ATSI_TOBACCO_CONTROL_PROGRAMS_DATABASE

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ATSI_TOBACCO_CONTROL_PROGRAMS_DATABASE Powered By Docstoc
					                            Database of tobacco control activities targeting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations

This database has been developed by TNS Social Research for the Department of Health as a summary and reference tool of projects, programs and
research focused on Indigenous tobacco use. Past and present tobacco control strategies targeting ATSI populations have been researched through an
audit conducted by TNSSR, and collated into the following categories:


■   Advise from health professionals                                           ■   Interventions for regnant women
■   Changes to tobacco pricing                                                 ■   Media advertising
■   Conferences/ Summits                                                       ■   Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT)
■   Control of tobacco sales                                                   ■   Ongoing support
■   Counselling/ Support groups                                                ■   Quit telephone service
■   Creativity and personal expression                                         ■   Role models
■   Education                                                                  ■   Sharing success stories
■   Event Sponsorship                                                          ■   Smoke free policy implementation
■   Health promotion materials                                                 ■   Training/education for health workers
■   Hospital-based interventions



What information is available in this database                                                    How to search for
Where available, the following information has been provided for each program, project or         information
study included in the audit:                                                                      Users can search for
                                                                                                  information by:
                                                                                                  _________________________
           Category                    Program/Project Title       Description of Program
                                                                                                  1. Using the Excel search




                                                                                                                                   ►
         Format/Type                     Agency (manager)             Strategies Used             function:

                                                                                                  Edit > Find > Enter word >
        Title of Material                     Contact/s           Description of Strategies
                                                                                                  Search

        Date of Material              Program/Study Location          Target Audience             2. Using the filter tab within
                                                                                                  each column:
       Producer/Author                     Date of Delivery             Key Findings
                                                                                                  To search, click on inverted
                                                                                                  triangle next to column title,
    Description of Material              Funding Information      Recommendations & Best
                                                                    Practice Suggestions
                                                                                                  select filter variable.

      Source of Material               Objectives of Program                                      To return to complete
                                                                                                  database, select ‘All’ for all
                                                                                                  column filters.
                                                                                                                                                                                     Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database                       Reason for
                                                       Date of    Producer/                                                                                                                                                        Program/Stu      Date of          Date of
 Category Format/type         Title of Material                                        Description of Material           Source of Material Program/Project Title Agency (manager)                         Contact/s                                                             program     Funding Information Objectives of Program                                           Description of Program
                                                       Material    author                                                                                                                                                          dy Location      Delivery       completion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                cessation
Webpage       Project        Beyond the Big                2008 The Kimberley     Provides a brief overview of the       http://www.kamsc.org. Beyond the Big Smoke      The Kimberley             Mena Lewis, KAMSC Project       Western                 2008                              Healthway and the         To implement a range of          This project was a partnership between KAMSC and the Aboriginal Health
              Overview       Smoke                              Aboriginal        'Beyond the Big Smoke' Project         au/big_smoke.html                               Aboriginal Medical        Officer                         Australia                                                 Australian Respiratory    strategies designed to have a    Council of Western Australia (AHCWA), and involves a number of strategies
                                                                Medical                                                                                                  Services Council Inc      Email: menal@kamsc.org.au       (Kimberley)                                               Council                   positive impact on smoking       and activities.
                                                                Services                                                                                                                           Christine Ivan Aboriginal                                                                                           behaviours amongst staff and
                                                                Council Inc                                                                                                                        Health Council of WA                                                                                                clients of Aboriginal
                                                                                                                                                                                                   PH: (08) 9227 1631                                                                                                  Community Controlled Health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Services.
Webpage       Project        Beyond the Big                2008 The Kimberley     Provides a brief overview of the       http://www.kamsc.org. Beyond the Big Smoke      The Kimberley             Mena Lewis, KAMSC Project       Western                 2008                              Healthway and the         To implement a range of          This project was a partnership between KAMSC and the Aboriginal Health
              Overview       Smoke                              Aboriginal        'Beyond the Big Smoke' Project         au/big_smoke.html                               Aboriginal Medical        Officer                         Australia                                                 Australian Respiratory    strategies designed to have a    Council of Western Australia (AHCWA), and involves a number of strategies
                                                                Medical                                                                                                  Services Council Inc      Email: menal@kamsc.org.au       (Kimberley)                                               Council                   positive impact on smoking       and activities.
                                                                Services                                                                                                                           Christine Ivan Aboriginal                                                                                           behaviours amongst staff and
                                                                Council Inc                                                                                                                        Health Council of WA                                                                                                clients of Aboriginal
                                                                                                                                                                                                   PH: (08) 9227 1631                                                                                                  Community Controlled Health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Services.
unpublished   Project        Beyond the Big                2008 NA                Provides a brief overview of the       Unpublished source       Beyond the Big Smoke   The Kimberley             Mena Lewis, KAMSC Project       Western                 2008                              Healthway and the         To implement a range of          This project was a partnership between KAMSC and the Aboriginal Health
source        Overview       Smoke                                                'Beyond the Big Smoke' Project                                                         Aboriginal Medical        Officer                         Australia                                                 Australian Respiratory    strategies designed to have a    Council of Western Australia (AHCWA), and involves a number of strategies
                                                                                                                                                                         Services Council Inc      Email: menal@kamsc.org.au       (Kimberley)                                               Council                   positive impact on smoking       and activities.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       behaviours amongst staff and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       clients of Aboriginal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Community Controlled Health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Services.
Webpage       Project        Beyond the Big                2008 The Kimberley     Provides a brief overview of the       http://www.kamsc.org. Beyond the Big Smoke      The Kimberley             Mena Lewis, KAMSC Project       Western                 2008                              Healthway and the         To implement a range of          This project was a partnership between KAMSC and the Aboriginal Health
              Overview       Smoke                              Aboriginal        'Beyond the Big Smoke' Project         au/big_smoke.html                               Aboriginal Medical        Officer                         Australia                                                 Australian Respiratory    strategies designed to have a    Council of Western Australia (AHCWA), and involves a number of strategies
                                                                Medical                                                                                                  Services Council Inc      Email: menal@kamsc.org.au       (Kimberley)                                               Council                   positive impact on smoking       and activities.
                                                                Services                                                                                                                           Christine Ivan Aboriginal                                                                                           behaviours amongst staff and
                                                                Council Inc                                                                                                                        Health Council of WA                                                                                                clients of Aboriginal
                                                                                                                                                                                                   PH: (08) 9227 1631                                                                                                  Community Controlled Health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Services.

unpublished   Project        Beyond the Big                2008 NA                Provides a brief overview of the       Unpublished source       Beyond the Big Smoke   The Kimberley             Mena Lewis, KAMSC Project       Western                 2008                              Healthway and the         To implement a range of          This project was a partnership between KAMSC and the Aboriginal Health
source        Overview       Smoke                                                'Beyond the Big Smoke' Project                                                         Aboriginal Medical        Officer                         Australia                                                 Australian Respiratory    strategies designed to have a    Council of Western Australia (AHCWA), and involves a number of strategies
                                                                                                                                                                         Services Council Inc      Email: menal@kamsc.org.au       (Kimberley)                                               Council                   positive impact on smoking       and activities.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       behaviours amongst staff and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       clients of Aboriginal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Community Controlled Health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Services.
Unpublished Project          Beyond the Big                2008 NA                Provides a brief overview of the       interview                Beyond the Big Smoke   The Kimberley             Mena Lewis, KAMSC Project       Western            2006-2008                              Healthway and the         To promote smoke-free            This project was a partnership between KAMSC and the Aboriginal Health
report      Overview         Smoke                                                'Beyond the Big Smoke' Project                                                         Aboriginal Medical        Officer                         Australia                                                 Australian Respiratory    policies throughout ACCHS's      Council of Western Australia (AHCWA), and involves a number of strategies
                                                                                                                                                                         Services Council Inc /    Email: menal@kamsc.org.au       (Kimberley                                                Council                   and ensure support for those     and activities.
                                                                                                                                                                         Aboriginal Health         Christine Ivan Aboriginal       and Perth)                                                                          wishing to stop smoking
                                                                                                                                                                         Council of WA             Health Council of WA
                                                                                                                                                                                                   PH: (08) 9227 1631
Literature    Study          Bibbulung Gnarneep            2008 Eades, Read,      Provides an analysis of Aboriginal     Journal of Paediatrics   Bibbulung Gnarneep                               Professor Sandra Eades;         Western            Mid 1990's                                                       To explore the links between a   The Bibbulung Gnarneep study examines Aboriginal mothers, who had given
                             ('solid kid'): Causal              Stanley, Eades,   women and their babies, in order to    and Child Health (Vol    Study                                            The Sax Institute, NSW          Australia                                                                           range of exposure variables      birth in the mid to late 1990s, and their infants. A range of medical,
                             pathways to poor birth             McCaullay &       provide a greater understanding of the 44)                                                                       Email:                          (Perth- Metro)                                                                      and poor birth outcomes,         demographic, social, economic, behavioural and family information was
                             outcomes in an urban               Williamson        factors which influence the health of                                                                            sandra.eades@saxinstitute.org                                                                                       specifically low birth weight    collected when each child was between 6–12 weeks old, and each infants'
                             Aboriginal birth cohort                              Aboriginal infants.                                                                                              .au                                                                                                                 and/or preterm birth, in         birth weight and gestational age data was recorded. Measurement of alcohol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       an Indigenous population.        intake during pregnancy was assessed, as was maternal smoking behaviour.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Moreover, the women were asked to record any health problems they
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        experienced during pregnancy. The characteristics of the mothers and infants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        enrolled in this study were then compared with the total number of Aboriginal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        mothers who lived in the selected urban geographic region and gave birth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        during the recruitment period for the study.

