469   consideration or analysis               set forth                  problem/theory
3470   propriety      fitness                 quality of being proper         correct conduct
3471   propulsive         driving forward     N. propulsion
                                                                               matter-of-fact(concerned with
       prosaic        lacking in                                              facts, not imagination or
3472   imagination                            dull and unimaginative          feelings)
       proscenium          part of stage in
3473   front of curtain                       front arch of a stage
3474   proscribe      prohibit                ostracize                       banish

       proselytize        (induce someone      N. proselyte: new convert
3475   to) convert to a religion or belief    to a doctrine or religion
                                               study of the metrical
3476   prosody        art of versification    structure of verse
       prosper        become successful
3477   (esp. financially)                     thrive                          grow well
       prosperity     good fortune and
3478   financial success                      physical well-being
3479   prosperous          successful         rich                            affluent
       prostrate      stretch out full on
3480   ground                                 make prostrate                  enervate
       prot\'eg\'e    person receiving
       protection and support from a
3481   patron
       protagonist        leader or            chief character in a play or
3482   noticeable supporter of an idea        story
       protean        able to take on                                          CF. Proteus: sea god to
3483   many forms                             versatile                       change his shape at will
                                            ceremony and etiquette             first copy of a treaty before its
3484   protocol       diplomatic etiquette observed by diplomats              ratification
       prototype      original work used
3485   as a model by others
3486   protract      prolong                  lengthen in time                draw out
3487   protrude       stick out               jut                             project
3488   protuberance         protrusion        swelling                        bulge
                                               origin or source of             Ex. Gunpowder is of Chinese
3489   provenance          place of origin    something                       provenance
       provender          dry food for
3490   livestock                              fodder
                                              someone or something
3491   proverb        adage                   well known for notoriety        ADJ. proverbial: of a proverb
       providence         quality of being
3492   provident                              divine care                     god's care
       provident        providing for future
3493   needs                                   displaying foresight        thrifty
       provincial       pertaining to a
3494   province                                limited in outlook          narrow
3495   provision        act of providing       something provided          preparatory measure
3496   provisional      tentative              temporary

3497   proviso         stipulation             condition in an agreement provision
       provocative       arousing anger or
3498   sexual interest                         annoying                    Ex. provocative in tight jeans
       prowess           extraordinary
3499   ability                                 military bravery            Ex. prowess in battle
3500   proximity        nearness               ADJ. proximate

3501   proxy           authorized agent   authority to act for another
       prude           excessively modest
       or proper person (who is easily
       shocked by improper things, esp.                                     ADJ. prudish: excessively
3502   of a sexual nature)                     N. prudery                  concerned with propriety
3503   prudent          cautious               careful                     prudential
3504   prune           cut away                trim
       prurient        having or causing        arousing immoderate
3505   lustful desires and thoughts            sexual desire

       pry            inquire impertinently     use leverage to raise or
3506   (someone else's private affairs)        open something              prize
                                                fictitious name assumed
3507   pseudonym          pen name             by an author                ADJ. pseudonymous
3508   psyche           soul                   mind
       psychiatrist     doctor who treats
3509   mental diseases
                                                                           of or possessing extraordinary
3510   psychic         of psyche               mental                      mental powers
                                                N. psychopath: person
       psychopathic       pertaining to        with an antisocial
3511   mental dearrangement                    personality disorder
3512   psychosis         mental disorder       ADJ. N. psychotic

       psychosomatic       of the influence
       of the mind on the body (esp.
3513   with respect to disease)
       pterodactyl     extinct flying
3514   reptile                               CF. wing+finger
       pucker         gather into wrinkles
3515   or folds                              N: wrinkle or fold
3516   pudding         hot sweet dish
3517   puerile       childish                immature                    CF. puer: boy
3518   pugilist      boxer                   CF. pugilism: boxing
                                                                          ADJ. pugnacious: (of people)
3519   pugnacity       combativeness         disposition to fight        belligerent
3520   puissant       powerful               strong                      potent
3521   pulchritude     beauty                comeliness                  ADJ. pulchritudinous
       pulmonary        pertaining to the
3522   lungs
       pulpit        raised platform used
3523   in preaching (in a church)
3524   pulsate        throb                  beat regularly              vibrate regularly

       pulse         rhythmical throbbing brief sudden change in a
3525   of arteries                        normally constant quantity     V: pulsate
       pulverize      crush or grind into
3526   very small particles
3527   pummel          pommel                beat or pound with fists

       punctilious     minutely attentive                                 N. punctilio, punctiliousness:
       (perhaps too much so) to fine          stressing niceties of      careful attention payed to
3528   points                                conduct or form             every small exact detail
       pundit        authority on a
3529   subject                               expert                      learned person
3530   pungent         stinging              acrid                       sharp in taste or smell
3531   punitive       punishing              Ex. punitive measures
3532   puny          tiny                    weak                        insignificant
       purchase        secure grasp or
3533   hold                                  firm grasp or footing
                                              temporary state or place
       purgatory       place of spiritual    in which the souls must
3534   expiation                             expiate their sins

       purge          remove or get rid of
3535   something or someone unwanted eliminate                           free from blame or guilt
3536   purport        intention              purpose                     meaning
3537   purported       alleged               claimed                     reputed or rumored
3538   purse        pucker                   contract (lips) into wrinkles N: wallet
       purveyor        furnisher of
3539   foodstuffs                            caterer                      V. purvey: supply (eg. food)
       pushy         disagreeably
3540   aggressive
3541   pusillanimous     cowardly            lacking courage              fainthearted
3542   putative      supposed                reputed                      generally regarded as such
       putrefy      make or become
3543   putrid                                N. putrefaction
3544   putrescent       becoming putrid      putrefying
       putrid       decayed and foul-
3545   smelling                              foul                         rotten
       puzzle          baffle or confuse by ponder over a problem in
3546   a difficult problem                  an effort to solve            clarify or solve by reasoning

       pyromaniac        person with an
3547   insane desire to set things on fire
3548   quack         charlatan               impostor
       quadruped        four-footed
3549   animal                                ADJ. CF. biped
3550   quaff        drink with zest          drink with relish(zest       hearty enjoyment)
3551   quagmire         bog                  marsh                        soft, wet, boggy land
3552   quail        cower                    shrink back in fear          lose heart
       quaint       odd in an old-
3553   fashioned way                         odd                          old-fashioned

3554   qualified     limited                 restricted                   V. qualify: limit the meaning of
       qualify      reach a necessary         limit the meaning of
3555   standard                              something stated
                                                                          uneasy fears especially about
3556   qualms          uneasy feelings       misgivings                   matters of conscience
                                                                           Ex. She is in a quandary
3557   quandary         dilemma              state of uncertainty         about whether to go.
       quarantine       isolation of a
       person, place, or ship to prevent
3558   spread of infection                   V: isolate in quarantine
       quarry        dig into (to get
3559   stone)                                N: mine

                Word List - 39
3560   quash           crush                 suppress                     squash
3561   quay          dock                   wharf                       pier
       queasy         experiencing
3562   nausea                               nauseated                   easily nauseated
3563   queer         strange                eccentric                   deviating from the normal
3564   quell         suppress               put an end to               put down forcibly
       quench         assuage or satisfy
3565   (thrust)                             slake                       douse or extinguish
       querulous       given to
3566   complaining                          complaining                 fretful
3567   query         inquiry                question                    V.
       queue          line (of waiting
3568   people or vehicles)
       quibble        minor objection or
3569   complaint                            V: raise minor objections   carp
3570   quicksilver    mercury
3571   quiescent       dormant              temporarily inactive        at rest
3572   quietude       tranquillity          calmness
       quintessence      purest and
3573   highest embodiment                   perfect example             apotheosis
3574   quip          taunt                  clever sarcastic remark     V.
       quirk         sudden sharp turn or
3575   twist                                startling twist             caprice
       quisling      traitor who aids
3576   invaders                             CF. Vidkun Quisling
3577   quiver        tremble                shake                       N.
       quixotic      idealistic but
3578   impractical                          CF. Don Quixote
                                             suggesting puzzlement
3579   quizzical      curious               (without saying)            questioning
       quorum          minimal number of
       members necessary to conduct a
3580   meeting
3581   quotidian      daily                 commonplace                 customary
3582   rabble        mob                    noisy crowd

3583   rabid         of or suffering rabies like a fanatic              extremely zealous

       rabies        disease passed on
       by the bite of an infected animal
3584   (causing madness and death)
                                               one who tells stories with
3585   raconteur         story-teller          wit and skill
                                                V: award as a prize in a
3586   raffle         lottery                  raffle                         Ex. raffle off a new car
                                                                          seeming unfinished and
3587   rag            scrap of cloth           ADJ. ragged: old and torn imperfect
       ragamuffin        dirty child in torn    person wearing tattered
3588   clothes                                 clothes
3589   rail         complain bitterly          scold                          rant
                                                                              Ex. I have no raiment fit to
3590   raiment          clothing               garments                       wear.
       rake           immoral or dissolute
3591   person
3592   rakish          jaunty                  stylish                        sporty

       rally          come or bring             call up or summon              revive or recuperate (after
3593   together                                (forces, vital powers, etc.)   illness or difficulty)
                                               V. strike or drive against
3594   ram            male sheep               with a heavy impact

       ramble           wander aimlessly
3595   (physically or mentally)                digress
3596   ramification      branching out         subdivision                    one branch of a system
                                                divide into branches or
3597   ramify          branch out              subdivisions

                                                inclined plane or roadway
3598   ramp            slope                   (connecting two levels)
       rampant           growing or
3599   spreading uncontrollably                growing in profusion           unrestrained
       rampart          defensive mound
3600   of earth
       ramshackle         (of a building or
3601   vehicle) poorly constructed             rickety                        falling apart
       rancid          having the odor of
3602   stale or decomposing fat                rank

3603   rancor          long-lasting hatred     bitterness                     Ex. negotiation without rancor
       random            without definite
3604   purpose, plan, or aim                   haphazard                      Ex. random shots
       rank           offensive in odor or
3605   flavor
3606   rankle          irritate                fester                         annoy
                                                pillage (going through a      Ex. Enemy soldiers ransacked
3607   ransack           search thoroughly     place)                        the town.
       rant          speak violently or
3608   excitedly                               rave                          talk excitedly showing anger
3609   rapacious         voracious             ravenous                      taking everything one can
3610   rapport          close relationship     emotional closeness           harmony
3611   rapt          engrossed                 absorbed                      enchanted

3612   rapture          great joy and delight ecstasy                        ADJ. rapturous

3613   rare            (of air) thin in density rarefied                     Ex. rare air of the mountains
       rarefied         made less dense (of V. rarefy: make less
3614   a gas)                               dense                            N. rarefaction
       rasp            (of a sound) grate on
3615   (eg. nerves)                            make a harsh noise            have an unpleasant effect
       raspy           making a harsh
3616   noise                                   grating                       harsh
3617   ratify        approve formally          confirm                       verify

                                                act of drawing conclusions
3618   ratiocination     reasoning             from premises               V. ratiocinate: reason logically
3619   ration          fixed portion           V: distribute as rations
       rational        (of a person) having (of ideas) based on
3620   reason                               reason                           logical
       rationale        fundamental reason
       or principle (on which a system or fundamental reason or
3621   principle is based)                justification                      grounds for an action
                                                devise false reasons for
3622   rationalize      make rational          (one's behavior)              offer an excuse
       raucous           (of voice) harsh       (of people) disorderly and
3623   and unpleasant                          boisterous                    Ex. raucous shouts
3624   ravage           devastate              plunder                       despoil
       rave            overwhelmingly
3625   favorable review                        V: talk wildly as if mad      Ex. raving lunatic

3626   ravel           fall apart into tangles entangle                      unravel or untwist