Literature    Paper          Butting out at AMSWS          2008 Digiacomo,        Provides a description of the Butt   Australian Nursing         Butt Busters           The Aboriginal Medical Aboriginal Medical Service NSW (North                 2005-2008                                                        To offer an accessible,          This program's development involved significant community consultation, and
              (discussion)                                      Davidson,         Busters program in North Sydney, and Journal (Vol 15)                                  Service of Western     Western Sydney, NSW - Dr. Sydney)                                                                                      community controlled and         provides a number of strategies, delivered by Aboriginal Health Workers
                                                                Davidson,         recommendations from the program.                                                      Sydney (AMSWS)         Penny Abbott or Louise                                                                                                 culturally appropriate           (AHWs)., using a whole-of-person approach to smoking cessation.
                                                                Moore & Abbott                                                                                                                  Moore                                                                                                                  environment for smoking
                                                                                                                                                                                                PH: (02) 9832 1356                                                                                                     cessation intervention.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Michelle Di Giacomo
                                                                                                                                                                                                M.Digiacomo@curtin.edu.au



Literature    Paper          Butting out at AMSWS          2008 Digiacomo,        Provides a description of the Butt   Australian Nursing         Butt Busters           The Aboriginal Medical Aboriginal Medical Service NSW (North                 2005-2008                                                        To offer an accessible,          This program's development involved significant community consultation, and
              (discussion)                                      Davidson,         Busters program in North Sydney, and Journal (Vol 15)                                  Service of Western     Western Sydney, NSW - Dr. Sydney)                                                                                      community controlled and         provides a number of strategies, delivered by Aboriginal Health Workers
                                                                Davidson,         recommendations from the program.                                                      Sydney (AMSWS)         Penny Abbott or Louise                                                                                                 culturally appropriate           (AHWs)., using a whole-of-person approach to smoking cessation.
                                                                Moore & Abbott                                                                                                                  Moore                                                                                                                  environment for smoking
                                                                                                                                                                                                PH: (02) 9832 1356                                                                                                     cessation intervention.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Michelle Di Giacomo
                                                                                                                                                                                                M.Digiacomo@curtin.edu.au



Webpage       Project        Environmental                 2008 The Centre for    Provides an overview of a project on http://www.ceitc.org.au Environmental Tobacco     SSWAHS Health           Sharon Minniecon; SSWAHS          NSW (Central                                              NSW Aboriginal Health     To raise awareness about         The project involved the development of a range of culturally appropriate
              Overview       Tobacco Smoke                      Excellence in     Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) /node/241                  Smoke (ETS) and Harm of   Promotion Service;                                        Sydney)                                                   Branch                    ETS and promote a smoke-         resources.
                             (ETS) and Harm of                  Indigenous        and Harm of Tobacco Smoke while                              Tobacco Smoke while       Aboriginal Metropolitan                                                                                                                       free households and cars
                             Tobacco Smoke while                Tobacco Control   Breast Feeding                                               Breast Feeding            Council; Australian                                                                                                                           amongst parents and child
                             Breast Feeding                     (CEITC)                                                                                                  Indigenous Doctors'                                                                                                                           carers. It also aims to
                             Education for                                                                                                                               Association; Aboriginal                                                                                                                       encourage women to cease
                             Aboriginal and Torres                                                                                                                       Medical Services                                                                                                                              smoking while breastfeeding.
                             Strait Islanders                                                                                                                            Redfern
Webpage       Project        Environmental                 2008 The Centre for    Provides an overview of a project on http://www.ceitc.org.au Environmental Tobacco     SSWAHS Health           Sharon Minniecon; SSWAHS          NSW (Central                                              NSW Aboriginal Health     To raise awareness about         The project involved the development of a range of culturally appropriate
              Overview       Tobacco Smoke                      Excellence in     Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) /node/241                  Smoke (ETS) and Harm of   Promotion Service;                                        Sydney)                                                   Branch                    ETS and promote a smoke-         resources.
                             (ETS) and Harm of                  Indigenous        and Harm of Tobacco Smoke while                              Tobacco Smoke while       Aboriginal Metropolitan                                                                                                                       free households and cars
                             Tobacco Smoke while                Tobacco Control   Breast Feeding                                               Breast Feeding            Council; Australian                                                                                                                           amongst parents and child
                             Breast Feeding                     (CEITC)                                                                                                  Indigenous Doctors'                                                                                                                           carers. It also aims to
                             Education for                                                                                                                               Association; Aboriginal                                                                                                                       encourage women to cease
                             Aboriginal and Torres                                                                                                                       Medical Services                                                                                                                              smoking while breastfeeding.
                             Strait Islanders                                                                                                                            Redfern
Literature    Report         Galnya Angin (Good            2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au Environmental Tobacco        National Heart                                            NSW                2003-2005                              NSW Environmental         To develop, implement and       The project involved the development of a training manual which covered the
                             Air): Partnerships in                             being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_ Smoke: Aboriginal Health       Foundation Australian                                                                                               Tobacco Smoke             evaluate a culturally           relationship environmental tobacco smoke shares with a number of other
                             Indigenous tobacco                                to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf              Worker Training              (NSW Division); Biripi                                                                                              Taskforce                 appropriate Environmental       health problems.
                             control                                           Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                     Aboriginal Medical                                                                                                                            Tobacco Smoke Aboriginal
                                                                               communities.                                                                              Corporation; SIDS and                                                                                                                         Worker training manual and
                                                                                                                                                                         Kids NSW (Hunter                                                                                                                              skill development workshop
                                                                                                                                                                         region); The Cancer                                                                                                                           for use in the Mid-North Coast.
                                                                                                                                                                         Council NSW (Mid-
                                                                                                                                                                         North Coast region)

Literature    Report         Galnya Angin (Good            2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au Indigenous Smoking           Queensland Health                                         Queensland         2002-2006                              National Health and       To implement and assess the The program involved a number of strategies aimed at tobacco cessation.
                             Air): Partnerships in                             being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_ Project                        (Tropical Public Health                                   (Northern)                                                Medical Research          effectiveness of a multi-
                             Indigenous tobacco                                to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                           Unit Network, Cairns);                                                                                              Council; James Cook       intervention tobacco strategy
                             control                                           Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                     James Cook University                                                                                               University; and           in eight communities in
                                                                               communities.                                                                              (School of Public                                                                                                   Queensland Health         northern
                                                                                                                                                                         Health and Tropical                                                                                                                           Queensland.
                                                                                                                                                                         Medicine, Cairns)



Literature    Report         Galnya Angin (Good            2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au Indigenous Smoking           Queensland Health                                         Queensland         2002-2006                              Funding was provided by   To implement and assess the The program involved a number of strategies aimed at tobacco cessation.
                             Air): Partnerships in                             being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_ Project                        (Tropical Public Health                                   (Northern)                                                the National Health and   effectiveness of a multi-
                             Indigenous tobacco                                to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                           Unit Network, Cairns);                                                                                              Medical Research          intervention tobacco strategy
                             control                                           Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                     James Cook University                                                                                               Council; James Cook       in eight communities in
                                                                               communities.                                                                              (School of Public                                                                                                   University; and           northern
                                                                                                                                                                         Health and Tropical                                                                                                 Queensland Health         Queensland.
                                                                                                                                                                         Medicine, Cairns)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                             >> 2 <<
                                                                                                                                                                                                Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database
       Strategies Used                              Description of Strategies                             Target Audience                             Key Findings                                                  Recommendations & Best Practice Suggestions

Training/Education for health   This involved the provision of a tobacco control training program for Aboriginal health          No evaluation data was provided for this program.
workers                         Kimberley ACCHSs staff, which aimed to increase the use of brief      workers
                                interventions by staff. This includes the use of screening systems to
                                monitor individuals using the AMS and follow them up to help prevent
                                individuals developing tobacco related illnesses.


Counselling/Support groups      This involved the provision of a KAMSC support group. Furthermore,        Indigenous             No evaluation data was provided for this program.
                                a 'yarning about tobacco' competition was also run to increase            smokers
                                communication about tobacco use.




Counselling/Support groups      A support group was set up for staff in the KAMSC office in the           Aboriginal health      No evaluation data was provided for this program.
                                Kimberley to provide them with support. Emphasis on being non-            workers
                                judgemental and normalising behaviour. Encourage staff to take up
                                physical activity to help with stress and fear of gaining weight.




Health promotion materials      This involved health promotion materials being provided, as well as       Indigenous             No evaluation data was provided for this program.
                                'congratulations on Quitting Smoking' banners. In addition, materials     smokers
                                were developed specifically for school aged children (e.g., work
                                sheets, hats, drink bottles). They have a stall with various community
                                specific merchandise (e.g., badges in community language) that is
                                set up on carnival days/community events. Also have a newsletter
                                bulletin about the various activities of KAMSC in relation to tobacco
                                control
Nicotine replacement therapy    NRT is also available to staff of KAMSC and the AMSs clients              Indigenous             No evaluation data was provided for this program.
(NRT)                                                                                                     smokers




Smoke Free Policy               Making Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services smoke free Aboriginal                     In the process of evaluating how well the policy is put into
Implementation                  for staff and clients. In addition, staff are not allowed to smoke in their controlled health    place. Informal feedback of a possible gap between what
                                uniform at any time.                                                        services staff and   is stated in policy and what actually occurs.
                                                                                                            users


                                                                                                                                 Results revealed that maternal smoking during pregnancy        It is recommended that, until education improvements occur, health interventions that treat existing
                                                                                                                                 and maternal consumption of alcohol were risk factors for      health issues such as infections, high blood pressure and anaemia, and the introduction of
                                                                                                                                 a poor birth outcome. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke        interventions to reduce the harmful impact of tobacco and alcohol consumption in pregnancy, are
                                                                                                                                 during pregnancy also increased the risk of a poor birth       required.
                                                                                                                                 outcome. Moreover, being raised in a mission or
                                                                                                                                 institution, high blood pressure before the pregnancy, and
                                                                                                                                 vaginal bleeding during the pregnancy were also
                                                                                                                                 significantly related to a poor birth outcome.




Counselling/Support groups      This involved counselling being provided and support groups being         Indigenous             The program has screened 120 clients to date, several of It is recommended that smoking cessation interventions include a number of elements. Firstly, they
                                facilitated by AHWs.                                                      smokers                whom who have quit smoking and many who are making should take a 'whole person' approach, meaning they acknowledge the many personal factors that
                                                                                                                                 positive steps towards cessation.                        affect an individual's ability to quit smoking. Furthermore, it is recommended that the challenges
                                                                                                                                                                                          clients face when quitting are recognised and solutions are provided. Likewise, it is suggested that
                                                                                                                                                                                          AHWs work with clients to recognise their preferences in regard to the strategies used to cease
                                                                                                                                                                                          smoking, so as to help them cope with stress and promote self-efficacy. Clients should also feel
                                                                                                                                                                                          that there is a constant, reliable person/s that they can talk honestly to who will not judge them, and
                                                                                                                                                                                          instead offer support and compassion. Finally, it is important that small achievements are
                                                                                                                                                                                          recognised, even when they do not seem significant.

Nicotine replacement therapy    This involved Indigenous smokers using NRT to assist them in their        Indigenous             The program has screened 120 clients to date, several of It is recommended that smoking cessation interventions include a number of elements. Firstly, they
(NRT)                           attempts to quit.                                                         smokers                whom who have quit smoking and many who are making should take a 'whole person' approach, meaning they acknowledge the many personal factors that
                                                                                                                                 positive steps towards cessation.                        affect an individual's ability to quit smoking. Furthermore, it is recommended that the challenges
                                                                                                                                                                                          clients face when quitting are recognised and solutions are provided. Likewise, it is suggested that
                                                                                                                                                                                          AHWs work with clients to recognise their preferences in regard to the strategies used to cease
                                                                                                                                                                                          smoking, so as to help them cope with stress and promote self-efficacy. Clients should also feel
                                                                                                                                                                                          that there is a constant, reliable person/s that they can talk honestly to who will not judge them, and
                                                                                                                                                                                          instead offer support and compassion. Finally, it is important that small achievements are
                                                                                                                                                                                          recognised, even when they do not seem significant.