3627   ravenous          extremely hungry      voracious
       ravine          narrow valley with
3628   steep sides                             gorge                         CF. gully, canyon
                                                Ex. raze the city to the
3629   raze            destroy completely      ground
       reactionary      strongly opposed
3630   to social or political change          opposing progress            politically ultraconservative
                                                                            Ex. not within the realms of
3631   realm          kingdom                 field or sphere              possibility
       reaper          one who harvests
3632   grain                                  Ex. the Grim Reaper          V. reap: cut and gather (crop)
       rebate          return of part of a
3633   payment                                discount                     V.
3634   rebuff         reject bluntly          snub                         beat back
3635   rebuke          scold harshly          criticize severely
       rebus          representation of
       words in the form of pictures or        puzzle in which pictures or Ex. ``R U 18'' is a rebus for
3636   symbols                                letters stand for words      ``Are you 18''.
                                               response with contrary
3637   rebuttal       refutation              evidence                     V. rebut: refute
       recalcitrant     disobedient or
       resisting authority even after
3638   being punished                         obstinately stubborn         determined to resist authority
                                           retract a previous
3639   recant         disclaim or disavow statement                        openly confess error
3640   recapitulate     summarize
       recast         reconstruct (a
3641   sentence, story, statue, etc.)         fashion again

       receptive        quick or willing toEx. receptive to the
3642   receive (ideas, suggestions, etc.) proposal
3643   recess          pause                  temporary cessation          alcove

3644   recession        withdrawal            retreat                      time of low economic activity

       recidivism       habitual return to
3645   crime (even after being punished) N. recidivist
3646   recipient       receiver
                                               given and received in
3647   reciprocal       mutual                return                       exchangeable
       reciprocate      do or give
3648   something in return                    repay in kind                give or take mutually
       recital        act of reciting                                       performance of music or
3649   publicly                               detailed account             dance (by a solo performer)
       recite         repeat aloud
3650   (something learned)                    describe                     Ex. recite his complaints
3651   reckon          count                  calculate                    regard as
3652   recline       lie down
3653   recluse         hermit                 loner                        ADJ. reclusive
       reconcile       make friendly again make consistent (two
3654   (after quarrel)                     ideas in opposition)            correct inconsistencies
3655   recondite       abstruse               not easily understood        profound

                                                                            V. reconnoiter: make a
       reconnaissance survey of                                            preliminary inspection of (esp.
3656   enemy by soldiers                      reconnoitering               to gather military information)
       recount         narrate or tell (a
3657   story)                                 count over again
       recourse        resorting to help
3658   when in trouble                        Ex. without recourse to
                                                                            N: disloyal and cowardly
3659   recreant        disloyal               cowardly                     person
3660   recrimination     countercharges       V. recriminate
3661   rectify       set right                correct                      CF. rect-: right

3662   rectitude       moral correctness      moral uprightness            moral virtue
                                               lying down completely or
3663   recumbent         reclining            in part
3664   recuperate       recover               return to health             regain
       recurrent       occurring again
3665   and again

                 Word List - 40
3666   redolent        odorous                fragrant                     suggestive (of an odor)
3667   redoubtable       formidable           causing fear
                                                                            Ex. seek redress for the
3668   redress         remedy                 compensation                 damage to your car
                                               bring to a weaker or more
3669   reduce          diminish               difficult condition          demote
3670   redundant        superfluous           more than is necessary       verbose
       reek          emit (an unpleasant       give off an unpleasant
3671   odor or smoke)                         odor                         give out smoke
                                               room where meals are
3672   refectory       dining hall            served (in a school)
       referendum        direct vote by all
3673   the people
       refraction      bending of a ray of
3674   light
3675   refractory       unmanageable          disobedient and stubborn     Ex. refractory horse
3676   refrain        abstain from            resist                       forbear
3677   refulgent       effulgent              brilliant                    brightly shining
                                               make clean, bright, or
3678   refurbish       renovate               fresh (make new) again       make bright by polishing

       refuse          anything discarded
3679   or rejected as worthless               trash
3680   refute         disprove                prove to be false            N. refutation
3681   regal          royal                   of a monarch                 Ex. regal manner
3682   regale          entertain

3683   regatta         boat or yacht race
                                               Ex. regeneration of the      V. regenerate: give or obtain
3684   regeneration       spiritual rebirth   prisoners                    new life
       regent          a person who
       governs in place of a ruler who is
3685   ill, absent, or still a child          ADJ. Ex. the Prince regent
       regicide        murder of a king or
3686   queen
       regime          method of system
3687   or government
       regimen          prescribed course
3688   of diet or exercise                    prescribed diet and habits   Ex. daily regimen of a dancer
3689   regiment         military unit         V: subject to strict order   Ex. regimented society
       rehabilitate     restore to proper
3690   condition (health or useful life)      restore the former rank of
3691   reimburse         repay                pay back
       reinstate       restore to a
3692   previous condition or position
3693   reiterate       repeat
3694   rejoinder       reply                  retort                       comeback

3695   rejuvenate        make young again
       relapse         return to a former
3696   state (esp. after improvement)         N.
       relegate        put into a lower or     banish to an inferior
3697   worse place                            position                     delegate

3698   relent         become less severe      give in(surrender)           ADJ. relentless: unyielding
3699   relevant       having importance    pertinent                      referring to the case in hand
       relic         surviving remnant
3700   (from an extinct culture)           memento                        keepsake
3701   religious      of religion          (of a person) pious            having reverence for a deity
       relinquish      give up something
3702   (with reluctance)                   yield                          release
3703   relish        enjoy                 savor                          N: enjoyment
3704   remediable       reparable
                                            V. reminisce: recollect the
3705   reminiscence      recollection      past
       reminiscent      suggestive of
3706   something (in the past)             of reminiscence
3707   remiss         negligent            careless about a duty
       remission       temporary
       moderation (of disease               remitting of a debt or
3708   symptoms)                           punishment                     cancelation of a debt
       remit         transmit (money) in    free someone from a debt
3709   payment                             or punishment

3710   remittance       remitting of money amount of money remitted
3711   remnant         remainder

3712   remonstrate      protest            objection                      V. remonstrate: say in protest
       remorse         deep regret for
3713   wrongdoing                          guilt                          self-reproach
       remunerative      (of work)
3714   compensating                        rewarding                      profitable
3715   rend          split                 tear apart                     N. rent
3716   render         give                 deliver                        provide
                                            meeting at a set time or
3717   rendezvous        meeting place     place                          V.
                                                                           artistic interpretation of a
3718   rendition      rendering            translation                    song, etc
3719   renegade         deserter           traitor                        ADJ.
3720   renege          break a promise     deny                           go back on
                                            give up (by formal
3721   renounce         abandon            announcement)                  disown
       renovate        restore to good
3722   condition                           renew
3723   renown          fame                ADJ. renowned
3724   rent         tear made by rending rip                                  split
       reparable        capable of being
3725   repaired
       reparation       compensation (for                                      Ex. make reparation for the
3726   loss or wrong)                         amends                          damage

3727   repartee        quick clever reply
3728   repast         meal                    feast                           banquet
3729   repeal         revoke                  annul

3730   repel        drive away                disgust                         Ex. repel the attack/moisture
3731   repellent      driving away            disgusting                      offensive
3732   repercussion      rebound              reaction                        reverberation

       repertoire      list of works of
       music, drama, etc., a performer is
3733   prepared to present                    CF. repertory
3734   repine         fret                    complain                        be annoyed
3735   replenish       fill up again
                                               filled to the brim or to the
3736   replete        fully filled            point of being stuffed          abundantly supplied
3737   replica       copy
3738   replicate      reproduce               duplicate
3739   repose          resting                state of being at rest          calmness
3740   repository       storehouse

3741   reprehensible     deserving blame      blameworthy                     V. reprehend: blame
       representational (of a style of art)
       showing things as they actually
3742   appear in real life
       repress         hold back (the
3743   natural expression of)                 restrain                        crush
       reprieve        postponement or                                         V: postpone or cancel the
3744   cancelation of a punishment            temporary stay                  punishment of

3745   reprimand        reprove severely      rebuke                          N.
3746   reprisal       retaliation
                                              repeating of a piece of
3747   reprise        musical repetition      music                           repeat performance
       reproach           blame (not angrily    express disapproval or
3748   but sadly)                              disappointment               N. ADJ. reproachful
                                                person hardened in sin,
       reprobate          morally              devoid of a sense of
3749   disapproved person                      decency                      CF. disapproved by God ?
       reprobation        severe
3750   disapproval                             CF. approbation
3751   reprove        censure                  rebuke                       N. reproof
3752   repudiate          disown               disavow                      deny
3753   repugnance          disgust             strong dislike               loathing
       repulse        reject with
       rudeness or coldness (an offer or drive back (an enemy                CF. repulse $\neq$ cause
3754   friendship)                       attack)                            repulsion
3755   repulsion      distaste                 disgust                      act of driving back
3756   reputable          respectable          having a good reputation
                                                Ex. reputed father of the
3757   reputed        supposed                 child                        V. repute: consider

3758   requiem            mass for the dead    dirge
       requisite      necessary
3759   requirement                             something required           ADJ: required
       requisition    formal demand or          Ex. requisition for more
3760   request                                 computing equipment          V.
3761   requite       make return for           repay                        reciprocate

                Word List - 41
                                                                             cancel (a law, decision, or
3762   rescind        repeal                   annul                        agreement)
3763   resentment          indignation         bitterness                   displeasure
3764   reserve        self-control             self-restraint               formal but distant manner
3765   residual       remaining                left over                    of a residue
3766   residue        remainder                balance
       resign        give up (a position,
3767   right, or claim)                        submit (oneself) passively
       resignation        patiently             statement that one is
3768   submissiveness                          quitting a job               ADJ. resigned: acquiescent
                                                having the power of          able to recover quickly (as
3769   resilient     elastic                   springing back               from misfortune)
                                                                             ADJ. resolute: firm or
3770   resolution     determination            resoluteness                 determined in purpose
3771   resolve        decide                   settle                       solve
       resonant        (of a sound)           resounding(sounding
3772   echoing                               loudly)                        deep and full in sound
3773   resort         turn to for help       Ex. resort to violence         N.
       resound         (of a place) be
3774   filled with sound                     (of a sound) sound loudly      sound back
       resourceful      clever and
       imaginative (in dealing with           N. resource,
3775   difficult situations)                 resourcefulness
3776   respiration     breathing             exhalation                     ADJ. respiratory
3777   respite        time for rest          interval of relief             delay in punishment
3778   resplendent       brilliant           splendid in appearance         dazzling

       responsiveness state of reacting ADJ. responsive: readily
3779   readily to appeals, orders, etc. reacting                            Ex. responsive to treatment
       restitution    returning something
       (lost or stolen) to the rightful
3780   owner                                 reparation                     indemnification
       restive        impatiently restless
       (induced by external coercion or
3781   restriction)                          restlessly impatient           obstinately resisting control
       restraint      moderation or self-
3782   control                               controlling force              restriction
                                                                             V. resume: begin or take up
3783   resumption        taking up again     recommencement                 again
3784   resurge         rise again            flow to and fro                N. resurgence
3785   resurrect       revive
                                              bring back to life or          Ex. resuscitate the drowned
3786   resuscitate      revive               consciousness                  child
                                                                             employ (esp. a lawyer or
3787   retain         keep                   maintain possession of         advisor)
       retaliate      repay in kind
3788   (usually for bad treatment)           V. retaliate
                                              ADJ. retarded: (as of a
       retard         delay (in              child) slower in
3789   development)                          development
                                              able to retain things (esp.
3790   retentive       holding               facts in the mind)             having a good memory

3791   reticent       inclined to silence    uncommunicative                reserved
3792   retinue        following              attendants
       retiring       shy and reserved (of
3793   a person)                             modest                         Ex. her retiring personality
3794   retort        quick sharp reply       V.
3795   retract       withdraw                take back                   draw back
3796   retrench        cut down              cut down expenses           economize
       retribution     deserved
3797   punishment for wrongdoing             punishment for offenses     compensation
3798   retrieve        recover               put right                   find and bring in
       retroactive    taking effect before (of a law) having effect on
       its enactment (as a law) or         the past as well as the
3799   imposition (as a tax)               future
3800   retrograde       go backwards         recede                      degenerate
       retrospective     looking back on
3801   the past                              N. retrospection            V. retrospect
       revelry         boisterous             V. revel: engage
3802   merrymaking                           boisterous festivities      enjoy greatly

                                                                          Ex. The thunder reverberated
3803   reverberate       echo repeatedly     resound                     across the valley.
       reverend         deserving
3804   reverence                             N: priest
                                                                          V. revere: regard with
3805   reverent        respectful            worshipful                  reverence
3806   reverie         daydream              abstracted musing
3807   revert        relapse                 backslide                   turn back to
       revile        attack with abusive
3808   language                              vilify(slander)
3809   revoke          cancel                retract                     CF. irrevocable
       revulsion       sudden strong          sudden violent change of
3810   feeling of disgust                    feeling                     negative reaction
       rhapsodize        speak or write in
       an exaggeratedly enthusiastic          Ex. rhapsodize over the
3811   manner                                beauty of the scenery

                                           musical composition of
       rhapsody         excessively       irregular form (as if made
3812   enthusiastic expression of feeling up as one plays it)
                                           art of using language
       rhetoric     art of effective      effectively and
3813   communication                      persuasively                   style of speaking or writing
       ribald        marked by vulgar
3814   lewd humor                            wanton                      profane
       rickety       (of buildings) likely
3815   to break or fall apart                of rickets                  CF. rickets
                                               permeate or spread             Ex. The gunman riddled the
3816   riddle         pierce with holes       throughout                     car with bullets

       rider         amendment or
3817   clause added to a legislative bill
       rife         (of something bad)
3818   widespread                             abundant                       current
       rift        narrow opening in a
3819   large mass                             break in a friendly relation   Ex. through a rift in the clouds
       rig          arrangement of masts V: equip (a ship) with               ADJ. rigging: ropes that hold
3820   and sails                         rigging                             up a ship's sails
3821   righteous        morally upright       just
3822   rightful       legally correct         Ex. rightful owner

3823   rigid        hard and unbending        stiff and unyielding           fixed in behavior or views
                                              Ex. rigors of the Russian
3824   rigor         severity                 winter
3825   rile         irritate                  vex                            muddy

       rip          tear or be torn quickly Ex. The sail ripped under
3826   and violently                        the force of the wind            N.
       rivet        metal pin used for
3827   fastening metal plates together        V: fasten with a rivet         engross
       riveting        holding one's
3828   attention                              absorbing                      engrossing
3829   rivulet        small stream            CF. rill < rivulet < river
3830   robust          strong                 vigorous
3831   rococo           ornate                highly decorated               N. CF. 18th century
       roil         make liquids murky by
3832   stirring up sediment                   disturb
       rolling        (of land) rising and     happening continuously by Ex. rolling devolution of power
3833   falling in long gentle slopes          stages                     to local governments
       romp            play or frolic
3834   boisterously                           gambol                         N.
3835   rooster         cock                   adult male chicken
3836   roseate          rosy                  optimistic                     Ex. roseate views
3837   roster          list (of names)
       rostrum          raised platform for
3838   speech-making                          pulpit
                                               memorization through
                                              repetition without
3839   rote          repetition               understanding                  Ex. learn poetry by rote
       rotund         (of a person) fat and
3840   round
       rotunda         circular building or
3841   hall covered with a dome
3842   rotundity      roundness               sonorousness of speech
3843   rou\'e        lecherous man
3844   rousing        lively                  inducing excitement          stirring
3845   rout          put to rout              stampede                     drive out
       rubble         fragments (esp.
3846   from a destroyed building)
       rubric        title or heading (in      directions for religious
3847   red print)                             ceremony                     protocol
                                               (of the face) reddish and
3848   ruddy          reddish                 healthy-looking
3849   rudimentary      elementary            not developed                crude
3850   rue           regret                   lament                       mourn
3851   ruffian       violent scoundrel        bully
       rumble         make or move with
       a deep rolling sound (as thunder
3852   or stomach)
       ruminant        animal that
3853   ruminates                              ADJ.
       ruminate        chew over and
       over (mentally or, like cows,
3854   physically)                            mull over(ponder)
3855   rummage           ransack              thoroughly search
       run-down         (of a place)                                        (of a person) weak or
3856   dilapidated                            in a bad condition           exhausted
                                                                            N. rune: one of the letters of
                                                                           an alphabet used by ancient
                                               set down in an ancient      Germanic peoples (cut on
3857   runic         mysterious               alphabet                     stone or wood)
3858   ruse          trick to deceive         stratagem
       rustic        pertaining to country
3859   people                                 unsophisticated              simple
       rusticate      banish to the
3860   country                                dwell in the country
       rustle        make slight sounds
       like silk moving or being rubbed
3861   together
3862   ruthless       pitiless                merciless                    cruel
                                                                           N. sabotage: destruction of
       saboteur        one who commits                                    property (usually carried out
3863   sabotage                             destroyer of property         secretly)
                                             characteristic of sugar or
3864   saccharine       cloying sweet       saccharin
                                                                           N. sacrilege: desecration,
                                                                          misuse, or theft of something
3865   sacrilegious     desecrating         profane                       sacred

3866   sacrosanct       invioably sacred    most sacred                   inviolable

                Word List - 42
                                             N. sadism: delight in
3867   sadistic       inclined to cruelty   cruelty

3868   saga           Scandinavian myth     any legend                    long heroic narrative
3869   sagacious        wise                perceptive                    shrewd
       sage           person celebrated
3870   for wisdom                           wise person                   ADJ: wise
3871   salacious       lascivious           lustful                       Ex. salacious monk
3872   salient        prominent             projecting beyond a line      conspicuous
3873   saline         salty

       sallow         (of the skin)                                        Ex. sallow complexion due to
3874   yellowish and unhealthy-looking      sickly in color               jaundice
                                             conducive to health or well-
3875   salubrious       healthful           being                         socially desirable

3876   salutary        tending to improve   beneficial                    wholesome
       salvage         rescue (goods or
3877   property) from loss                  N: saving                     property saved
       sanctimonious      displaying
       ostentatious or hypocritical          N. sanctimony:
3878   devoutness                           hypocritical piety
3879   sanction        approve              ratify                        N: permission
3880   sanctuary        place of refuge     shelter                       shrine
3881   sanguinary       bloody              with much bloodshed
3882   sanguine         optimistic          cheerful                      hopeful
                                                                           undermine the foundations of
3883   sap            diminish              weaken                        (a fortification)
       sarcasm          cutting ironic
3884   remark                               scornful remarks              stinging rebuke
3885   sardonic         scornfully mocking      disdainful                    sarcastic
       sartorial      pertaining to tailors      Ex. a man of great
3886   or tailoring                             sartorial elegance            CF. sartor: tailor
3887   sate           satisfy to the full       satisfy to excess             cloy
       satellite      small body revolving
3888   around a larger one

       satiate        satisfy fully (physical                                  N. satiety: condition of being
3889   needs such as hunger)                    sate                          satiated
       satire     form of literature in
       which irony, sarcasm, and
       ridicule are employed to attack
3890   human vice and folly
3891   satirical      using satire              mocking
3892   saturate        soak thoroughly          imbue                         impregnate
                                                                               Ex. Do not be misled by his
3893   saturnine       morose                   gloomy                        saturnine countenance.
       satyr          half-human, half-
       bestial being in the court of
       Dionysus (resembling a goat),
       portrayed as
       wanton(unrestrained) and
3894   cunning                                  lecher                        CF. faun
       saunter         stroll(go for a
3895   leisurely walk) slowly                   N.
3896   savant          scholar                  learned person                CF. savoir: know
                                                 have a distinctive flavor,
3897   savor          enjoy                     smell, or quality             N: taste or smell
                                                                               pleasing, attractive, or
3898   savory          pleasant in taste        tasty                         agreeable
       scabbard         case for a sword
3899   blade                                    sheath
3900   scad           a great quantity          Ex. scads of clothes
       scaffold        temporary platform
       for workers (to work at heights
3901   above the ground)                        bracing framework             platform for execution

3902   scale          climb up                  ascend                        remove or come off in scales
3903   scanty          meager                   insufficient
       scapegoat         someone who
3904   bears the blame for others               whipping boy                  CF. escape+goat
       scavenge           hunt through
       discarded materials for usable                                       N. scavenger: one who
3905   items or food                           search, especially for food scavenges
                                               screenplay(script for a
3906   scenario          plot outline          movie)                       opera libretto
       schematic          of a schema or        relating to an outline or
3907   scheme                                  diagram                      using a system of symbols
3908   scheme             systematic plan      plot                         clever dishonest plan
       schism            division into
       factions (esp. within a religious
3909   body)                                   split
3910   scholarly         full of learning      erudite                      like a scholar
3911   scintilla     trace                     minute amount                shred
3912   scintillate      sparkle                flash                        be animated
       scion            detached plant
3913   shoot used in grafting                  descendant
3914   scoff         laugh (at)                mock                         ridicule
3915   scorch           sear                   N.
                                                written form of a musical
3916   score            number of points       composition                  reason
       scotch           stamp out(put an
3917   end to)                                 thwart                       hinder
                                                whip (formerly used for
3918   scourge           lash                  punishment)                  source of severe punishment
3919   scowl            frown angrily          N: angry frown

3920   scrap            small bit or fragment discarded waste material      fight
3921   scrappy           quarrelsome
3922   scraps           leftover food
       screech           unpleasant high
3923   sharp sound                             shriek                       V.
       scrimmage           disorderly fight
3924   between two or more people
       scruple          hesitate for ethical                                 Ex. She did not scruple to
3925   reasons                                 fret about                   read his diary
3926   scrupulous         conscientious        extremely thorough           Ex. scrupulous worker
       scrutinize        examine closely
3927   and critically                          N. scrutiny
                                                move off in a confused
3928   scuffle          struggle confusedly    hurry                        N. CF. scuffling twins ?
3929   scurrilous        abusive               obscene                      indecent
3930   scurry        move hastily          hurry                      move briskly
                                                                       N: disease caused by
3931   scurvy         contemptible         despicable                 deficiency of Vitamin C
       scuttle       sink (a ship) by
3932   cutting holes in the hull           scrap                      discard
3933   seamy          sordid               base                       filthy

3934   sear          burn the surface of   char or burn               brand

       season         enhance the flavor
3935   of by adding a spice, etc.          inure                      harden
       seasonable       occurring at the                               Ex. seasonable intervention in
3936   proper time or season               opportune                  the dispute
       seasonal        of a particular      Ex. seasonal rise in
3937   season                              employment
3938   seasoned         experienced

                                            V. secede: withdraw
3939   secession        withdrawal         formally from membership
                                                                       V. seclude: set apart from
3940   seclusion       isolation           solitude                   others
                                                                       produce and release a
3941   secrete        conceal              hide away or cache         substance into an organism

       sect          separate religious                                group of people with common
3942   body                                faction                    beliefs within a larger group
3943   sectarian      of a sect            narrow-minded              parochial
                                           not pertaining to church
3944   secular        worldly              matters or religion        temporal
       sedate         composed (with no
3945   excitement)                         grave                      V: administer a sedative to
                                                                       not moving from one place to
3946   sedentary       requiring sitting   done while sitting         another
       sedition       conduct or
3947   language inciting rebellion         rebellion                  resistance to authority
       seduce         lead away from
3948   proper conduct                      entice                     ADJ. seductive
3949   sedulous        diligent            assiduous                  paying attention
3950   seedy          run-down             decrepit                   disreputable
       seemly         (of behavior)
3951   proper                              appropriate
       seep          pass slowly through
3952   small openings                      ooze                       trickle
       seethe         be violently                                      (of a liquid) move about wildly
3953   disturbed                            boil                       as if boiling
3954   seine         seine net              net for catching fish
       seismic        pertaining to
3955   earthquakes
                                           having an effect only on
3956   selective      careful in choosing certain things               not general
       self-indulgence excessive
3957   indulgence of one's own desire
       self-righteous sure of one's own
3958   righteousness                        moralistic
                                                                        Ex. We called in the troops to
       semblance        outward                                        bring a/some semblance of
3959   appearance                           guise                      order to the city.
       seminal        related to seed or
3960   semen                                germinal                   creative
                                           secondary school,
       seminary       school for training especially for young
3961   future ministers                   women
                                             feeblemindedness of old    ADJ. senile: resulting from old
3962   senility     old age                 age                        age
       sensitization process of being
       made sensitive or acutely
       responsive to an external agent       V. sensitize: make or
3963   or substance                         become sensitive
       sensual        devoted to the
3964   pleasures of the sense               carnal                     voluptuous
       sensuous        giving pleasure to pertaining to the physical
3965   the senses                         senses                       operating through the senses
3966   sententious     pithy                terse                      concise
       sentient       capable of
3967   sensation and conscious              aware                      sensitive
       sentimental     swayed by             appealing to the
3968   sentiment                            sentiments
3969   sentinel       sentry                lookout

3970   septic        of or causing sepsis   putrid                     producing putrefaction
3971   sepulcher       tomb                 V: place in a sepulcher    ADJ. sepulchral