Health promotion materials      This involved the development of flipcharts addressing ETS and            Indigenous females No evaluation data was provided for this program.
                                breastfeeding, pamphlets, as well as baby t-shirts and nappy bags
                                featuring the messages "Born on Gadigal Land Eora Nation", "Don’t
                                Smoke near me", and "Breast is Best."




Training/Education for health   This involved training being provided to AHWs and community               Aboriginal health      No evaluation data was provided for this program.
workers                         workers in how to use the flipcharts provided by the program.             workers




Training/Education for health   This involved providing a manual that outlines the affect               Aboriginal health        No evaluation data was provided for this program.
workers                         environmental tobacco smoke has on asthma, respiratory function,        workers
                                otitis media, pregnancy, the heart, meningitis and meningococcal
                                disease, as well as childhood cancers. The manual aims to provide
                                the information necessary for health workers to identify possible child
                                illnesses related to environmental tobacco smoke, and also covers
                                how to talk to parents and families about the effects of tobacco
                                smoke.


Event sponsorship               This involved event organisations applying for a cash grant or health     Indigenous people      No evaluation data is yet available for the event
                                promotion merchandise, designed to raise awareness to the health          in general             sponsorship program. However, it is expected that the
                                risks associated with tobacco use.                                                               Indigenous Tobacco Project will lead to greater
                                                                                                                                 community awareness of tobacco risks, more individuals
                                                                                                                                 contemplating changing
                                                                                                                                 smoking behaviour with the assistance from health
                                                                                                                                 service staff, less recruitment of younger smokers, lower
                                                                                                                                 tobacco sales, more smoke-free environments, and
                                                                                                                                 greater compliance with tobacco laws in participating
                                                                                                                                 communities.
Counselling/Support groups      This strategy is referred to as Smoke Rings, and is a 5-week support      Indigenous             No evaluation data is yet available for the Smoke Rings
                                program that provides a supportive environment in which participants      smokers                program. However, it is expected that the Indigenous
                                can address their tobacco use and develop goals and strategies to                                Tobacco Project will lead to greater community
                                help them quit.                                                                                  awareness of tobacco risks, more individuals
                                                                                                                                 contemplating changing
                                                                                                                                 smoking behaviour with the assistance from health
                                                                                                                                 service staff, less recruitment of younger smokers, lower
                                                                                                                                 tobacco sales, more smoke-free environments, and
                                                                                                                                 greater compliance with tobacco laws in participating
                                                                                                                                 communities.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          >> 3 <<
                                                                                                                                                                                Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database                    Reason for
                                                     Date of     Producer/                                                                                                                                                   Program/Stu    Date of         Date of
 Category Format/type        Title of Material                                      Description of Material           Source of Material Program/Project Title Agency (manager)                        Contact/s                                                         program          Funding Information Objectives of Program                                             Description of Program
                                                     Material     author                                                                                                                                                     dy Location    Delivery      completion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        cessation
Literature   Report         Galnya Angin (Good           2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au Indigenous Smoking         Queensland Health                                       Queensland       2002-2006                                   National Health and          To implement and assess the The program involved a number of strategies aimed at tobacco cessation.
                            Air): Partnerships in                            being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_ Project                      (Tropical Public Health                                 (Northern)                                                   Medical Research             effectiveness of a multi-
                            Indigenous tobacco                               to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                         Unit Network, Cairns);                                                                                               Council; James Cook          intervention tobacco strategy
                            control                                          Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                   James Cook University                                                                                                University; and              in eight communities in
                                                                             communities.                                                                            (School of Public                                                                                                    Queensland Health            northern
                                                                                                                                                                     Health and Tropical                                                                                                                               Queensland.
                                                                                                                                                                     Medicine, Cairns)



Literature   Report         Galnya Angin (Good           2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au Indigenous Smoking         Queensland Health                                       Queensland       2002-2006                                   National Health and          To implement and assess the The program involved a number of strategies aimed at tobacco cessation.
                            Air): Partnerships in                            being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_ Project                      (Tropical Public Health                                 (Northern)                                                   Medical Research             effectiveness of a multi-
                            Indigenous tobacco                               to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                         Unit Network, Cairns);                                                                                               Council; James Cook          intervention tobacco strategy
                            control                                          Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                   James Cook University                                                                                                University; and              in eight communities in
                                                                             communities.                                                                            (School of Public                                                                                                    Queensland Health            northern Queensland.
                                                                                                                                                                     Health and Tropical
                                                                                                                                                                     Medicine, Cairns)




Literature   Evaluation     Evaluation of an             1998 Gray, Sputore & Provides an evaluation of an        Health Promotion          Karalundi Peer Support   Karalundi Aboriginal      Dennis Gray                   Western          1994-1996          1996 Firstly, funding    National Drug Strategy       To increase student self        The Karalundi Peer Support and Skills Training Program was developed to
                            Aboriginal health                 Walker          indigenous health promotion program Journal of Australia      and Skills Training      Education Centre          PH: (08) 9266 1624            Australia                                ceased and          Education Grant of           esteem and reduce drug use      increase self esteem and reduce drug use among Indigenous students via a
                            promotion program: A                              in Western Australia aimed at       (Vol 8)                   Program                  (KAEC) Management                                       (Karalundi-                              secondly, the       $15,300 from the             of students at Karalundi        number of strategies, all of which were provided in a supportive environment.
                            case study from                                   enhancing self-esteem and reducing                                                     Board                                                   remote)                                  program could       Commonwealth                 Education Centre.               The program aimed to improve communication between staff and students at
                            Karalundi                                         drug use among Aboriginal students.                                                                                                                                                     not be applied in   Department of Health                                         the centre, develop the communication and leadership skills of students,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      other               (HLGCS). Furthermore, a                                      discourage students from experimenting with drugs, help with the early
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      communities         Healthway Health Project                                     identification of personal and drug-related problems, and assist in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      without the         Grant of $2000 contributed                                   development of culturally appropriate health promotion materials.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      appropriate         to the cost of producing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      funding.            materials. Finally, a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          contribution of $32100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          came from the community,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          volunteers, and various
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          support agencies.




Literature   Evaluation     Evaluation of an             1998 Gray, Sputore & Provides an evaluation of an        Health Promotion          Karalundi Peer Support   Karalundi Aboriginal      Dennis Gray                   Western          1994-1996          1996 Firstly, funding    National Drug Strategy       To increase student self        The Karalundi Peer Support and Skills Training Program was developed to
                            Aboriginal health                 Walker          indigenous health promotion program Journal of Australia      and Skills Training      Education Centre          PH: (08) 9266 1624            Australia                                ceased and          Education Grant of           esteem and reduce drug use      increase self esteem and reduce drug use among Indigenous students via a
                            promotion program: A                              in Western Australia aimed at       (Vol 8)                   Program                  (KAEC) Management                                       (Karalundi-                              secondly, the       $15,300 from the             of students at Karalundi        number of strategies, all of which were provided in a supportive environment.
                            case study from                                   enhancing self-esteem and reducing                                                     Board                                                   remote)                                  program could       Commonwealth                 Education Centre.               The program aimed to improve communication between staff and students at
                            Karalundi                                         drug use among Aboriginal students.                                                                                                                                                     not be applied in   Department of Health                                         the centre, develop the communication and leadership skills of students,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      other               (HLGCS). Furthermore, a                                      discourage students from experimenting with drugs, help with the early
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      communities         Healthway Health Project                                     identification of personal and drug-related problems, and assist in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      without the         Grant of $2000 contributed                                   development of culturally appropriate health promotion materials.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      appropriate         to the cost of producing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      funding.            materials. Finally, a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          contribution of $32100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          came from the community,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          volunteers, and various
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          support agencies.




Literature   Evaluation     Evaluation of an             1998 Gray, Sputore & Provides an evaluation of an        Health Promotion          Karalundi Peer Support   Karalundi Aboriginal      Dennis Gray                   Western          1994-1996          1996 Firstly, funding    National Drug Strategy       To increase student self        The Karalundi Peer Support and Skills Training Program was developed to
                            Aboriginal health                 Walker          indigenous health promotion program Journal of Australia      and Skills Training      Education Centre          PH: (08) 9266 1624            Australia                                ceased and          Education Grant of           esteem and reduce drug use      increase self esteem and reduce drug use among Indigenous students via a
                            promotion program: A                              in Western Australia aimed at       (Vol 8)                   Program                  (KAEC) Management                                       (Karalundi-                              secondly, the       $15,300 from the             of students at Karalundi        number of strategies, all of which were provided in a supportive environment.
                            case study from                                   enhancing self-esteem and reducing                                                     Board                                                   remote)                                  program could       Commonwealth                 Education Centre.               The program aimed to improve communication between staff and students at
                            Karalundi                                         drug use among Aboriginal students.                                                                                                                                                     not be applied in   Department of Health                                         the centre, develop the communication and leadership skills of students,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      other               (HLGCS). Furthermore, a                                      discourage students from experimenting with drugs, help with the early
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      communities         Healthway Health Project                                     identification of personal and drug-related problems, and assist in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      without the         Grant of $2000 contributed                                   development of culturally appropriate health promotion materials.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      appropriate         to the cost of producing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      funding.            materials. Finally, a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          contribution of $32100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          came from the community,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          volunteers, and various
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          support agencies.

Literature   Paper          Koori Community              2004 Alford           Provides an explanation of a tobacco   Aboriginal and        Koori Community          Rumbalara Football        Jackie Bingham 03 5825 2333 Victoria           2003-2004                                   Victorian Department of      To create more culturally       The program obtained information about Indigenous community's smoking
             (discussion)   Smokescreen:                                       cessation program, and provides        Islander Health       Smokescreen              Netball Club (RFNC)       (the number for the Rumbulara (Shepparton)                                                 Human Services Koori         relevant methods and            habits and attitudes. Subsequently, an athlete consulting group was
                            Cigarette use and                                  recommendations based on its           Worker Journal (Vol                                                      co op)                                                                                     Tobacco Initiative           materials than those used in    contracted to provide five training sessions to enhance the leadership and
                            attitudes in the                                   success.                               28)                                                                                                                                                                                              mainstream QUIT programs to     facilitation skills of participants in order to enable them to educate their
                            Goulburn Valley                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            encourage RFNC members to       community about the negative effects of smoking. Participants were expected
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       avoid smoking.                  to then create an action plan of relevant activities most likely to promote non-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       smoking behaviour in the RFNC and in the broader Koori community.

Literature   Paper          Koori Community              2004 Alford           Provides an explanation of a tobacco   Aboriginal and        Koori Community          Rumbalara Football        Jackie Bingham 03 5825 2333 Victoria           2003-2004                                   Victorian Department of      To create more culturally       The program obtained information about Indigenous community's smoking
             (discussion)   Smokescreen:                                       cessation program, and provides        Islander Health       Smokescreen              Netball Club (RFNC)       (the number for the Rumbulara (Shepparton)                                                 Human Services Koori         relevant methods and            habits and attitudes. Subsequently, an athlete consulting group was
                            Cigarette use and                                  recommendations based on its           Worker Journal (Vol                                                      co op)                                                                                     Tobacco Initiative           materials than those used in    contracted to provide five training sessions to enhance the leadership and
                            attitudes in the                                   success.                               28)                                                                                                                                                                                              mainstream QUIT programs to     facilitation skills of participants in order to enable them to educate their
                            Goulburn Valley                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            encourage RFNC members to       community about the negative effects of smoking. Participants were expected
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       avoid smoking.                  to then create an action plan of relevant activities most likely to promote non-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       smoking behaviour in the RFNC and in the broader Koori community.