                Word List - 43
3972   sequester       isolate              segregate                  seclude
3973   sere          sear                   parched                    dry
       serendipity      gift for finding       accidental good fortune or CF. The Three Princes of
3974   valuable things by accident            luck                        Serendip
3975   serenity        calmness               placidity                      ADJ. serene
3976   serpentine         winding             twisting                       of or like a serpent
       serrated        having a
3977   sawtoothed edge                        Ex. serrated leaf
3978   servile       slavish                  cringing                       N. servility

                                               compulsory labor imposed
3979   servitude        slavery               as a punishment
                                              cut off (a part) from a
3980   sever           separate               whole                          break up (a relationship)
3981   severity        harshness              intensity                      sternness

       sextant         navigation tool used
       to determine a ship's latitude and
       longitude (by measuring the
3982   altitudes of stars)
3983   shack           crude cabin
3984   shackle         chain                  fetter                         confine with shackles
       shade           slight difference in
3985   degree                                 nuance                         degree of color
3986   sham            pretend                feign                          ADJ: not genuine
       shambles           (place or scene
3987   of) complete disorder or ruin          wreck                          mess
       Shangri-la       imaginary remote
3988   paradise on earth                      CF. Lost Horizon
       shard           fragment generally
       of broken pottery (glass, clay
3989   bowl, or cup)
       shaving          very thin piece,
       usually of wood (cut from a
3990   surface with a sharp blade)
       sheaf           bundle of stalks of     any bundle of things tied
3991   grain                                  together
       shear           remove (fleece or       remove the hair or fleece
3992   hair) by cutting                       from                           cut with or as if with shears
                                               insert into or provide with
3993   sheathe          place into a case     a sheath                       Ex. He sheathed his dagger

       shed            small roofed
3994   structure for storage and shelter      V: pour forth                  lose by natural process
3995   sheer           pure                      thin and transparent        very steep

3996   sherbet            flavored dessert ice
       shift         change position or           exchange (one thing) for
3997   place                                     another                     change in direction or position
       shimmer             shine with a                                       Ex. The moonlight shimmered
3998   flickering light                          glimmer intermittently      on the water
       shirk          avoid (responsibility,
3999   work, etc.)                               malinger
       shoddy             made of inferior
4000   material                                  sham                        not genuine
       shoot           new growth from a
4001   plant
                                                                              Ex. pushing and shoving to
4002   shove           push forward              push roughly                get on the bus
                                                  very small mouselike
4003   shrew           scolding woman            animal
4004   shrewd             clever                 astute
       shrivel        make or become
       shrunken and wrinkled (often by
4005   drying)
       shudder            shake
4006   uncontrollably                            tremble                     V.
                                                                              move (something) from one
4007   shuffle        mix together               jumble                      place to another
                                                                              Ex. She has been shunned by
4008   shun            keep away from            avoid deliberately          her neighbors.
       shunt           move (a railway
4009   train) from one track to another          turn aside                  divert
       shyster         lawyer using
4010   questionable methods                      unscrupulous practioner
4011   sibling        brother or sister
                                                                              N. sibyl: woman prophet (in
4012   sibylline       prophetic                 oracular                    the ancient world)
4013   sidereal        relating to stars         Ex. sidereal day

                                                                              N. CF. siding: short section of
       sidetrack          switch (a railroad                                 railroad track connected by
4014   car) to a siding                          divert from a main issue    switches with a main track
       sift          put through a sieve to
       separate fine from coarse
4015   particles                                 sort or examine carefully
       significant     expressing a
4016   meaning                                 important                  Ex. significant smile

       silt          sediment deposited by
       running water (at the entrance to
4017   a harbor or by a bend in a river)
4018   simian          monkeylike              N: ape or monkey
       simile         comparison of one
       thing with another, using the word
4019   like or as
4020   simper          smirk                   smile in a silly way       smile affectedly
4021   simplistic      oversimplified
4022   simulate        feign                   imitate
       sinecure         well-paid position      CF. sine cure: without
4023   with little responsibility              care                       CF. San Serif
4024   sinewy          (of meat) tough         strong and firm            muscular
4025   singular        being only one          individual                 unique
4026   sinister       evil                     ominous
4027   sinuous         twisting                winding                    bending in and out
       siren          apparatus for making
4028   sounds                                  womanlike creature
                                                                           person who suspends
                                                                          judgment until he has
                                                                          examined the evidence
4029   skeptic         sceptic                 doubter                    supporting a point of view
       skiff         small light sailboat or
4030   rowboat
       skim           read or glance
4031   through quickly                         touch lightly in passing   brush
       skimp           provide or use
4032   scantily                                live very economically     Ex. skimp on necessities
4033   skinflint      miser                    stingy person
4034   skirmish        minor fight             minor battle in war        V.
4035   skittish       inconstant               capricious                 frivolous
       skulduggery(skullduggery)                Ex. skulduggery in the
4036   dishonest behavior or action            election
                                                Ex. He skulked through
       skulk          move furtively and       the less fashionable
4037   secretly                                sections of the city.
4038   slack          moving slowly            sluggish                   inactive
4039   slacken         slow up                 loosen                     make or become slack
       slag         glassy residue from
4040   smelting metal                        dross                         waste matter
4041   slake        satisfy (thirst)         quench                        sate
                                             utterance of false and
4042   slander        defamation             malicious statements          V. ADJ. slanderous
       slap         hit quickly with the
4043   flat part of the hand                 N. CF. smack

4044   slapdash         hasty and careless haphazard                       sloppy(carelessly done)
       slaughter       killing of animals
4045   for food                              massacre                      V: butcher (animals) for food
4046   slavish        of or like a slave     servile                       showing no originality
4047   sleazy         shabby and dirty       flimsy                        insubstantial
       sledge         large sled drawn by
4048   work animals
       sleek        smooth and shining
4049   (as from good health)                 V.
                                              something originally of
                                             little value or importance
       sleeper        one that achieves      that in time becomes very
4050   unexpected success                    valuable

       sleigh       large vehicle drawn
4051   by a horse over snow or ice
                                              CF. sleight of hand:          quickness of the hands in
4052   sleight      dexterity                legerdemain                   doing tricks
       slew         large quantity or
4053   number                                Ex. slew of errands left
       slick       make smooth or
4054   glossy                                N: smooth surface             Ex. oil slick
                                                                            V: treat as if of small
4055   slight       insult to one's dignity snub                           importance
4056   slink        move furtively           ADJ. slinky: stealthy         furtive
4057   slipshod       slovenly               careless                      sloppy
4058   slither      slip or slide
       sloth        slow moving tree-
4059   dwelling mammal                       laziness                      ADJ. slothful: lazy

       slough         (of a snake) shed or
4060   cast off (dead outer skin)            N: outer layer that is shed
4061   slovenly       untidy                 careless in work habits       slipshod
4062   sluggard        lazy person
4063   sluggish       lazy                      slow                          inactive
       sluice        artificial channel for
       directing or controlling the flow of
       water (with a gate to regulate the
4064   flow)

4065   slur         pronounce indistinctly speak indistinctly                 mumble
4066   sly          clever in deceiving         secretive                     not telling one's intentions
4067   smart         intelligent                quick and energetic           fashionable
                                                 small scattered number or
4068   smattering       slight knowledge        amount                     Ex. smattering of German
       smear           spread or cover           N: mark made by
4069   with a sticky substance                  smearing
       smelt         melt (ore) for              melt or blend ores
       separating and removing the              changing their chemical
4070   metal                                    composition
                                                 offensively self-satisfied
                                                smile (often at someone
4071   smirk         conceited smile            else's misfortune)            V.
                                                                              be liable to break out at any
4072   smolder          smoulder                burn slowly without flame     moment

4073   smother          kill from lack of air   suppress                      cover thickly
       smudge           dirty mark with
4074   unclear edges made by rubbing            V.
4075   smug            self-satisfied           complacent
       sneak           move, give, or take
4076   in a quiet, stealthy way                 N: one who sneaks             ADJ. sneaky
       snicker         half-
4077   stifled(suppressed) laugh                V.
       snip         short quick cut with
4078   scissors                                 V: cut with scissors
       snivel        complain or whine
4079   tearfully                                run at the nose               snuffle
       snub          ignore or behave            Ex. I made a suggestion
4080   coldly toward                            but she snubbed me            N.
                                                 sniff repeatedly (in order
                                                to keep liquid from running
4081   snuffle       sniffle                    out of the nose)
       soar          rise or fly high in the     Ex. The rocket soared into
4082   air                                      the sky.
4083   sober           serious                  solemn                        not drunken
       sobriety        moderation
       (especially regarding indulgence
4084   in alcohol)                            seriousness
                                           dull or stupid as if from
4085   sodden           thoroughly soaked drink
4086   sojourn         temporary stay         V: stay for a time
       solace          comfort in sorrow or                                    V: comfort or console in time
4087   trouble                                consolation                     of sorrow or trouble
                                               N: metal alloy (usually tin
                                              and lead) used in the
       solder          repair or make         molten state to join metallic
4088   whole by using a metal alloy           parts
                                               construction that is
       solecism         nonstandard           flagrantly incorrect
4089   grammatical construction               grammatically                   violation of social etiquette
4090   solemnity        seriousness           gravity
4091   solicit        entreat                 request earnestly               seek to obtain
       solicitor      lawyer in the lower
4092   court of law
4093   solicitous      anxious                worried                         concerned
                                                                        long speech by one person
       soliloquy       talking to oneself                              (often monopolizing a
4094   (esp. in a play)                       CF. monologue: soliloquy conversation)
                                                                               ADJ. solitary: existing or living
4095   solitude        state of being alone seclusion                         alone (esp. by choice)
       solstice        point or time at
       which the sun is farthest from the
4096   equator
       soluble         able to be dissolved able to be worked out or
4097   in a liquid                          solved

       solvent         substance that          ADJ: capable of dissolving
4098   dissolves another                      another substance
       somatic          pertaining to the
4099   body                                   bodily                          physical

                 Word List - 44
4100   somber           dark                  gloomy                          melancholy
4101   somnambulist        sleepwalker        V. somnambulate                 N. somnambulism
4102   somnolent          half asleep         drowsy                          N. somnolence
       sonic          of sound or its
4103   speed in air                           CF. subsonic, supersonic
       sonnet          14-line poetic verse
4104   form with a fixed rhyme pattern
                                               producing a full deep
4105   sonorous         resonant              sound                       producing sound
       soothsayer        one who foretells
4106   the future
       sophist         teacher of                                         employer of fallacious
4107   philosophy                             quibbler                   reasoning
       sophisticated     worldly wise and
4108   urbane                                 refined                     complex

       sophistry       seemingly
4109   plausible but fallacious reasoning sophism
4110   sophomoric        immature             half-baked                  like a sophomore
4111   soporific       sleep-causing          marked by sleepiness        drowsy
4112   sordid        filthy                   foul                        base
                                               showing good judgment or
4113   sound           in good condition      good sense                thorough
       sour          having a sharp or
4114   acid taste                             acid                        tart
                                               ADJ: (of a country)
       sovereign        ruler in a            independent and self-
4115   monarchy                               governing                   having supreme power
       sovereignty      complete
       independence and self-
4116   government (of a country)              supremacy of authority      power to govern

4117   sow           plant or scatter seed
       spangle         small shiny metallic
       piece sewn to clothing for
4118   ornamentation
4119   spare         give                     use                         refrain from harming
4120   sparse          not thick              thinly scattered            scanty
       Spartan         without attention to
4121   comfort                                lacking luxury and comfort sternly disciplined
4122   spasmodic         fitful               periodic                    of or like a spasm
4123   spat          squabble                 minor dispute               minor quarrel

4124   spate         sudden flood or rush Ex. spate of accidents
4125   spatial       relating to space
       spatula        broad-bladed
       instrument used for spreading or
4126   mixing
       spawn           lay eggs (in large    produce offspring (in large
4127   numbers)                             numbers)                     N: eggs of aquatic animals
       specious          seemingly           misleading (often
4128   reasonable but incorrect             intentionally)
                                           Ex. speck of dust in the
4129   speck          small piece or mark eye
4130   spectral       ghostly               N. specter: spectre          ghost
       spectrum          colored band
       produced when a beam of light         broad and continuous        Ex. whole spectrum of
4131   passes through a prism               range                        modern thoughts
       speechless         unable for the
       moment to speak (because of
4132   strong feeling)                      Ex. speechless with anger
       spendthrift       someone who        CF. thrift: accumulated
4133   wastes money                         wealth
4134   sphinx-like       enigmatic          mysterious

                                             make (thread) by twisting
4135   spin          rotate swiftly         (cotton, wool, etc.)         N.
       splice        join together end to
       end to make one continuous
4136   length                               fasten together              unite
       spoilsport      one who spoils the
4137   pleasure of others
       spontaneity       lack of
4138   premeditation                        naturalness                  freedom from constraint
4139   spoof         parody
       spoonerism         accidental         Ex. ``Let me sew you to
       transposition of sounds in           your sheet'' for ``Let me
4140   successive words                     show you to your seat''      CF. William Spooner
       sporadic        occurring
4141   irregularly                          intermittent
4142   sportive       playful               frolicsome                   merry
4143   sprout         begin to grow         give off shoots or buds      N: new growth on a plant
       spruce          neat and trim in                                   Ex. Be spruce for your job
4144   appearance                           smart                        interview
       spry          (esp. of older
4145   people) vigorously active            nimble
4146   spurious        false                counterfeit                  forged
                                                                               Ex. She spurned all offers of
4147   spurn            reject disdainfully    scorn                          help.
4148   squabble          minor quarrel         bickering                      V: engage in a minor quarrel
       squalor          condition of being
4149   squalid                                 filth                          degradation
4150   squander           waste                spend foolishly
4151   squash            crush                 quash                          suppress
4152   squat            short and thick        stocky                         Ex. ugly squat tower

       squeamish           easily shocked or                                   Ex. A nurse should not be
4153   sickened by unpleasant things           fastidious                     squeamish.
       squelch           produce a
       splashing sound (when stepping
4154   through mud)                            crush                          squash
       staccato          played in an abrupt marked by abrupt sharp
4155   manner                                sound                            Ex. staccato applause
       stagnant          (of water) not
4156   flowing (often bad-smelling)            motionless                     stale
                                                                               Ex. staid during the funeral
4157   staid           serious and sedate      sober                          ceremony
                                                situation in which further
4158   stalemate         deadlock              action is blocked
4159   stalwart         physically strong      brawny                         steadfast
       stamina           power of
4160   endurance                               strength                       staying power

       stammer            speak with
4161   involuntarily pauses or repetitions
       stamp            step on heavily (so                                   imprint or impress with a
4162   as to crush or extinguish)              put an end to                  mark, design, or seal
       stampede           sudden frenzied
       rush (of panic-stricken animals or V: participate in or cause           Ex. stampede before the price
4163   people)                            stampede                            rises
       stanch           stop or check flow     Ex. stanch the gushing
4164   of blood                                wound
       standstill       condition of no
4165   movement or activity                    stop

       stanza           division of a poem
4166   (composed of two or more lines)
       start           move suddenly or         Ex. start at the sight of a
4167   involuntarily                           snake
4168   stately        formal                ceremonious                   grand in style or size
4169   static        having no motion       unchanging                    lacking development
       statute        law enacted by the
4170   legislature
       statutory       created by statute
4171   or legislative action                regulated by statute          Ex. statutory age limit
4172   steadfast       steadily loyal       unswerving                    steady
       stealth        action of moving
4173   secretly or unseen                   slyness                       sneakiness
                                                                           Ex. steep the fabric in the dye
4174   steep          soak                  saturate                      bath
       stellar       pertaining to the
4175   stars                                of a star performer           outstanding
       stem           stop or check (the     Ex. stem the bleeding
4176   flow of)                             from the slashed artery       N: main axis of a plant
4177   stem_from         arise from         originate from
4178   stench         strong foul odor      reek                          stink
       stentorian      (of the voice)        CF. Stentor: a loud herald
4179   extremely loud                       in the Iliad
       stereotype       one regarded as      fixed and unvarying           standardized mental picture
4180   embodying a set image or type        representation                often reflecting prejudice
       sterile       incapable of
4181   producing young                      free from microorganism       V. sterilize
                                             person who insists things
4182   stickler       perfectionist         be exactly right
4183   stifle        suppress               extinguish                    inhibit
                                                                           V. stigmatize: mark with a
4184   stigma         token of disgrace     brand                         stigma
4185   stilted       bombastic              stiffly pompous               Ex. stilted rhetoric

4186   stink         stench                 V: emit a strong foul odor
4187   stint         supply                 allotted amount of work       assigned portion of work
4188   stipend        pay for services
       stipple        paint or draw with
4189   dots or short strokes
       stipulate      state as a
       necessary condition (of an
4190   agreement)                           make express conditions       specify
                                             kept regularly in stock or
4191   stock          standard              supply                        typical
       stockade         wooden enclosure fixed line of posts used as
4192   or pen                            defensive barrier
4193   stodgy         dull                    stuffy                        boringly conservative
4194   stoic         stoical                  impassive                     unmoved by joy or grief
       stoke         stir up a fire or
4195   furnace                                feed plentifully
                                                                             showing little emotion when
4196   stolid        dull                     impassive                     strong feelings are expected
       stoop          bend forward and                                       fall to a lower standard of
4197   down                                   lower or debase oneself       behavior by doing something
4198   stout         rather fat               strong in body                sturdy
       straggle       stray or fall behind     spread out in a scattered
4199   (a main group)                         group                         Ex. straggling marathon racer
       strangle       kill by choking or
4200   suffocating                            suppress

4201   stratagem        deceptive scheme clever trick

4202   stratified    divided into classes     arranged into strata          V. stratify
       stratum        layer of earth's
4203   surface                                layer of society              PL. strata
4204   strew         spread randomly          sprinkle                      scatter
       striated       marked with parallel
4205   bands                                  striped                       grooved
       stricture      severe and adverse
4206   criticism                              critical comments             limit or restriction
4207   strident       loud and harsh          insistent                     N. stridency

4208   stringent      (of rules) binding      rigid                         marked by scarcity of money
                                               CF. airplane wing building
4209   strut         supporting bar           support

4210   studied        carefully contrived     calculated                    unspontaneous
       studious        given to diligent
4211   study
                                               cause to appear or
                                              become stupid or
4212   stultify      make stupid in mind      inconsistent                  suppress

4213   stumble         trip and almost fall   proceed unsteadily            act falteringly
       stump          base of a tree trunk
       left after the rest has been cut
4214   down                                  V: walk in a heavy manner baffle

       stun          make unconscious
4215   or numb as by a blow                  amaze                       astound
                                              make numb (as with a
4216   stupefy       stun                    drug)                       amaze
       stupor        state of being
4217   stupefied                             state of apathy             daze
       sturdy        strong and firm (in
4218   the body)

4219   stygian       unpleasantly dark       gloomy                      hellish
4220   stymie        thwart                  present an obstacle         stump
                                                                          ADJ. suave: smooth and
4221   suavity       urbanity                polish                      courteous
4222   subaltern      subordinate
4223   subdue         less intense           quieter                     Ex. subdued lighting
       subjective     influenced by          occurring or taking place
4224   personal feelings                     within the mind             unreal
4225   subjugate       conquer               bring under control
                                                                          replace (natural urges) with
4226   sublimate       refine                purify                      socially acceptable activities
       sublime        causing deep
       feelings of wonder, joy, respect,
4227   etc.                                  exalted                     noble and uplifting

                Word List - 45

       subliminal     below the           Ex. subliminal
4228   threshold of conscious perception advertisement

4229   submerge         place under water dip                            go under water
       submissive      willing to obey
4230   orders                                yielding                    timid
       subordinate     occupying a lower
4231   rank                                  inferior                    submissive
       suborn         persuade to act
       unlawfully (especially to commit
4232   perjury)                              N. subornation
       subpoena         writ(written
       command issued by a court)
       summoning a witness to appear            V: summon with a
4233   in court                                subpoena
       subsequent        following in time
4234   or order                                later
       subservient      behaving like a
4235   slave                                   servile                        obsequious
       subside         sink to a lower                                         sink to the bottom (as a
4236   level                                   settle down                    sediment)

4237   subsidiary      serving to assist       subordinate                    secondary
       subsidy         direct financial aid     V. subsidize: assist with a
4238   by government, etc.                     subsidy
4239   subsistence      existence              means of subsisting            means of support
4240   substantial     of substance            material                       solid
       substantiate     support (a claim)
4241   with evidence                           establish with evidence        verify
4242   substantive      substantial            essential                      pertaining to the substance
       subsume          include (as a
4243   member of a group)                      encompass
4244   stratagem(deceptive scheme)             pretense                       evasion
4245   subtlety       perceptiveness           ingenuity                      delicacy
                                                V. subvert: overthrow
       subversive       tending to             completely (an established
4246   overthrow or ruin                       system)                    destroy completely
       succor         assist (someone in
4247   difficulty)                             aid                            comfort
4248   succulent       juicy                   full of juice or sap           full of richness
       succumb          yield (to
4249   something overwhelming)                 give in                        die
       suckle         give or take milk at
4250   the breast or udder
       suffocate       die or kill from lack
4251   of air                                  suppress
       suffragist     advocate of the
       extension of voting rights (for
4252   women)                                  CF. suffrage
       suffuse        spread through or                                        Ex. A blush suffused her
4253   over (with a color or liquid)           charge                         cheeks.
       suitor         man who is courting
4254   a woman
       sullen         silently showing ill
4255   humor or resentment                       dark                       gloomy
4256   sully          defile                     soil                       tarnish
4257   sultry         (of weather) hot           sweltering                 sensual

       summation          act of finding the                                 summary (esp. one given by
4258   total                                     summing-up                 the judge at the end of a trial)
       sumptuous          grand suggesting
4259   great expense                             lavish                     rich
4260   sunder          separate                  part                       CF. asunder
4261   sundry          miscellaneous             various                    several
       superannuated           retired or
4262   disqualified because of age               outmoded                   obsolete
4263   supercilious      haughty                 arrogant                   condescending
                                                  more than needed or
4264   supererogatory superfluous                demanded
4265   superficial      of the surface           not deep                   shallow
4266   superfluous       excessive               overabundant               unnecessary
       superimpose         place over
4267   something else

       supernumerary           person or thing                               ADJ: additional to the usual or
4268   excess of what is necessary               extra                      necessary number
4269   supersede         replace                 cause to be set aside      make obsolete
4270   supine          lying on back             passive                    inactive
       supplant         take the place of
4271   unfairly                                  usurp                      replace
4272   supple          flexible                  limber                     pliant
4273   suppliant        entreating               beseeching                 N.
       supplicant       one who
4274   supplicates                               ADJ.
4275   supplicate       petition humbly          pray to grant a favor
4276   supposition       assumption              hypothesis                 surmise
4277   supposititious assumed                    counterfeit                hypothetical
       suppress          put an end to
4278   forcibly                                  subdue                     stifle
4279   surfeit        satiate                    feed or supply to excess   stuff
       surge           powerful movement
4280   of or like a wave                       V.
4281   surly           bad-tempered            rude                         cross
4282   surmise          guess                  N.
4283   surmount          overcome
4284   surpass          exceed
4285   surreptitious     done secretly         secret                       furtive
                                                person or thing used in
4286   surrogate        substitute             place of another             Ex. surrogate mother
       surveillance      close observation
       of a person (esp. one under
4287   suspicion)                              watching                     guarding
4288   susceptible       impressionable        easily influenced            sensitive
       suspend           cause to stop for a
4289   period                                  interrupt                    hold in abeyance
       suspense          state of being         anxiety or apprehension
4290   undecided                               resulting from uncertainty

4291   sustain         suffer (harm or loss) experience                     support