Literature   Paper          Koori Community              2004 Alford           Provides an explanation of a tobacco   Aboriginal and        Koori Community          Rumbalara Football        Jackie Bingham 03 5825 2333 Victoria           2003-2004                                   Victorian Department of      To create more culturally       The program obtained information about Indigenous community's smoking
             (discussion)   Smokescreen:                                       cessation program, and provides        Islander Health       Smokescreen              Netball Club (RFNC)       (the number for the Rumbulara (Shepparton)                                                 Human Services Koori         relevant methods and            habits and attitudes. Subsequently, an athlete consulting group was
                            Cigarette use and                                  recommendations based on its           Worker Journal (Vol                                                      co op)                                                                                     Tobacco Initiative           materials than those used in    contracted to provide five training sessions to enhance the leadership and
                            attitudes in the                                   success.                               28)                                                                                                                                                                                              mainstream QUIT programs to     facilitation skills of participants in order to enable them to educate their
                            Goulburn Valley                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            encourage RFNC members to       community about the negative effects of smoking. Participants were expected
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       avoid smoking.                  to then create an action plan of relevant activities most likely to promote non-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       smoking behaviour in the RFNC and in the broader Koori community.

Literature   Paper          Koori Community              2004 Alford           Provides an explanation of a tobacco   Aboriginal and        Koori Community          Rumbalara Football        Jackie Bingham 03 5825 2333 Victoria           2003-2004                                   Victorian Department of      To create more culturally       The program obtained information about Indigenous community's smoking
             (discussion)   Smokescreen:                                       cessation program, and provides        Islander Health       Smokescreen              Netball Club (RFNC)       (the number for the Rumbulara (Shepparton)                                                 Human Services Koori         relevant methods and            habits and attitudes. Subsequently, an athlete consulting group was
                            Cigarette use and                                  recommendations based on its           Worker Journal (Vol                                                      co op)                                                                                     Tobacco Initiative           materials than those used in    contracted to provide five training sessions to enhance the leadership and
                            attitudes in the                                   success.                               28)                                                                                                                                                                                              mainstream QUIT programs to     facilitation skills of participants in order to enable them to educate their
                            Goulburn Valley                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            encourage RFNC members to       community about the negative effects of smoking. Participants were expected
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       avoid smoking.                  to then create an action plan of relevant activities most likely to promote non-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       smoking behaviour in the RFNC and in the broader Koori community.

Literature   Report         Galnya Angin (Good           2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au Mary G' Radio              ACOSH; Mary G             Stephan Hall (08) 9212 4309   National                                                     The Diana Trust              To communicate the dangers      This program involved the use of a well-known Aboriginal entertainer to
                            Air): Partnerships in                            being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_ Advertisements               Enterprises                                                                                                                                       of smoking in pregnancy and     communicate messages regarding tobacco use during pregnancy via radio
                            Indigenous tobacco                               to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                                                                                                                                                                           around children to Aboriginal   advertisements.
                            control                                          Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                                                                                                                                                                     women .
                                                                             communities.

Literature   Report         Australia's National                Commonwealth Provides an overview and evaluation      http://www.quitnow.inf National Tobacco        National Tobacco                                        National         1997-1998                                                                To assist smokers aged          This intervention involved a mass-media anti-tobacco campaign.
                            Tobacco Campaign:                   of Australia of the National Tobacco Campaign.        o.au/internet/quitnow/p Campaign               Campaign,                                                                                                                                         18–40 to quit.
                            Evaluation Report (Vol                                                                    ublishing.nsf/Content/                         Commonwealth
                            1)                                                                                        D2D1DC8EA1C5CB8                                Department of Health
                                                                                                                      BCA257475001ADB96                              and Aged Care
                                                                                                                      /$File/tobccamp1.pdf



                                                                                                                                                                                                                         >> 4 <<
                                                                                                                                                                                                Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database
       Strategies Used                                 Description of Strategies                             Target Audience                          Key Findings                                                  Recommendations & Best Practice Suggestions

Education                          This strategy involved the use of a 'Smokin'- no way' multi-media         Indigenous youth    No evaluation data is yet available for the Smokin'-no way
                                   tobacco education program for children. This strategy involves a                              educational program. However, it is expected that the
                                   teacher's resource, which is complimented by a video featuring                                Indigenous Tobacco Project will lead to greater
                                   puppet characters who address the issues regarding smoking. A                                 community awareness of tobacco risks, more individuals
                                   computer software package is also provided that assists young                                 contemplating changing smoking behaviour with the
                                   people in developing community specific characters to address                                 assistance from health service staff, less recruitment of
                                   smoking issues.                                                                               younger smokers, lower tobacco sales, more smoke-free
                                                                                                                                 environments, and greater compliance with tobacco laws
                                                                                                                                 in participating communities.

Smoke Free Policy                  This strategy involved developing a 'Workplace smoke-free policy          Indigenous          No evaluation data is yet available for the workplace     It is suggested that this strategy be used in organisations to assist employees in developing an
Implementation                     guide' for organisations, to help them address smoking in the             smokers             smoke-free policy guide. However, it is expected that the enhanced awareness of the dangers of smoking, which can lead to quit attempts.
                                   workplace. The guide covers the provision of smoke-free areas,                                Indigenous Tobacco Project will lead to greater
                                   limiting smoke breaks, and providing support for staff wanting to quit.                       community awareness of tobacco risks, more individuals
                                                                                                                                 contemplating changing smoking behaviour with the
                                                                                                                                 assistance from health service staff, less recruitment of
                                                                                                                                 younger smokers, lower tobacco sales, more smoke-free
                                                                                                                                 environments, and greater compliance with tobacco laws
                                                                                                                                 in participating communities.

Education                          The program offered a number of sub-programs, many of which             Indigenous youth      As a result of the transient nature of the student             (*Recommendations based on Interview)The use of a holistic approach is necessary in this area
                                   aimed to educate students. The first of these sub-programs was a                              population, the small number of students involved in the       especially because of the 'poly-drug use' (i.e., smoking, alcohol and cannabis use). In addition,
                                   peer support and skills training program that aimed to develop                                program, and the way in which it was developed and             There needs to be continuous funding and an increase in capacity building by communities so
                                   students' interpersonal, problem solving and decision-making skills.                          provided, it was not possible to determine whether the         similar programs can become self sustainable.
                                   Furthermore, a 'Quit Now' education sub-program was offered which                             program had an effect on student drug consumption,
                                   educated students about fitness, the long-term effects of smoking,                            attitudes to drug use, self esteem, and feelings about
                                   and strategies to quit. Likewise, a drug education and solvent sniffing                       school. Nonetheless, some information regarding the
                                   awareness sub-program was included, which provided an overview of                             outcomes of the educational sub-programs were
                                   drugs and their effects, and the health and social consequences of                            reported. Specifically, it was found that students had an
                                   solvent sniffing. A sex education workshop aimed to promote safe sex                          increased awareness of health and substance use issues
                                   practices and the awareness of HIV/ AIDS. Moreover, a natural                                 demonstrated by their ability to produce plays, paintings
                                   medicine, alternative remedies and bush medicines workshop was                                and newsletter articles which contained strong health
                                   held to encourage the use of alternative remedies in place of                                 promotional messages. Furthermore, students appeared
                                   analgesics. Finally, an excursion to Milliya Rumurra Alcohol and Drug                         to have increased knowledge of health matters,
                                   Centre in Broome was offered in order to provide students with an                             demonstrated by them volunteering to help at the nursing
                                   insight into the long-term effects of alcohol use, and the services                           station and by an observed increase in hand-washing and
                                   available to Indigenous people with alcohol problems.                                         nose-blowing at school. Finally, the community nurse
                                                                                                                                 reported that the use of analgesics had reduced within the
                                                                                                                                 community, which was attributed to the natural medicine,
                                                                                                                                 bush medicine and natural remedies workshop provided
                                                                                                                                 by the program.

Creativity and personal            The program offered a number of sub-programs, many of which           Indigenous youth        As a result of the transient nature of the student             (*Recommendations based on Interview)The use of a holistic approach is necessary in this area
expression                         encouraged students to use their creativity to produce health                                 population, the small number of students involved in the       especially because of the 'poly-drug use' (i.e., smoking, alcohol and cannabis use). In addition,
                                   promotion materials. The first sub-program involved students creating                         program, and the way in which it was developed, it was         There needs to be continuous funding and an increase in capacity building by communities so
                                   health promotion plays and videos that promoted Aboriginal                                    not possible to determine whether the program had an           similar programs can become self sustainable.
                                   achievement and healthy lifestyles. Another sub-program involved                              effect on student drug consumption, attitudes to drug use,
                                   fabric painting, which was used to explore pathways to health and to                          self esteem, and feelings about school. Nonetheless,
                                   develop health promotion messages. Finally, a newsletter composed                             some information regarding the outcomes of the creative
                                   of articles written by students regarding alcohol and other drugs and                         sub-programs were reported. Specifically, it was found
                                   how their misuse had affected their lives, was published annually.                            that students' self confidence had enhanced as a result of
                                                                                                                                 the promotion of Aboriginal achievement in videos and
                                                                                                                                 plays, demonstrated by their active involvement activities
                                                                                                                                 and their confidence levels when performing in front of
                                                                                                                                 others. Furthermore, female students appeared to be
                                                                                                                                 more empowered after taking part in the program,
                                                                                                                                 demonstrated by their participation in decision-making
                                                                                                                                 processes and successfully undertaking activities. These
                                                                                                                                 positive outcomes were attributed to the program
                                                                                                                                 providing an outlet for student creativity.

Advise from health professionals The program offered a number of sub-programs, one of which                  Indigenous youth    As a result of the transient nature of the student             (*Recommendations based on Interview)The use of a holistic approach is necessary in this area
                                 involved trachoma, ear and nose care and aimed to reduce the high                               population, the small number of students involved in the       especially because of the 'poly-drug use' (i.e., smoking, alcohol and cannabis use). In addition,
                                 incidence of ear, eye and nose infections among the students.                                   program, and the way in which it was developed and             There needs to be continuous funding and an increase in capacity building by communities so
                                                                                                                                 provided, it was not possible to determine whether the         similar programs can become self sustainable.
                                                                                                                                 health related sub-program had an effect on student drug
                                                                                                                                 consumption, attitudes to drug use, self esteem, and
                                                                                                                                 feelings about school.