                                                means of livelihood,
4292   sustenance         sustaining           support, food, nourishment something that maintains life
       suture          stitches sewn to
       hold the cut edges of a wound or
4293   incision                                material used in sewing      V: sew together a wound
       swagger           walk or behave
4294   with an over-confident manner
4295   swamp             wetland               marsh                        V: flood
       swarm            large group of          crowd of people or
4296   insects moving in a mass                animals                      V: move in a crowd or mass
       swarthy          (of a skin or
4297   complexion) dark                        dusky                        Ex. swarthy Italian ?
4298   swathe           swath                  wrap around                  bandage
       sway            swing from side to       influence (someone) to
4299   side                                    change one's opinion         N.
4300   swear            vow                    promise                      use profane oaths
       swear-word         word considered
4301   offensive                               Ex. ``bloody''
       swell           long wave of water
       that moves continuously without
4302   breaking                                V.
       swelter       (of a person) suffer
4303   from oppressive heat                  be oppressed by heat
                                              turn aside sharply from a
4304   swerve         deviate                straight course              Ex. swerve from the principle
4305   swill       drink greedily
4306   swindler      cheater
       swipe         hit with a sweeping
4307   motion                                N.
                                              person devoted to            CF. Sybaris: an ancient Greek
4308   sybarite      lover of luxury         pleasure and luxury          city in Italy
4309   sycophant       servile flatterer     bootlicker                   yes man

       syllogism      logical formula
       consisting of a major premise, a       deceptive or specious
4310   minor premise and a conclusion        argument
       sylvan        pertaining to the
4311   woods or the country

       symbiosis       interdependent
       relationship (between groups,
4312   species) often mutually beneficial ADJ. symbiotic                  CF. together + life

       symmetry        arrangement of
4313   parts so that balance is obtained     congruity                    ADJ. symmetrical
4314   synchronous       similarly timed     simultaneous with            occurring at the same time
       synoptic      providing a general
4315   overview                              summary                      N. synopsis
       synthesis      combining parts or
4316   separate things into a whole          the whole so formed          PL. syntheses
4317   synthetic     not natural             artificial                   resulting from synthesis

       tablet      small round piece of       flat piece of stone or metal
4318   medicine                              bearing an inscription        Ex. stone tablet on the wall

       tacit       understood (without
4319   actually being expressed)             not put into words           Ex. tacit agreement
4320   taciturn      habitually silent       talking little
       tact        skill or sensitivity in
       dealing with people without
4321   causing offence
       tactful     careful no to cause
4322   offence                               OP. tactless
       tactile        pertaining to the
4323   organs or sense of touch
                                                                             modify with a trace of
4324   taint          contaminate            cause to lose purity           something bad
4325   takeoff         burlesque             act of leaving the ground
                                              object believed to give
                                             supernatural powers to or
4326   talisman         charm                protect its bearer
4327   talon           claw of bird
       tan            convert (hide) into     make brown by exposure
4328   leather                               to the sun
       tangential       only slightly
4329   connected                             not central                    peripheral

4330   tangible         able to be touched   real                           concrete
       tanner          person who turns
4331   animal hides into leather

                                              excite by exposing
                                             something desirable while
4332   tantalize        tease                keeping it out of reach        torture with disappointment
                                              Ex. This invasion is
       tantamount         equivalent in      tantamount to a
4333   effect or value                       declaration of war             CF. amount

                 Word List - 46
4334   tantrum          fit of bad temper    fit of petulance               caprice

                                             gradual decrease in the         V. make or become gradually
4335   taper           very thin candle      width of a long object         narrower toward one end
4336   tarantula        venomous spider
4337   tardy           slow                  sluggish                       not on time
       tarnish         make or become
4338   dull or discolored                    N.
4339   tarry          linger                 delay in starting or going     dawdle
4340   tart           sharp to the taste     acid-tasting                   caustic
                                              ADJ. tattered: (of clothes) (of a person) dressed in old
4341   tatter         torn piece of cloth    old and torn                 torn clothes
4342   taunt           deride or provoke     challenge in derision          N.
4343   taut           tight                  strained                       tense
       tautological      needlessly           Ex. ``It was visible to the    N. tautology: needless
4344   repetitious                           eye''                          repetition of the same sense
4345   tawdry           cheap and gaudy      Ex. tawdry jewelry
4346   tawny            brownish yellow
       taxonomist         specialist in         CF. taxonomy: science of
4347   classifying (animals, etc.)             classification
4348   tedium           boredom                weariness                    ADJ. tedious
       teetotalism       practice of
       abstaining totally from alcoholic
4349   drinks                                  N. teetotaler
4350   temerity         boldness               nerve                        rashness
4351   temper           moderate               make less severe             tone down or restrain
       temperament          characteristic
4352   frame of mind                           disposition                  emotional excess
4353   temperate          moderate             restrained                   self-controlled
4354   tempestuous         stormy              violent                      impassioned
4355   tempo            speed of music
4356   temporal          of time               not lasting forever          limited by time
       temporize         gain time as by
4357   postponing an action                    avoid committing oneself
       tenacious         holding fast (as to
4358   a belief)                               persistent
4359   tenacity         firmness               persistence
       tenancy          possession of land      period of a tenant's
4360   or building by rent                     occupancy

       tenant         one that pays rent
4361   to use property owned by another
4362   tend          have a tendency           take care of                 minister
       tendentious        promoting a
4363   particular point of view                biased                       having an aim
                                                                             Ex. tender one's
4364   tender           offer formally         extend                       resignation/the exact fare
4365   tenet         doctrine                  dogma
       tensile       capable of being
4366   stretched                               of tension                   Ex. tensile rubber
                                                condition of being
4367   tension          stretching             stretched                    mental strain
       tentative        not fully worked out
4368   or developed                            provisional                  experimental
4369   tenuous           thin                  slim                         rare
       tenure           holding of an office    time during which such an
4370   or real estate                          office is held
4371   tepid         lukewarm                  slightly warm                 half-hearted
       terminal         part that forms the
4372   end                                    railroad or bus station         ADJ. forming an end
4373   termination       end                  V. terminate
       terminology       terms used in a
4374   science or art                         study of nomenclature

4375   terminus         last stop of railroad end
       terrestrial    on or relating to the
4376   earth
4377   terse         concise                  abrupt                          pithy

4378   tertiary      third in order or rank
4379   tessellated      mosaic                inlaid                          Ex. tessellated pattern
4380   testator       maker of a will         CF. testatrix
                                               impatient and bad-
4381   testy         irritable                tempered                        short-tempered
       tether       tie (an animal) with a N: rope or chain to which
4382   rope or tether                      an animal is tied                  limit of one's endurance
                                               relating to a unifying motif
4383   thematic         of a theme            or idea
       theocracy         government run by
4384   religious leaders
4385   theoretical      based on theory       not practical or applied        hypothetical
4386   therapeutic       curative             N. therapy

4387   thermal          pertaining to heat    producing heat                  warm
       thesis        opinion put forward
       and supported by reasoned
4388   arguments

4389   thespian         pertaining to drama N: actor or actress
4390   thrall        slave                    bondage                         slavery
       thrash         beat with a whip or                                      talk about thoroughly in order
4391   flail                                  defeat utterly                  to find the answer
       threadbare        worn through till
4392   the threads show                       shabby and poor                 hackneyed
       threat        sign or warning (of
4393   coming danger)                         Ex. threat of rain              V: express a threat
       thresh        beat (cereal plants)
       with a machine or flail to separate
4394   the grains from the straw

4395   thrifty      careful about money      economical                     N. thrift
4396   thrive       prosper                  flourish

       throb         (of a heart or        N. Ex. hearthrob:
4397   machine) beat rapidly or violently heartbeat                         sweetheart
4398   throes        violent anguish
       throng        crowd (of people or
4399   things)                               V.
                                              regulate the speed of with N: valve that regulates the
4400   throttle     strangle                 a throttle                  flow
4401   thwart        block or hinder         baffle                         frustrate
       tickle       touch (the body)
4402   lightly so as to cause laughter       please

4403   tightwad       miser                  excessively frugal person
       tiller      handle used to move
4404   boat's rudder (to steer)

       timbre        quality of a musical
       tone produced by a musical
       instrument (which distinguishes it
4405   from others of the same pitch)
       timidity      lack of self-
4406   confidence or courage
4407   timorous       fearful                timid                          demonstrating fear
       tinge        give a slight degree      N: slight degree of a color
4408   of a color or quality to              or quality                     Ex. tinged with grey/jealousy

4409   tint        slight degree of color    V: give a tint to
       tipple       drink (alcoholic
4410   beverages) frequently                 N: alcoholic drink
       tirade       long angry
4411   denunciatory speech                   diatribe                       harangue
4412   titanic      gigantic                 N. titan
       tithe        tax of one-tenth
4413   (contributed to a church)             V: pay a tithe
                                                                              Ex. not to titillate the audience
4414   titillate     tickle                    excite pleasantly             but to enlighten it
                                                                              formal appellation as of rank
       title        name (of a book, film,                                   or office (such as Lord or
4415   etc.)                                   mark of rank                  General)
4416   titter        nervous giggle            nervous laugh                 V.
4417   titular       of a title                in name only                  nominal
4418   toady          servile flatterer        yes man                       sycophant
4419   toga           Roman outer robe
                                                Ex. a token of our
4420   token          outward sign             gratitude
       toll         sound (a large bell)
4421   slowly at regular intervals             N: sound of a bell            fixed tax or charge
4422   tome            large volume            book

                 Word List - 47
       tonsure         shaving of the head
       especially by person entering
4423   religious orders                        V.
       topography         physical features
       of a region (such as the shape
4424   and height)                             CF. topo-: place
       topple         become unsteady
4425   and fall down
       torpedo         underwater
4426   explosive apparatus                     V.
4427   torpor         lethargy                 sluggishness                  dormancy
4428   torque          twisting force          force producing rotation
4429   torrent        rushing stream           flood                         Ex. The rain fell in torrents.
       torrid        (of weather) hot or
4430   scorching                               passionate                    Ex. torrid love affairs
       torso          trunk of statue with
4431   head and limbs missing                  human trunk
4432   tortuous        winding                 full of curves                Ex. tortuous mountain road
                                                move or lift (the head) with flip (a coin) to decide
4433   toss           throw lightly            a sudden motion               something
       totem           animal, plant, or
       natural object serving as a
4434   symbol of a clan or family              representation of this        Ex. totem pole
       totter        shake or move
4435   unsteadily                              sway as if about to fall
       touching         causing a feeling of                                  V. touch: cause to feel pity or
4436   pity or sympathy                        pathetic                      sympathy
       touchstone         stone used to test
4437   the fineness of gold alloys              criterion                    standard
4438   touchy          oversensitive            easily offended              irasible

       tout           promote or publicize       praise excessively (as a
4439   (one's goods or service)                 form of advertisement)       CF. advertise
4440   toxic          poisonous                 N. toxicity
       tract          propaganda
       pamphlet (esp. by a religious or
4441   political group)                         expanse of land              region of indefinite size
                                                                              (of something) easily changed
4442   tractable       docile                   easily managed               or molded

4443   traduce         expose to slander
       trajectory      path taken by a
4444   projectile                               Ex. trajectory of a bullet
       tramp           walk with a heavy
4445   step                                     travel on foot               N: vagrant
       trample         step heavily with
4446   the feet                                 crush under the feet
                                                                              detachment from one's
                                                                             physical surrounding (as in
                                                                             contemplation or
4447   trance          hypnotic state           ecstatic state               daydreaming)
4448   tranquillity    calmness                 peace
       transcendent        exceeding
4449   ordinary limits                          superior                     surpassing
                                                 impossible to understand
       transcendental going beyond              by practical experiences or known only by studying
4450   common thought or ideas                  practices                   thoughts or intuition
4451   transcribe        copy                   write a copy of              N. transcription
                                                                              V. transgress: go beyond (a
4452   transgression       violation of a law   sin                          limit)
       transient       staying for a short
4453   time                                     momentary                    temporary
       transition      going from one
4454   state of action to another
4455   transitory      transient                impermanent                  fleeting

4456   translucent        partly transparent

4457   transmute          transform             change                       convert to something different
       transparent        permitting light to
4458   pass through freely                      easily detected             obvious
       transpire        (of a fact) become
4459   known                                    be revealed                 happen

4460   transport         strong emotion         rapture                     Ex. in a transport/transports of
       transpose          reverse the order
4461   or position of
       trappings         outward                 ornaments (as an outward
4462   decorations                              sign of rank)
       traumatic         (of an experience)      pertaining to an injury
4463   deeply shocking                          caused by violence          N. trauma: serious wound
4464   travail       strenuous work             toil                        painful labor
       traverse         go through or
4465   across
       travesty         copy or example of
       something that completely
       misrepresents the true nature of          comical parody or           treatment aimed at making
4466   the real thing                           imitation                   something appear ridiculous
4467   tread         walk                       trample                     N: grooved face of a tire
4468   treasure          keep as precious       cherish
       treatise         article treating a
       subject systematically and
4469   thoroughly
                                                                             V: make a long difficult
4470   trek          travel                     journey                     journey
                                                 slight quiver (as of the
                                                earth or from nervous
4471   tremor           trembling               agitation)
4472   tremulous          trembling             wavering
4473   trenchant         cutting                incisive                    keen
4474   trepidation       fear                   nervous apprehension
4475   tribulation      suffering               ordeal                      distress
4476   tribunal         court of justice
       tribune          official of ancient
       Rome elected by the plebians to
4477   protect their rights                     protector of the people
                                                 payment made by one
                                                nation to another in
                                                acknowledgment of            mark of respect (such as
4478   tribute       tax levied by a ruler      submission                  praise or gift)
       trickle       flow in drops or in a
4479   thin stream                              N.
       trickster      person who cheats
4480   people