Education                          Training sessions were conducted by a Koori athlete who had            Indigenous             It was not evident from either the training evaluation or
                                   previously worked with RFNC. The training was not specifically         smokers                observation that the training sessions promoted the
                                   related to tobacco use, but instead aimed to promote leadership,                              increases in leadership and communication skills
                                   facilitation and communication skills that, subsequently , would equip                        necessary to cause the necessary changes in community
                                   participants to educate their community to ‘say no to smokes’.                                behaviour. The effectiveness of the training was limited by
                                                                                                                                 its generic, non-specific nature, and the relatively low
                                                                                                                                 participation in the program and high (50%) attrition rate.

Health promotion materials         This involved the design and distribution of a poster. Furthermore,    Indigenous youth       It was found that over half of the football players smoked     It is recommended that interventions approach health promotion by incorporating capacity building
                                   under-17 football players were provided with Quit related materials by                        cigarettes. Following the program by RFNC, at most, only       into programs, and target institutional and community behaviour, rather than individual behaviour
                                   the local community health service Quit program officer.                                      one or two may have ‘changed their habits’ as a result of      alone. In Indigenous communities such as the one in this study, smoking is often accompanied by
                                                                                                                                 the information provided. It was concluded that providing      other unhealthy habits such as poor diet and alcohol use, and is associated with stress,
                                                                                                                                 Quit-type information alone is unlikely to lead to a decline   unemployment and boredom. Just providing an anti-smoking program such as this not enough to
                                                                                                                                 in smoking in the community.                                   erode this culture. Short-term programs are of limited effectiveness. Instead, holistic community
                                                                                                                                                                                                development strategies need to be provided.

Education                          This involved providing an information session on smoking to the          Indigenous youth    It was found that over half of the football players smoked     It is recommended that interventions approach health promotion by incorporating capacity building
                                   Under 17 football team.                                                                       cigarettes. Following the program by RFNC, at most, only       into programs, and target institutional and community behaviour, rather than individual behaviour
                                                                                                                                 one or two may have ‘changed their habits’ as a result of      alone. In Indigenous communities such as the one in this study, smoking is often accompanied by
                                                                                                                                 the information provided. It was concluded that providing      other unhealthy habits such as poor diet and alcohol use, and is associated with stress,
                                                                                                                                 Quit-type information alone is unlikely to lead to a decline   unemployment and boredom. Just providing an anti-smoking program such as this not enough to
                                                                                                                                 in smoking in the community.                                   erode this culture. Short-term programs are of limited effectiveness. Instead, holistic community
                                                                                                                                                                                                development strategies need to be provided.

Event sponsorship                  This involved planning and sponsoring a Family Fun Day on the             Indigenous people   It was found that over half of the football players smoked     It is recommended that interventions approach health promotion by incorporating capacity building
                                   RFNC grounds. People who attended were provided with Quit-type            in general          cigarettes. Following the program by RFNC, at most, only       into programs, and target institutional and community behaviour, rather than individual behaviour
                                   materials.                                                                                    one or two may have ‘changed their habits’ as a result of      alone. In Indigenous communities such as the one in this study, smoking is often accompanied by
                                                                                                                                 the information provided. It was concluded that providing      other unhealthy habits such as poor diet and alcohol use, and is associated with stress,
                                                                                                                                 Quit-type information alone is unlikely to lead to a decline   unemployment and boredom. Just providing an anti-smoking program such as this not enough to
                                                                                                                                 in smoking in the community.                                   erode this culture. Short-term programs are of limited effectiveness. Instead, holistic community
                                                                                                                                                                                                development strategies need to be provided.

Media advertising                  This involved Indigenous entertainer ‘Mary G’ recording radio             Pregnant         No formal evaluation has taken place. However, positive           It was suggested that radio is a useful medium to use to communicate anti-tobacco messages as it
                                   information spots warning women of the dangers of smoking whilst          Indigenous women feedback about the radio ads has been received.                   has the ability to reach communities in a way that posters and other written materials can not.
                                   pregnant. The radio ads were distributed to 162 Indigenous radio
                                   stations across Australia and supporting information was sent to all
                                   Indigenous health services around Australia.

Media advertising                  This involved television advertisements featuring information and     All community           It was found that the National Tobacco Campaign had            It is recommended that the development of quit strategies for Indigenous smokers requires a         n
                                   graphic images being shown with the aim to elicit a visceral response members                 high levels of awareness and recall among Indigenous           community-focussed approach. This would involve the integration of various local community
                                   in viewers.                                                                                   communities. In particular, it was reported that the           networks in the promotion and delivery of quitting programs. Furthermore, the high importance
                                                                                                                                 television advertisements had affected knowledge of the        placed on extended family in Indigenous communities suggests that quit groups and local support
                                                                                                                                 health effects of smoking. However, the translation of this    networks for people trying to quit would be appropriate.
                                                                                                                                 awareness into quitting action or intention was limited dur
                                                                                                                                 to the high prevalence of smoking in indigenous
                                                                                                                                 communities and the relatively low priority placed on
                                                                                                                                 tobacco issues.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          >> 5 <<
                                                                                                                                                                                  Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database                   Reason for
                                                    Date of     Producer/                                                                                                                                                    Program/Stu      Date of         Date of
 Category Format/type        Title of Material                                      Description of Material           Source of Material Program/Project Title Agency (manager)                        Contact/s                                                          program     Funding Information Objectives of Program                                          Description of Program
                                                    Material     author                                                                                                                                                      dy Location      Delivery      completion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         cessation
Webpage      Project        Newborn Asthma and          2008 Institute of Child Provides an overview of the NAPS      http://www.ichr.uwa.ed Newborn Asthma and        Asthma Foundation of Cherise Hawkins; Asthma          Western            2005-2007           NA           NA Healthway                   To provide information and       This project was a part of the Say No to Smokes Project.
             Overview       Parental Smoking                 Health             project.                              u.au/kulunga/research/ Parental Smoking (NAPS)   WA                   Foundation of WA                 Australia                                                                          strategies to Aboriginal
                            (NAPS) project                   Research                                                 completed_research/n Project                                          PH: (08) 9289 3600                                                                                                  communities regarding
                                                                                                                      aps                                                                                                                                                                                       maternal smoking.




Literature   Report         Galnya Angin (Good          2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au No More Bundah                Winnunga Nimmityjah                                   ACT                2002-2005                             ACT Health (Healthpact)   To support Indigenous people This program ran over eight weeks and was developed by Winnunga. In this
                            Air): Partnerships in                           being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_                                 Aboriginal Health                                     (Winnunga                                                                          who are ready to cease       quit program, people learn different ways to make stopping smoking easier.
                            Indigenous tobacco                              to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                            Service; QUIT ACT                                     Nimmityjah)                                                                        smoking.
                            control                                         Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                      (Cancer Council ACT)
                                                                            communities.


Literature   Report         Galnya Angin (Good          2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au No More Bundah                Winnunga Nimmityjah                                   ACT                2002-2005                             ACT Health (Healthpact)   To support Indigenous people This program ran over eight weeks and was developed by Winnunga. In this
                            Air): Partnerships in                           being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_                                 Aboriginal Health                                     (Winnunga                                                                          who are ready to cease       quit program, people learn different ways to make stopping smoking easier.
                            Indigenous tobacco                              to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                            Service; QUIT ACT                                     Nimmityjah)                                                                        smoking.
                            control                                         Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                      (Cancer Council ACT)
                                                                            communities.


Literature   Evaluation     Evaluation of               2006 Adams,            Provides an evaluation of a smoking    Aboriginal and        No More Dhonga             Rumbalara Aboriginal    Rumbalara Aboriginal Co Op Victoria              2004-2006                                                       To assist people in giving up    This program consists of 5 short courses, four of which are delivered by a
                            Rumbalara's 'No More             Rumbiolo &        cessation program being used in a      Islander Health                                  Health Service          Ltd (Jackie Bingham)       (Mooroopna-                                                                           smoking.                         Community Health Nurse with the assistance of an Aboriginal Health Workers
                            Dhonga' short course             Charles           Koori health service in Victoria and   Worker Journal (Vol                                                      PH: (03) 5825 2333         rural)                                                                                                                 (AHW), while the other is delivered by an AHW. This course is based on 'a
                            in giving up smokes                                provides recommendations for future    30)                                                                                                                                                                                                                        short course with Quitline support' developed by Quit Victoria in 1989.
                                                                               interventions.


Literature   Evaluation     Evaluation of               2006 Adams,            Provides an evaluation of a smoking    Aboriginal and        No More Dhonga             Rumbalara Aboriginal    Rumbalara Aboriginal Co Op Victoria              2004-2006                                                       To assist people in giving up
                            Rumbalara's 'No More             Rumbiolo &        cessation program being used in a      Islander Health                                  Health Service          Ltd (Jackie Bingham)       (Mooroopna-                                                                           smoking.
                            Dhonga' short course             Charles           Koori health service in Victoria and   Worker Journal (Vol                                                      PH: (03) 5825 2333         rural)
                            in giving up smokes                                provides recommendations for future    30)
                                                                               interventions.


Literature   Evaluation     Evaluation of               2006 Adams,            Provides an evaluation of a smoking    Aboriginal and        No More Dhonga             Rumbalara Aboriginal    Rumbalara Aboriginal Co Op Victoria              2004-2006                                                       To assist people in giving up
                            Rumbalara's 'No More             Rumbiolo &        cessation program being used in a      Islander Health                                  Health Service          Ltd (Jackie Bingham)       (Mooroopna-                                                                           smoking.
                            Dhonga' short course             Charles           Koori health service in Victoria and   Worker Journal (Vol                                                      PH: (03) 5825 2333         rural)
                            in giving up smokes                                provides recommendations for future    30)
                                                                               interventions.




Literature   Evaluation     Evaluation of               2006 Adams,            Provides an evaluation of a smoking    Aboriginal and        No More Dhonga             Rumbalara Aboriginal    Rumbalara Aboriginal Co Op Victoria              2004-2006                                                       To assist people in giving up
                            Rumbalara's 'No More             Rumbiolo &        cessation program being used in a      Islander Health                                  Health Service          Ltd (Jackie Bingham)       (Mooroopna-                                                                           smoking.
                            Dhonga' short course             Charles           Koori health service in Victoria and   Worker Journal (Vol                                                      PH: (03) 5825 2333         rural)
                            in giving up smokes                                provides recommendations for future    30)
                                                                               interventions.




Literature   Evaluation     Evaluation of               2006 Adams,            Provides an evaluation of a smoking    Aboriginal and        No More Dhonga             Rumbalara Aboriginal    Rumbalara Aboriginal Co Op Victoria              2004-2006                                                       To assist people in giving up
                            Rumbalara's 'No More             Rumbiolo &        cessation program being used in a      Islander Health                                  Health Service          Ltd (Jackie Bingham)       (Mooroopna-                                                                           smoking.
                            Dhonga' short course             Charles           Koori health service in Victoria and   Worker Journal (Vol                                                      PH: (03) 5825 2333         rural)
                            in giving up smokes                                provides recommendations for future    30)
                                                                               interventions.


Literature   Evaluation     Evaluation of               2006 Adams,            Provides an evaluation of a smoking    Aboriginal and        No More Dhonga             Rumbalara Aboriginal    Rumbalara Aboriginal Co Op Victoria              2004-2006                                                       To assist people in giving up
                            Rumbalara's 'No More             Rumbiolo &        cessation program being used in a      Islander Health                                  Health Service          Ltd (Jackie Bingham)       (Mooroopna-                                                                           smoking.
                            Dhonga' short course             Charles           Koori health service in Victoria and   Worker Journal (Vol                                                      PH: (03) 5825 2333         rural)
                            in giving up smokes                                provides recommendations for future    30)
                                                                               interventions.


Literature   Report         Galnya Angin (Good          2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au Nunga Kids Don't Need         The Second Story;                                     South              2001-2003                             State Government          To improve the health and      This project involved a collaboration between various agencies and young
                            Air): Partnerships in                           being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_ Puiya                           Kumangka Aboriginal                                   Australia                                                Tobacco Control           knowledge of Aboriginal youth, people to develop an anti-tobacco video that focused on Indigenous young
                            Indigenous tobacco                              to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                            Youth Service;                                                                                                 Community Grants          their families and their       people and smoking issues.
                            control                                         Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                      AHCSA; South                                                                                                   Program and the South     communities in relation to
                                                                            communities.                                                                               Australian Film                                                                                                Australian Film           tobacco consumption.
                                                                                                                                                                       Corporation                                                                                                    Corporation
Literature   Report         Galnya Angin (Good          2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au Nunga Kids Don't Need         The Second Story;                                     South              2001-2003                             State Government          To improve the health and      This project involved a collaboration between various agencies and young
                            Air): Partnerships in                           being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_ Puiya                           Kumangka Aboriginal                                   Australia                                                Tobacco Control           knowledge of Aboriginal youth, people to develop an anti-tobacco video that focused on Indigenous young
                            Indigenous tobacco                              to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                            Youth Service;                                                                                                 Community Grants          their families and their       people and smoking issues.
                            control                                         Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                      AHCSA; South                                                                                                   Program and the South     communities in relation to
                                                                            communities.                                                                               Australian Film                                                                                                Australian Film           tobacco consumption.
                                                                                                                                                                       Corporation                                                                                                    Corporation
Literature   Report         Galnya Angin (Good          2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au Nunga Kids Don't Need         The Second Story;                                     South              2001-2003                             State Government          To improve the health and      This project involved a collaboration between various agencies and young
                            Air): Partnerships in                           being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_ Puiya                           Kumangka Aboriginal                                   Australia                                                Tobacco Control           knowledge of Aboriginal youth, people to develop an anti-tobacco video that focused on Indigenous young
                            Indigenous tobacco                              to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                            Youth Service;                                                                                                 Community Grants          their families and their       people and smoking issues.
                            control                                         Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                      AHCSA; South                                                                                                   Program and the South     communities in relation to
                                                                            communities.                                                                               Australian Film                                                                                                Australian Film           tobacco consumption.
                                                                                                                                                                       Corporation                                                                                                    Corporation
Literature   Report         Galnya Angin (Good          2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au Say No to Smokes              East Metropolitan      Jo Clarkson or Lisa Willesee   Western           2000- 2005                             Healthway                 To encourage Aboriginal          This program involved a number of strategies including the delivery and
                            Air): Partnerships in                           being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_                                 Population Health Unit PH: (08) 9476 7002             Australia                                                                          people to make quit attempts,    development of materials for health workers, a CD and booklet featuring
                            Indigenous tobacco                              to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                                                                                  (Perth- Metro)                                                                     by sharing successful quitting   success stories, and secondary school education.
                            control                                         Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                                                                                                                                                               stories of other Aboriginal
                                                                            communities.                                                                                                                                                                                                                        people.

Literature   Report         Galnya Angin (Good          2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au Say No to Smokes              East Metropolitan      Jo Clarkson or Lisa Willesee Western             2000- 2005                             Healthway                 To encourage Aboriginal          This program involved a number of strategies including the delivery and
                            Air): Partnerships in                           being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_                                 Population Health Unit PH: (08) 9476 7002           Australia                                                                            people to make quit attempts,    development of materials for health workers, a CD and booklet featuring
                            Indigenous tobacco                              to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                                                                                (Perth- Metro)                                                                       by sharing successful quitting   success stories, and secondary school education.
                            control                                         Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                                                                                                                                                               stories of other Aboriginal
                                                                            communities.                                                                                                                                                                                                                        people.


Literature   Report         Galnya Angin (Good          2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au Say No to Smokes              East Metropolitan      Jo Clarkson or Lisa Willesee Western             2000- 2005                             Healthway                 To encourage Aboriginal          This program involved a number of strategies including the delivery and
                            Air): Partnerships in                           being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_                                 Population Health Unit PH: (08) 9476 7002           Australia                                                                            people to make quit attempts,    development of materials for health workers, a CD and booklet featuring
                            Indigenous tobacco                              to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                                                                                (Perth- Metro)                                                                       by sharing successful quitting   success stories, and secondary school education.
                            control                                         Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                                                                                                                                                               stories of other Aboriginal
                                                                            communities.                                                                                                                                                                                                                        people.

Literature   Paper          Smoke Check:                2007                   Provides a brief description of the    Aboriginal and        Smoke Check                The Australian Centre   University of Sydney Media    NSW (Sydney)           2007                                                        To train Aboriginal Health       This program was developed by NSW Health in collaboration with the Cancer
             (discussion)   Indigenous smoking                                 Smoke Check program, and makes         Islander Health                                  for Health Promotion,   office                                                                                                           Workers (AHWs) and other         Institute NSW, and is a culturally specific smoking cessation program based
                            intervention project                               recommendations for other tobacco      Worker Journal (Vol                              University of Sydney    PH: (02) 9351 4312                                                                                               health professionals in brief    on the best available evidence regarding tobacco control for ATSI people.
                                                                               control interventions.                 31)                                                                                                                                                                                       intervention.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        >> 6 <<
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database
       Strategies Used                                 Description of Strategies                            Target Audience                            Key Findings                                                  Recommendations & Best Practice Suggestions

Health promotion materials          This involved a number of posters being developed, which highlight  Pregnant                  A formal evaluation of this project has not been                (*Recommendations based on interview) The use of photographs was a significant asset and good
                                    the link between passive smoking and the risks of developing asthma Indigenous women          conducted. However, it was reported that at least 50% of        for promoting their message, suggestion was to encourage it where appropriate. In addition,
                                    in childhood. These resources were distributed to AHWs and                                    AHWs and Aboriginal Liaison Officers working in the             encourages the use of positive messages (i.e., growing solid babies) compared to negative
                                    Aboriginal Liaison Officers throughout WA, for them to be passed                              Perth metropolitan and WA Wheatbelt region were                 message, and finally it could not be emphasised enough how important the pilot testing of the
                                    onto Indigenous women.                                                                        involved in the project’s information session, which helped     message with different aboriginal communities was.
                                                                                                                                  to guide the content of the materials. It is thought that
                                                                                                                                  their involvement will lead to the success of the project.

Nicotine replacement therapy        This involved providing participants with patches, lozenges, chewing    Indigenous            No formal evaluation has been done of this program.             It is recommended that similar programs seek commitment from participants, as experience has
(NRT)                               gum and puffers.                                                        smokers               However, informal feedback has almost always been               shown that success increases with the commitment participants have to the whole program. It is
                                                                                                                                  positive. The one concern some participants had was the         also suggested that similar programs promote a non-judgemental attitude, so that people who have
                                                                                                                                  fear of what they will do when the program was over.            tried to quit smoking in the past are still encouraged to attend. Future programs should also
                                                                                                                                  Weight gain was another common concern associated               incorporate a dietician to provide information regarding weight gain and smoking. Finally, it is
                                                                                                                                  with quitting, particularly for women.                          suggested that on-going support be offered once the program is over so as to minimise relapse.

Education                           This involved providing information regarding tobacco cessation to      Indigenous            No formal evaluation has been done of this program.             It is recommended that similar programs seek commitment from participants, as experience has
                                    participants in a supportive environment.                               smokers               However, informal feedback has almost always been               shown that success increases with the commitment participants have to the whole program. It is
                                                                                                                                  positive. The one concern some participants had was the         also suggested that similar programs promote a non-judgemental attitude, so that people who have
                                                                                                                                  fear of what they will do when the program was over.            tried to quit smoking in the past are still encouraged to attend. Future programs should also
                                                                                                                                  Weight gain was another common concern associated               incorporate a dietician to provide information regarding weight gain and smoking. Finally, it is
                                                                                                                                  with quitting, particularly for women.                          suggested that on-going support be offered once the program is over so as to minimise relapse.

Education                           The program begins with a three and a half hour educational course      Indigenous            Since the program began, 32 people have attended the
                                    held at Rumbalara health service. This first session aims to provide    smokers               courses, 19 of which were employees of Rumbalara. Of
                                    an understanding about smoking, clients' personal circumstances,                              the 32 attendees, six (19%) have successfully quit
                                    and how they can prepare to quit smoking. The use of nicotine                                 smoking, two of them AHWs from Rumbalara.
                                    replacement therapy and zyban is also discussed in this session.                              Furthermore, it is reported that the program has
                                                                                                                                  increased quit attempts, skills and knowledge within the
                                                                                                                                  local Indigenous community.
Health promotion materials          During the initial three and half hour educational course provided by     Indigenous          Since the program began, 32 people have attended the
                                    the program, attendees receive a 'short course with Quitline support' smokers                 courses, 19 of which were employees of Rumbalara. Of
                                    booklet (Quit Victoria 1989) and a show bag that contains items such                          the 32 attendees, six (19%) have successfully quit
                                    as a quit stress ball, a water bottle, a relaxation tape, a balloon and a                     smoking, two of whom are AHWs from Rumbalara.
                                    money box for the money saved from not purchasing cigarettes.                                 Furthermore, it is reported that the program has
                                                                                                                                  increased quit attempts, skills and knowledge within the
                                                                                                                                  local Indigenous community.
Advise from health professionals After attending the initial education course provided by the program,      Indigenous            Since the program began, 32 people have attended the            It is recommended that, if possible, future programs involve a salaried GP, as the Medicare rebate
                                 participants see a GP at Rumbalara within the first week of starting       smokers               courses, 19 of which were employees of Rumbalara. Of            for 'enhanced primary health care, GP management plan' can be claimed by participants, therefore
                                 the program. A GP management plan is devised, which generally                                    the 32 attendees, six (19%) have successfully quit              reducing some of the financial burden associated with seeking medical assistance to quit smoking.
                                 includes the use of either subsidised nicotine replacement therapy or                            smoking, two of whom are AHWs from Rumbalara.
                                 zyban.                                                                                           Furthermore, it is reported that the program has
                                                                                                                                  increased quit attempts, skills and knowledge within the
                                                                                                                                  local Indigenous community. More specifically, it was
                                                                                                                                  reported that the advice provided by GP's increases
                                                                                                                                  people's access to important support, which has been
                                                                                                                                  shown to double the likelihood of quitting success