4481   trident        three-pronged spear
       trifle       something of little
4482   importance or value                      small amount                Ex. a trifle
4483   trifling      trivial                    unimportant
4484   trigger       set off                    start
       trilogy       group of three
       related works (connected by a
       shared subject but each
4485   complete in itself)
       trim          make neat or tidy by        reduce by removing what
4486   clipping                                 is unnecessary              ornament
4487   trinket        knickknack                bauble                      cheap jewelry
4488   trite         hackneyed                  commonplace
4489   trivia        trifles                    unimportant matters
       troth         pledge of good faith
4490   especially in betrothal                  betrothal                   Ex. by my troth
       trough          long narrow
       container for feeding farm                lowest point (of a wave,    long narrow depression as
4491   animals                                  business cycle, etc.)       between waves
4492   truculence        aggressiveness         ferocity                    ADJ. truculent: aggressive
4493   truism         self-evident truth
4494   truncate        cut the top off          shorten
       trunk          main wooden stem           human body excluding the
4495   of a tree                                head and limbs            torso
       tryst         meeting arranged by         arrangement between
4496   lovers                                   lovers to meet
       tumid          (of a part of the
4497   body) swollen                            distended                   bombastic
       tumult         commotion of a
4498   great crowd                              riot                        noise
       tundra          rolling treeless plain
       in Siberia and arctic North
4499   America
       turbid         (of a liquid) having
4500   the sediment disturbed                   muddy                       thick
       turbulence       state of violent      ADJ. turbulent: violently
4501   agitation                             agitated or disturbed
       tureen         deep dish for
4502   serving soup

4503   turgid         swollen                distended (as from liquid)
                                              great commotion and           Ex. throw the country into
4504   turmoil        extreme confusion      confusion                     turmoil
4505   turncoat        traitor
4506   turpitude       depravity             baseness                      Ex. moral turpitude
4507   tutelage        guardianship          training                      function of a tutor
                                              pertaining to a
4508   tutelary       protective             guardianship                  Ex. tutelary deities
       tycoon          wealthy and
4509   powerful businessperson               wealthy leader                magnate
       typhoon         tropical hurricane
4510   or cyclone
                                                                            ADJ. tyrannical: of a tyrant or
4511   tyranny         oppression            cruel government              tyranny
4512   tyro         beginner                 novice

4513   ubiquitous       being everywhere     omnipresent                   N. ubiquity
       ulcer        sore place appearing
       on the skin inside or outside the
4514   body                                  Ex. stomach ulcer             ADJ. ulcerous

                Word List - 48
4515   ulterior       intentionally hidden   beyond what is evident        situated beyond
                                              not susceptible to further
4516   ultimate        final                 analysis                      fundamental
                                                                            last statement of conditions
4517   ultimatum        last demand          last warning                  that must be met
4518   umbrage           resentment          anger                         sense of injury or insult

4519   unaccountable       unexplicable      impossible to account for     unreasonable or mysterious
       unanimity        complete
4520   agreement                             ADJ. unanimous

4521   unassailable      not open to attack impregnable                    not subject to question
4522   unassuaged         unsatisfied        not soothed
                                              Ex. the champion's
4523   unassuming         modest             unassuming manner
4524   unbridled      violent               uncontrolled                     Ex. unbridled rage/greed
4525   uncanny        strange               mysterious                       Ex. uncanny knack
       unceremonious      not done
4526   politely without due formalities

4527   unconscionable unscrupulous          not guided by conscience         excessive
                                             clumsy in speech or
4528   uncouth        boorish               behavior                         outlandish
       unction       the act of anointing
4529   with oil                             Ex. extreme unction
4530   unctuous       oily                  bland                            insincerely suave
       underhand(underhanded) done
       slyly and secretly (being
4531   dishonest)
4532   underlying     lying below           fundamental

4533   undermine       weaken gradually sap                                  dig a mine beneath
4534   underscore      underline            emphasize
       understate      state with less
       truth than seems warranted by         Ex. He understated the
4535   the facts                            seriousness of the crime         N. understatement
                                             one whose business is to
4536   undertaker      funeral director     arrange burials
       undulating     moving with a
4537   wavelike motion                      V. undulate                      CF. und: wave
                                             discover (facts) by careful Ex. He unearthed some
4538   unearth       dig up                 searching                    secrets about her
4539   unearthly      not earthly           supernatural                     weird
4540   unequivocal     plain                clear                            obvious
                                            ADJ. unerring: making no
4541   unerringly     infallibly            mistakes
       unexceptionable entirely              not offering any basis for
4542   acceptable                           criticism
4543   unfaltering    steadfast             firm                             not changing
4544   unfeigned      genuine               real
4545   unfetter      liberate               free from chains                 V. unfetter
                                            not having the feathers
4546   unfledged      immature              necessary to fly                 CF. fledgling
                                             strip a priest or minister of
4547   unfrock       defrock                church authority
       ungainly      (of someone)
4548   awkward in movement                  clumsy                           (of something) unwieldy
4549   unguent          ointment
                                                                               ADJ. uniform: the same all
4550   uniformity       sameness               monotony                       over
                                                involving or affecting only
4551   unilateral      one-sided               one side                       Ex. unilateral declaration
       unimpeachable       that cannot be
4552   impeached                               beyond doubt or question       blameless and exemplary
                                                free in behavior and
4553   uninhibited      unrepressed            feelings
4554   unintimating      unfrightening
4555   unique          without an equal        single in kind
       unison          unity of pitch (in
4556   musical performance)                    complete accord                Ex. The choir sang in unison.
       universal       characterizing or
4557   affecting all                           general                        present everywhere

4558   unkempt          disheveled             uncared for in appearance not combed
       unmitigated       (of something
4559   bad) not moderated                      unrelieved or immoderate       without qualification
4560   unobtrusive       inconspicuous         not blatant
       unprecedented       having no
4561   previous example                        novel                          unparalleled
4562   unprepossessing unattractive
4563   unravel         disentangle             solve
       unregenerate       making no
       attempt to change one's bad
4564   practices
4565   unrequited       not requited           not reciprocated               Ex. unrequited love
4566   unruly          disobedient             lawless                        difficult to control
4567   unsavory         distasteful            disagreeable                   morally offensive
                                                Ex. escape the accident
4568   unscathed         unharmed              unscathed
4569   unseemly          unbecoming            not proper in behavior         indecent
4570   unsightly       ugly                    unpleasant to look at
4571   unsullied       untarnished             CF. sully

       untenable        (of a position, esp.
4572   in an argument) indefensible            not able to be maintained
       untoward         unexpected and
4573   adverse                                 unfortunate or unlucky         Ex. untoward encounter
4574   unwarranted        unjustified          having no justification        groundless
       unwieldy        awkward (to carry
4575   or move)                               cumbersome               unmanageable
4576   unwitting      not knowing             unaware                  unintentional
                                                                        Ex. He arrived with unwonted
4577   unwonted          unaccustomed         unusual                  punctuality.
4578   upbraid        reprimand               severely scold
       upright       (sitting or standing)
4579   straight up                            honest                   moral
4580   uproar         noisy confusion
       uproarious        marked by             very noisy (esp. with
4581   commotion or uproar                    laughter)                hilarious
4582   upshot         outcome                 final result
4583   urbane         suave                   refined in manner        elegant
       urchin        mischievous child                                  CF. porcupine: pig with spikes
4584   (usually a boy)                        CF. urchin: hedgehog     ?
       urge          drive or force
4585   forward (by causing impulses)          drive to take action     impel
       urgent        compelling
4586   immediate action                       pressing                 persistent
4587   ursine        bearlike                 pertaining to a bear
       usage          act or manner of                                  way in which words are
4588   using                                  accepted practice        actually used
       usurp         seize another's
       power or rank (without legal
4589   authority)                             supplant                 appropriate
       usury         lending money at
4590   illegal high rates of interest
       utopia        ideal place, state, or
4591   society                                ADJ. utopian
       uxorious       excessively
       submissive or devoted to one's
4592   wife                                   CF. uxor: wife
4593   vacillate     waver (in opinion)       fluctuate                sway to and fro
4594   vacuous           empty                lacking in ideas         inane
       vagabond          wanderer (without
4595   a permanent home)                      tramp
       vagary         capricious
4596   happening                              caprice                  whim

4597   vagrant        homeless wanderer
4598   vain           full of self-admiration conceited                     without result
4599   vainglorious      boastful              excessively conceited        N. vainglory: great vanity

4600   valediction      saying farewell        expression of leave-taking
       valedictory      pertaining to           N: farewell address (esp.
4601   farewell                                at graduation exercises)

4602   valid          logically convincing     sound                        legally acceptable
4603   validate        make valid              confirm                      ratify
                                                ADJ. valiant: possessing
4604   valor          bravery                  valor                        brave

       vampire          ghostly being that
4605   sucks the blood of the living
                                                foremost position of an
4606   vanguard          forerunners           army                         advance forces
       vantage          position giving an
       advantage (such as a strategic
4607   point)                                  CF. vantagepoint
4608   vapid          lacking liveliness       dull and unimaginative       insipid and flavorless
       vaporize         turn into vapor
4609   (steam, gas, fog, etc.)
       variegate        change the
       appearance of (by marking with
4610   different colors)
       variegated       (esp. of a flower or
4611   leaf) many-colored

       varnish       paint used to coat a glossy coating produced
4612   surface with a glossy film         by using this substance           Ex. nail varnish
       vassal          in feudalism, one
4613   who held land of a superior lord        subordinate or dependent
4614   vaunted          boasted                bragged                      highly publicized

4615   veer           change in direction      swerve
       vegetate         live in a
       monotonous way (without                  CF. vegetation: plants of
4616   interests or activity)                  an area                      CF. vegetarian
4617   vehement          forceful              intensely emotional          with marked vigor

                Word List - 49
4618   velocity        speed
       venal         capable of being
4619   bribed                               corrupt                      CF. vernal
       vendetta       blood feud (esp.
4620   between two families)                CF. Nina Williams
4621   vendor        seller

       veneer        thin surface layer
       (of good quality wood, glued to a
4622   base of inferior material)           cover                        surface show
       venerable        deserving high                                    CF. command: deserve and
4623   respect                              commanding respect           get
4624   venerate         revere              treat with great respect
       venial       (of a fault or sin)
4625   forgivable                           trivial
4626   venison        meat of a deer        CF. cow: beef                CF. pig: pork, ham, bacon
       venom          poison (of an
4627   animal)                              hatred                       Ex. remarks full of venom
       vent         release or discharge
4628   through a vent                       express (esp. unfairly)      utter
       ventilate     admit fresh air into
4629   to replace stale air
4630   ventral      abdominal
       ventriloquist someone who can
       make his or her voice seem to
       come from another person or
       thing (without moving lips or         N. ventriloquism,
4631   jaws)                                ventriloquy
4632   venture       risk                   expose to risk               dare
       venturesome        (of a person)
4633   bold                                 adventurous                  daring
                                             place (of a crime, trial,
4634   venue         location               gathering, etc.)             CF. come
       veracious        (of a person)
4635   truthful
4636   veracity      truthfulness           adherence to the truth
4637   verbalize      put into words        ADJ. verbal: of words        spoken rather than written
                                                                          repeating the actual words
4638   verbatim       word for word         in the same words            exactly
       verbiage       pompous array of      too many unnecessary
4639   words                                words                        wordiness
4640   verbose        wordy                 N. verbosity
                                                covered with green plants
4641   verdant          green                  or grass                      lush in vegetation
       verdigris        green coating or
       patina on copper which has been
4642   exposed to the weather
                                                                              Ex. on the verge of: very near
4643   verge           border                  edge, rim, or margin          to
       verisimilar      having the              probable or likely to be
4644   appearance of truth or reality          true                          plausible
       verisimilitude appearance of             quality of appearing to be
4645   truth                                   true or real                  likelihood
4646   veritable        being truly so         real or genuine               actual

4647   verity          quality of being true   lasting truth or principle    Ex. the verity of his testimony
       vernacular        living language
       (as compared to the official             language spoken in a
4648   language)                               country or region             natural style