Quit Telephone Service              During the initial educational session of the program, attendees were   Indigenous            Since the program began, 32 people have attended the
                                    given the opportunity to sign up for Quitline. Those who did so         smokers               courses, 19 of which were employees of Rumbalara. Of
                                    received a call from the service during week 2 of the program and                             the 32 attendees, six (19%) have successfully quit
                                    could choose to receive ongoing weekly calls.                                                 smoking, two of whom are AHWs from Rumbalara.
                                                                                                                                  Furthermore, it is reported that the program has
                                                                                                                                  increased quit attempts, skills and knowledge within the
                                                                                                                                  local Indigenous community. Specifically, it was reported
                                                                                                                                  that some attendees have expressed apprehension about
                                                                                                                                  receiving support through Quitline. However, after
                                                                                                                                  encouragement to receive at least one call, all
                                                                                                                                  participants have used Quitline with no complaints about
                                                                                                                                  the service
Counselling/Support groups          In week 3 of the program, a three and a half hour support session is    Indigenous            Since the program began, 32 people have attended the            It is recommended that future interventions are conducted in a culturally safe environment that has
                                    held at Rumbalara. This session involves people sharing their           smokers               courses, 19 of which were employees of Rumbalara. Of            been created for the program. At Rumbalara, The AHW involved in the program has completed the
                                    experiences over the last two weeks and any quit attempts they have                           the 32 attendees, six (19%) have successfully quit              course and quit smoking as a result, which allows her to discuss her experiences and relate to
                                    made. Additionally, ways to maintain their cessation and how to deal                          smoking, two of whom are AHWs from Rumbalara.                   clients. Likewise, any staff working in the program that are non-Koori have worked at Rumbalara for
                                    with relapses are discussed.                                                                  Furthermore, it is reported that the program has                a number of years, and have experience working with the local community. This is thought to be
                                                                                                                                  increased quit attempts, skills and knowledge within the        extremely important in order to foster a relaxed and safe environment for Indigenous people to
                                                                                                                                  local Indigenous community.                                     share their experiences.
Ongoing Support                     People participating in the program receive a phone call from the         Indigenous          Since the program began, 32 people have attended the            It is recommended that future tobacco control interventions offer the same level of support that the
                                    facilitator before their planned 'quit day' to discuss their progress and smokers             courses, 19 of which were employees of Rumbalara. Of            Rumbalara management do in prioritising the program and encouraging employees to attend.
                                    how they are feeling. Any attempts at quitting or cutting down are also                       the 32 attendees, six (19%) have successfully quit
                                    discussed. Furthermore, following the last session ongoing support                            smoking, two of whom are AHWs from Rumbalara.
                                    is offered through the Quit Educator, free Quitline service, Rumbalara                        Furthermore, it is reported that the program has
                                    GP and other group participants.                                                              increased quit attempts, skills and knowledge within the
                                                                                                                                  local Indigenous community.
Role models                         This involved the use Aboriginal role models, such as sporting stars    Indigenous youth      Results showed that young people who had participated           It is recommended that similar projects work closely with collaborators to ensure decisions are
                                    and elders, who discussed the effects of smoking on their lives.                              in the program, who were smokers, chose to quit                 made by the whole group , especially community representatives, as they are then more likely to be
                                                                                                                                  following the program and also encouraged others to quit.       accepted by the community.




Creativity and personal             This involved hiring professionals who worked with participants to        Indigenous youth    Results showed that young people who had participated It is recommended that similar projects work closely with collaborators to ensure decisions are
expression                          help them develop film-making and drama-skills. The young                                     in the program, who were smokers, chose to quit           made by the whole group , especially community representatives, as they are then more likely to be
                                    Aboriginal participants also developed a script using life stories,                           following the program and also encouraged others to quit. accepted by the community.
                                    narrative, brief interviews and drama, to portray the effects of
                                    Indigenous tobacco use. This material was then used to make a short
                                    video about tobacco.
Education                           This involved training teachers, who work in schools with a large         Indigenous youth    Results showed that young people who had participated It is recommended that similar projects work closely with collaborators to ensure decisions are
                                    population of Aboriginal students, to include the video and activities in                     in the program, who were smokers, chose to quit           made by the whole group , especially community representatives, as they are then more likely to be
                                    their school's health education curriculum.                                                   following the program and also encouraged others to quit. accepted by the community.




Education                           This involved implementing the Smoke Check program , which                Aboriginal health   Findings from an evaluation showed that some changes
                                    provides training to health professionals in using culturally appropriate workers             needed to be made to this training, including alteration of
                                    resources to provide brief intervention to ATSI people, into 4 metro                          the language used and the addition of some further
                                    and 2 rural communities in WA.                                                                information.


Sharing success stories             This involved recording the success stories of Aboriginal people living Indigenous            No evaluation data was provided for this program.
                                    in each region of Western Australia who had successfully quit           smokers
                                    smoking. These stories were then compiled into a booklet to provide
                                    information to people who were thinking about quitting. A CD was
                                    also compiled and distributed as advertisements and as a teaching
                                    aid, to Aboriginal community radio stations, Aboriginal medical
                                    services and TAFE organisations.
Education                           This involved providing support to the Smarter than Smoking project, Indigenous youth         It was reported that this involvement in the Smarter than
                                    which is delivered in secondary schools throughout WA.                                        Smoking project has led to Indigenous young people
                                                                                                                                  being included in the Smarter than Smoking youth
                                                                                                                                  advisory committee.


Training/Education for health       This program offered training to AHWs and other health                   Aboriginal health     It is thought that increasing the capacity of health workers
workers                             professionals who work with ATSI populations, to enable them to use workers                   to deliver brief interventions will contribute to a reduction
                                    culturally appropriate resources to provide brief intervention in a non-                      in smoking prevalence amongst Aboriginal people in
                                    judgmental and sensitive manner. The training provided aims to teach                          NSW. However, an evaluation of the program has not be
                                    AHWs how to encourage their clients to quit smoking, through a brief                          conducted as yet.
                                    intervention delivered as part of their routine care.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            >> 7 <<
                                                                                                                                                                                        Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database                 Reason for
                                                     Date of      Producer/                                                                                                                                                      Program/Stu    Date of           Date of
 Category Format/type      Title of Material                                          Description of Material            Source of Material Program/Project Title Agency (manager)                            Contact/s                                                       program     Funding Information Objectives of Program                                        Description of Program
                                                     Material      author                                                                                                                                                        dy Location    Delivery        completion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             cessation
Literature   Report       Galnya Angin (Good              2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au Smoke Check                       Queensland Health;                                  Queensland     1996- ongoing                             Queensland Health.      To encourage health             This program was derived from Smokescreen, a resource designed for GPs.
                          Air): Partnerships in                               being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_                                     University of                                                                                                                        professionals to use brief      The resources and training used by this program were developed in
                          Indigenous tobacco                                  to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                                Queensland; James                                                                                                                    intervention to assess the      conjunction with
                          control                                             Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                          Cook University;                                                                                                                     smoking status of clients at    Aboriginal health workers, and designed to address the different stages of
                                                                              communities.                                                                                   Tropical Public Health                                                                                                               every opportunity, and assist   change that Aboriginal smokers may be in.
                                                                                                                                                                             Unit                                                                                                                                 clients to assess their own
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  smoking practices.




Literature   Evaluation   An evaluation of                2002 Harvey, Tsey,     Provides an evaluation of the pilot     Australian and New     Smoke Free Project                                    Komla Tsey, University of    Queensland                                                                     To develop and evaluate         The Indigenous Smoke Free project involved a number of components. The
                          tobacco brief                        Cadet-James,      phase of tobacco brief intervention     Zealand Journal of                                                           Queensland, School of        (Northern)                                                                     strategies to address smoking   first was a training program for Indigenous and other health care workers to
                          intervention training in             Minniecon,        training in three Indigenous health     Public Health (Vol 26)                                                       Population Health, Cairns                                                                                   issues for Indigenous people    encourage brief interventions to reduce client smoking. This training was
                          three Indigenous                     Ivers,            care settings in rural and remote north                                                                              Email:                                                                                                      in Queensland.                  provided at three health care sites in northern Queensland. Furthermore, this
                          health care settings in              McCalman,         Queensland.                                                                                                          komla_tsey@health.qld.gov.au                                                                                                                project also involved community awareness raising of Indigenous tobacco use
                          north Queensland                     Lloyd & Young                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      via event sponsorship, group motivation and awareness, smoke-free
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  workplace policy development, and the enforcement of the Tobacco and Other
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Smoking Products (Prevention of Supply to Children) Act 1998.




Literature   Evaluation   An evaluation of                2002 Harvey, Tsey,     Provides an evaluation of the pilot     Australian and New     Smoke Free Project                                    Komla Tsey, University of    Queensland                                                                     To develop and evaluate         The Indigenous Smoke Free project involved a number of components. The
                          tobacco brief                        Cadet-James,      phase of tobacco brief intervention     Zealand Journal of                                                           Queensland, School of        (Northern)                                                                     strategies to address smoking   first was a training program for Indigenous and other health care workers to
                          intervention training in             Minniecon,        training in three Indigenous health     Public Health (Vol 26)                                                       Population Health, Cairns                                                                                   issues for Indigenous people    encourage brief interventions to reduce client smoking. This training was
                          three Indigenous                     Ivers,            care settings in rural and remote north                                                                              Email:                                                                                                      in Queensland.                  provided at three health care sites in northern Queensland. Furthermore, this
                          health care settings in              McCalman,         Queensland.                                                                                                          komla_tsey@health.qld.gov.au                                                                                                                project also involved community awareness raising of Indigenous tobacco use
                          north Queensland                     Lloyd & Young                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      via event sponsorship, group motivation and awareness, smoke-free
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  workplace policy development, and the enforcement of the Tobacco and Other
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Smoking Products (Prevention of Supply to Children) Act 1998.

Literature   Evaluation   An evaluation of                2002 Harvey, Tsey,     Provides an evaluation of the pilot     Australian and New     Smoke Free Project                                    Komla Tsey, University of    Queensland                                                                     To develop and evaluate         The Indigenous Smoke Free project involved a number of components. The
                          tobacco brief                        Cadet-James,      phase of tobacco brief intervention     Zealand Journal of                                                           Queensland, School of        (Northern)                                                                     strategies to address smoking   first was a training program for Indigenous and other health care workers to
                          intervention training in             Minniecon,        training in three Indigenous health     Public Health (Vol 26)                                                       Population Health, Cairns                                                                                   issues for Indigenous people    encourage brief interventions to reduce client smoking. This training was
                          three Indigenous                     Ivers,            care settings in rural and remote north                                                                              Email:                                                                                                      in Queensland.                  provided at three health care sites in northern Queensland. Furthermore, this
                          health care settings in              McCalman,         Queensland.                                                                                                          komla_tsey@health.qld.gov.au                                                                                                                project also involved community awareness raising of Indigenous tobacco use
                          north Queensland                     Lloyd & Young                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      via event sponsorship, group motivation and awareness, smoke-free
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  workplace policy development, and the enforcement of the Tobacco and Other
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Smoking Products (Prevention of Supply to Children) Act 1998.