4649   vernal          pertaining to spring
                                          capable of working in    having many uses or
4650   versatile     having many talents many fields              functions
                                          N: group of animals
       vertebrate     having a backbone having a segmented spinal
4651   or spinal column                  column
4652   vertex          summit                  highest point                 PL. vertices
4653   vertigo         severe dizziness        giddiness
       verve           enthusiasm (as in
       artistic performance or
4654   composition)                            liveliness                    vigor
                                                                              Ex. vestiges of some ancient
4655   vestige          trace                  remains                       religion
       veto            vested power to                                        V: prevent or forbid by
4656   reject a bill                           exercise of this right        exercising the power of veto
4657   vex             annoy                   distress
       viable          capable of
4658   maintaining life                        feasible                      practical or workable
4659   viand           food                    CF. live
       vibrant         full of vigor or
4660   energy                                  vibrating
4661   vicar           parish priest           representative
       vicarious       experienced as if
       one were taking part in the             done by a deputy for other
4662   experience of another                   people                     acting as a substitute
       vicissitude     change (esp. from
4663   good to bad)                            change of fortune             CF. the last emperor of China
4664   victuals       food                     provisions                    V. victual: provide with food
4665   vie           contend                   compete
       vigil         keeping watch (during
4666   normal sleeping hours)                  Ex. all-night vigil
4667   vigilant       watchful                 on the alert                  watchfully awake
       vigilante      one who without
       authority assumes law
4668   enforcement powers
       vignette        small drawing
       placed at the beginning or end of
4669   a chapter                               picture                       short literary sketch
4670   vigor          active strength          energy                        enthusiasm
4671   vile          despicable                unpleasant                    disgusting
4672   vilify        slander                   speak evil of                 N. vilification
                                                free from blame or
                                               accusation (with
4673   vindicate       clear from blame        supporting proof)             exonerate
       vindictive      disposed to
4674   revenge                                 vengeful                      out for revenge
4675   vintner        wine merchant            winemaker                     seller of wine
4676   violate        break (a law)            defile                        desecrate
4677   viper          poisonous snake
                                                having masculine spirit or
4678   virile        manly                     strength                      full of strength
                                                existing in essence though
4679   virtual       in essence                not in actual form          for practical purposes
4680   virtue         goodness                 moral excellence              good quality
       virtuoso        highly skilled artist
4681   (esp. in music)                         Ex. piano virtuoso
       virulent       (of a disease or
       poison) extremely harmful or
4682   poisonous                               (of a feeling) hostile        bitter
       virus         disease
4683   communicator
4684   visage          face                    appearance
       visceral        felt in one's inner     N. viscera: internal body
4685   organs                                 organs                       CF. eviscerate
4686   viscid         adhesive                gluey
       viscous          (of a liquid) thick
4687   and sticky                             gluey                        viscid
                                               tool for holding work in
4688   vise           vice                    place                        clamping device
                                                                            mental image produced by the
4689   vision         eyesight                foresight                    imagination
       visionary        produced by
4690   imagination                            fanciful                     mystical
4691   vital         full of life             animated                     vibrant and lively
4692   vitiate        spoil the effect of     make inoperative             corrupt morally
                                               pertaining to or
4693   vitreous         of glass              resembling glass             V. vitrify: change into glass
       vitriolic      causing sharp pain to
4694   the mind                               caustic                      corrosive
4695   vituperative      abusive              scolding                     V. vituperate: berate

4696   vivacious        lively or animated    sprightl sprightly/lively
       vivid          (of light or color)      evoking lifelike mental
4697   bright and distinct                    images                       Ex. vivid red hair/description
       vivisection      act of dissecting
4698   living animals
4699   vixen          female fox              ill-tempered woman           CF. shrew
                                                                            V. vociferate: cry out loudly
4700   vociferous        clamorous            noisy                        (when complaining)
                                               Ex. Jeans became the
4701   vogue            popular fashion       vogue.

                 Word List - 50
                                               of a quickly changing
4702   volatile       changeable              nature (as of temper)        mercurial
       volition       act of using one's       act of making a conscious Ex. She selected this dress of
4703   will                                   choice                     her own volition.
       volley         simultaneous
4704   discharge of a number of shots         V.
4705   voluble         fluent                 talkative                    glib
       voluminous         having great
       volume (as of a garment or
4706   container)                             bulky                        large
                                               of or giving sensual
4707   voluptuous         sensual             pleasure                     indulging in sensual pleasures
       voodoo             religion practiced
4708   chiefly in Haiti
                                                eating large quantities of
4709   voracious          ravenous             food                          exceedingly eager
4710   vortex         whirlwind                whirlpool                     center of turbulence
       vouch          give a personal           Ex. I can vouch for his
4711   guarantee                               integrity                     N. voucher
       vouchsafe           grant                                              Ex. vouchsafe your fair return
4712   condescendingly                         guarantee                     on your investment
                                                person who derives
                                               sexual gratification from
                                               observing the sexual acts
4713   voyeur         Peeping Tom              of others
       vulgar         of the common
4714   people                                  deficient in refinement       not refined
       vulnerable         susceptible to
4715   wounds or attack                        N. vulnerability
4716   vulpine        like a fox               crafty

4717   vulture        carrion-eating birds
4718   vying         contending                CF. vie
       wade           walk through a
       substance, such as water, that
4719   impedes movement
       waffle        speak equivocally
4720   about an issue                          N.

       waft        move gently (in air or Ex. leaves wafting past
4721   in seas) by wind or waves          the window
       wag           shake repeatedly           Ex. The dog wagged its
4722   from side to side                       tail                          N: humorous person
       wage           begin and continue
4723   (a war)
4724   waggish            humorous             mischievous                   tricky
       waif         homeless child or
4725   animal                                  Ex. waifs and strays
                                                                              N. waiver: waiving a right or
4726   waive          give up temporarily      yield                         claim
       wake           trail of ship or other    path of something that has Ex. hunger followed in the
4727   object through water                    gone before                 wake of the war
4728   wallow         roll in mud              indulge in                    (of a ship) roll in a rough sea
       wan            having a pale or
4729   sickly color                          pallid
       wanderlust        strong longing to
4730   travel
       wane            decrease in size or                                Ex. The moon waxes and
4731   strength (after being full)           grow gradually to an end     wanes every month
       wangle          achieve by
4732   cleverness or trick                   wiggle out                   fake
4733   wanton          unrestrained          gratuitously cruel           willfully malicious
4734   warble          (of a bird) sing      babble                       N.
                                                                           incompetent person placed
       ward           administrative          division in a hospital or   under the protection of a
4735   division of a city                    prison                       guardian
4736   warp           twist out of shape     N.
                                              written order that serves
                                             as authorization (esp. a
4737   warrant         justification         judicial writ)               Ex. search/death warrant
4738   warranted        justified            authorized
4739   warranty         guarantee            assurance by seller
       warren          tunnels in which                                    crowded conditions in which
4740   rabbits live                          overcrowded living area      people live
4741   wary           very cautious          watchful
4742   wastrel         waster                profligate
       waver           move or swing back be uncertain or unsteady         Ex. wavering between
4743   and forth                          in decision or movement         accepting and refusing
       wax            increase gradually
4744   (as the moon)                         grow
4745   waylay          ambush                lie in wait for and attack
                                              accustom (the young of a
                                             mammal) to take
       wean            accustom a baby       nourishment other than by
4746   not to nurse                          suckling                     give up a cherished activity

4747   weary           tired after long work V.
       weather          pass safely
       through (a storm or difficult         endure the effects of
4748   period)                               weather or other forces
4749   weird          eerie                  strange                      unnatural
                                           well-mannered and
4750   well-bred       of good upbringing refined
       welt           raised mark from a
4751   beating or whipping
       welter          wallow (as in mud or                                   Ex. The victims weltered in
4752   high seas)                             lie soaked (as in blood)       their blood.
       wheedle           deceive,
4753   persuade, or obtain by flattery        cajole                         coax
       whelp           young animal (esp.
4754   of the dog or cat family)              young wolf, dog, tiger, etc.

4755   whet            sharpen                stimulate                      Ex. whet someone's appetite
       whiff          puff or gust (of air,
4756   scent, etc.)                           short-lasting smell            hint
       whim            sudden capricious
4757   idea                                   fancy
4758   whimsical         capricious           fanciful                       amusingly strange
                                              tendency to behave
4759   whimsy            whim                 amusingly strangely            Ex. story full of whimsy

       whine           complain (in a sad      make a high sad sound
4760   voice)                                 (as in pain or supplication)

                                               CF. neigh: make the
4761   whinny           neigh like a horse    sound which horses make
4762   whit           small amount            smallest speck                 Ex. not a whit of
                                              cut away thin bits (from
4763   whittle         pare                   wood)                          fashion in this way
       wholesome           conducive to
4764   mental or physical health              healthful
       whorl           ring of leaves
4765   around stem                            ring                           circular arrangement
                                              move from side to side
                                              with irregular twisting
4766   wiggle          wriggle                motions
4767   willful        wilful                  intentional                    headstrong
4768   willowy         flexible               pliant                         slender
4769   wilt           loose freshness         droop
4770   wily           crafty                  cunning                        artful
       wince           move back
4771   suddenly                               shrink back                    flinch
4772   windfall        fallen fruit           unexpected lucky event
                                               separate the chaff from
4773   winnow            sift                 grain by blowing               separate good parts from bad
       winsome            charming (in a
4774   childlike way)                         agreeable                      gracious
4775   wisp         small bunch (of hair) faint streak (of smoke)
4776   wispy        thin                    slight                     barely discernible

       wistful      sadly thoughtful
4777   (because of desires or memories) sadly pensive                  vaguely longing
                                                                       remote remote/distant in
4778   withdrawn       introverted          retiring                   manner
       wither       (of a plant) dry up
4779   from loss of moisture                lose freshness             shrivel
4780   withhold      refuse to give         hold back                  Ex. withholding tax

4781   withstand      stand up against      resist successfully
       witless      lacking intelligence
4782   or wit                               foolish                    idiotic
                                             wisecrack(clever joking
4783   witticism     witty saying           remark)
4784   wizardry      sorcery                magic
4785   wizened        shriveled             withered                   Ex. wizened apple/old lady
4786   woe          great sorrow            deep inconsolable grief    affliction
                                             (of something bad)
4787   woeful        sad                    deplorable                 deplorably bad
       wont         (the stated person's)
4788   habit or custom                      habitual procedure         ADJ. wonted: customary
       worldly      engrossed in
4789   matters of this earth                not spiritual              of the material world
4790   wrangle       quarrel noisily        obtain through arguing     herd cattle
4791   wrath        anger                   fury
                                             Ex. wreak one's
4792   wreak         inflict                vengeance on
4793   wrench        twist                  pull                       strain
       wrest        obtain by pulling
4794   violently                            pull away                  take by violence

4795   wretch        miserable person       bad or despicable person   ADJ. wretched: miserable
       wring        twist (to extract                                   wrench painfully (necks or
4796   liquid)                              extract by twisting        hands)
       wrinkle      small ridge on a
4797   smooth surface (face or cloth)       V.
       writ         written command
       issued by a court (telling
       someone to do or not to do
4798   something)
4799   writhe          twist in coils         contort in pain
       wrongheaded          stubbornly
4800   wrong
       wry          (esp. of an                with a humorous twist
4801   expression of the face) twisted        (expressing displeasure)
       xenophobia         fear or hatred of
4802   foreigners                             N. xenophobe
4803   yen          strong desire             longing                    urge
       yeoman            man or farmer
4804   owning small estate                    middle-class farmer
4805   yield        amount produced           crop                       income on investment
                                                                          N: crossbar used to joining
4806   yoke            join together          unite                      two draft animals
4807   yokel           rustic                 country bumpkin
4808   yore            time long past         Ex. in the days of yore
4809   zany            comic                  crazy                      N: clown
       zeal         eager enthusiasm (to
4810   a cause or ideal)                      ADJ. zealous
                                                                          person who shows excessive
4811   zealot          one who is zealous     fanatic                    zeal
       zenith          point directly
4812   overhead in the sky                    summit                     acme
4813   zephyr           gentle breeze         west wind
       zest         outer skin of an
       orange used for giving a special
4814   taste to food                          spice                      interest
Barron's Word List - Short     Barron's Words -
       Description               Short List.pdf

 Barron's Word List - Long     Barron's Words -
        Description              Long List.pdf

Additional Dictionary Words   Dictionary Words.pdf

                              Big Book Additional
Big Book Additional Words          Words.pdf

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