Literature   Report       Galnya Angin (Good              2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au Smoke Free Zone, Smoke            Healthy Cities                                      NSW               2003-2004                              Environmental Tobacco   To develop resources and        This program targeted Aboriginal and Arabic populations and used a range of
                          Air): Partnerships in                               being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_ Free Car and Home                   Illawarra; The Cancer                                                                                        Smoke Taskforce         utilise carbon monoxide         strategies to raise awareness regarding environmental tobacco smoke.
                          Indigenous tobacco                                  to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                                Council NSW; National                                                                                                                analysers to raise awareness
                          control                                             Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                          Heart Foundation                                                                                                                     of the effects of environmental
                                                                              communities.                                                                                   Australia; Illawarra                                                                                                                 tobacco smoke.
                                                                                                                                                                             Area Health Service;
                                                                                                                                                                             South Coast Aboriginal
                                                                                                                                                                             Medical Service;
                                                                                                                                                                             Illawarra Aboriginal
                                                                                                                                                                             Medical Service

Literature   Report       Galnya Angin (Good              2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au Smoke Free Zone, Smoke            Healthy Cities                                      NSW               2003-2004                              Environmental Tobacco   To develop resources and        This program targeted Aboriginal and Arabic populations and used a range of
                          Air): Partnerships in                               being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_ Free Car and Home                   Illawarra; The Cancer                                                                                        Smoke Taskforce         utilise carbon monoxide         strategies to raise awareness regarding environmental tobacco smoke.
                          Indigenous tobacco                                  to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                                Council NSW; National                                                                                                                analysers to raise awareness
                          control                                             Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                          Heart Foundation                                                                                                                     of the effects of environmental
                                                                              communities.                                                                                   Australia; Illawarra                                                                                                                 tobacco smoke.
                                                                                                                                                                             Area Health Service;
                                                                                                                                                                             South Coast Aboriginal
                                                                                                                                                                             Medical Service;
                                                                                                                                                                             Illawarra Aboriginal
                                                                                                                                                                             Medical Service




Literature   Report       Galnya Angin (Good              2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au Smoke Free Zone, Smoke            Healthy Cities                                      NSW               2003-2004                              Environmental Tobacco   To develop resources and        This program targeted Aboriginal and Arabic populations and used a range of
                          Air): Partnerships in                               being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_ Free Car and Home                   Illawarra; The Cancer                                                                                        Smoke Taskforce         utilise carbon monoxide         strategies to raise awareness regarding environmental tobacco smoke.
                          Indigenous tobacco                                  to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                                Council NSW; National                                                                                                                analysers to raise awareness
                          control                                             Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                          Heart Foundation                                                                                                                     of the effects of environmental
                                                                              communities.                                                                                   Australia; Illawarra                                                                                                                 tobacco smoke.
                                                                                                                                                                             Area Health Service;
                                                                                                                                                                             South Coast Aboriginal
                                                                                                                                                                             Medical Service;
                                                                                                                                                                             Illawarra Aboriginal
                                                                                                                                                                             Medical Service

Literature   Report       CRC for Aboriginal         2006-2007 The Cooperative Provides a report on the activities and   http://www.crcah.org.a   Talkin' Up Good Air:       The Centre for           Email: ceitc-              National               2007                                                      To assist Indigenous health     This project featured a comprehensive practical manual which drew on the
                          Health annual report                 Research        initiatives the CRAH has provided over    u/communication/dow      Australian Indigenous      Excellence in            info@unimelb.edu.au.                                                                                        workers in the promotion of     knowledge of many individuals and organisations working in the area of
                          2006-2007                            Centre for      the 2006-2007 period.                     nloads/CRCAH2006-        Tobacco Control Resource   Indigenous Tobacco       PH: 03 8344 0870                                                                                            tobacco control.                tobacco control and Indigenous health promotion.
                                                               Aboriginal                                                07Annual-                Kit                        Control (CEITC)
                                                               Health (CRCAH)                                            ReportLR.pdf




Literature   Evaluation   The Western                     1998 Walley &          Provides an evaluation of the tobacco   Health Promotion         The Aboriginal Smoking     Smoking and Health       Clive Walley 9266 2639     Western                1994                              $30000 per annum.       To raise awareness of the       The Aboriginal Smoking Project employed one Aboriginal health promotion
                          Australian Aboriginal                Sullivan          control interventions and strategies    Journal of Australia     Project                    Program, Health          c.walley@curtin.edu.au     Australia                                                                        health effects of smoking       officer, who was responsible for the development of strategies and resources
                          Smoking Project                                        used by the Aboriginal Smoking          (Vol 8)                                             Department of                                                                                                                        among Aboriginal people and     for Aboriginal smoking and health issues in consultation with Aboriginal health
                                                                                 project.                                                                                    Western Australia.                                                                                                                   to encourage Aboriginal         workers and agencies. A number of strategies and resources were developed.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  leaders and health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  professionals to make the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  reduction of death and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  disease caused by smoking-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  related
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  illnesses a priority.
Literature   Evaluation   The Western                     1998 Walley &          Provides an evaluation of the tobacco   Health Promotion         The Aboriginal Smoking     Smoking and Health       Clive Walley 9266 2639     Western                1994                              $30000 per annum.       To raise awareness of the       The Aboriginal Smoking Project employed one Aboriginal health promotion
                          Australian Aboriginal                Sullivan          control interventions and strategies    Journal of Australia     Project                    Program, Health          c.walley@curtin.edu.au     Australia                                                                        health effects of smoking       officer, who was responsible for the development of strategies and resources
                          Smoking Project                                        used by the Aboriginal Smoking          (Vol 8)                                             Department of                                                                                                                        among Aboriginal people and     for Aboriginal smoking and health issues in consultation with Aboriginal health
                                                                                 project.                                                                                    Western Australia.                                                                                                                   to encourage Aboriginal         workers and agencies. A number of strategies and resources were developed.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  leaders and health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  professionals to make the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  reduction of death and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  disease caused by smoking-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  related
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  illnesses a priority.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                               >> 8 <<
                                                                                                                                                                                             Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database
       Strategies Used                             Description of Strategies                             Target Audience                          Key Findings                                                   Recommendations & Best Practice Suggestions

Training/Education for health   This involves a one-day training workshop for AHWs that covered the Aboriginal health        The results of an evaluation showed that the training           It was recommended that a ‘train-the-trainer’ approach is used to help ensure the skills learnt in the
workers                         health effects of smoking, current tobacco control practice, evidence workers                resulted in some AHWs assessing their own smoking               training are retained in the workplace. It was also suggested that the time required for clients to
                                for brief intervention, how to identify a client's stage of readiness to                     habits. It was also reported that Indigenous pregnant           move from the pre-contemplation to contemplation stages of change may be longer in Indigenous
                                change their smoking behaviour (not ready, unsure, ready to give                             women were receptive to the smoking cessation advice            communities, and programs must account for this time requirement.
                                up, non-smoker), and motivational interviewing with case studies and                         that AHWs were now giving. Conversely, a number of
                                role play. Resources were also provided, including a training                                barriers to the training's implementation were found
                                handbook, worksite pamphlets for clients, chart of stages of                                 including difficulties with the uptake of new ideas and
                                readiness, nicotine replacement therapy, pamphlets for pregnant                              technologies in the workplace, the inability of the one-day
                                women, and a desktop menu outlining the stages of readiness.                                 training to meet the needs of a diverse health
                                                                                                                             workforce, the need for ongoing support to implement the
                                                                                                                             new practices covered in the training, and high staff
                                                                                                                             turnover.

Training/Education for health   This program offered training in tobacco brief intervention for health Aboriginal health     This evaluation found no evidence that any person               It is recommended that future programs explore the cultural appropriateness of certain training
workers                         staff. The aim of the training program was to encourage all            workers               involved in the project had ceased smoking six months           approaches in Indigenous settings. Furthermore, ongoing training, resources and support for
                                Indigenous health workers and other health professionals to use brief                        following the intervention. However, a number of health         health workers needs to be provided in order to promote the continuous use of such training.
                                intervention in their work. The training involved a one-day workshop                         workers reported attempting to quit several times,
                                which covered patterns of smoking in Indigenous populations, the                             indicating that the training was successful in causing
                                health effects of smoking, current tobacco control practices, and the                        some participating health workers to reassess their own
                                evidence for brief intervention. Participants (health professionals)                         smoking status . More positively, it was found that
                                were also provided with information regarding the stages people go                           pregnant women were the most receptive to the smoking
                                through when changing behaviours, in the hope that they would be                             cessation advise provided by health workers at all three
                                able to assess their clients' readiness to change their smoking                              sites. Both Indigenous and non-indigenous health
                                behaviour. Furthermore, participants were trained to carry out brief                         workers reported that they felt at ease discussing
                                intervention and a brief intervention training handbook was provided                         smoking with pregnant women and found the written
                                and left at each health care site. Follow-up support was provided at                         resources designed for these women to be the most
                                each site for a 12 month period.                                                             appropriate. Moreover, it was reported that many
                                                                                                                             Indigenous health workers feel uncomfortable providing
                                                                                                                             smoking advice as they believe smoking is a personal
                                                                                                                             choice. They also reported feeling uncomfortable
                                                                                                                             providing advice to specific groups such as elders and
                                                                                                                             non-family members, as it is customary to show respect
                                                                                                                             for such groups. Finally, the evaluation found that the
                                                                                                                             impact of the brief intervention training diminished over
Health promotion materials      This program involved resource materials being developed                 Indigenous          time.written materials provided by this project were found
                                                                                                                             The                                                             It is recommended that education materials are utilised as part of a personalised intervention rather
                                specifically for Indigenous clients and left at a range of health care   smokers             to be useful to practitioners, who used them to                 then being made available in public areas, particularly in areas where literacy is an issue.
                                sites. These materials complimented the training that was provided                           compliment the advice they provided clients. However, it
                                by this program, and included a chart used to assess clients' stage of                       was reported that the effective use of these resources
                                change, a series of colour pamphlets on the different stages of                              was limited by the literacy levels of patients at some sites.
                                change, and a brochure designed specifically for pregnant women. A
                                desktop 'menu' outlining the stages of change was also provided to
                                health care professionals. Follow-up support was provided at each
                                site for a 12 month period.
Nicotine replacement therapy    Nicotine patches and nicorette gum were left at a range of health care   Indigenous          The NRT resources provided by this project were                  It is recommended that expert support be provided to address issues of usage, dosage, availability
(NRT)                           sites. Follow-up support was provided at each site for a 12 month        smokers             welcomed by practitioners, however they reported that            and cost of NRT.
                                period.                                                                                      their utilisation was restricted by patients' level of literacy.




Creativity and personal         This involved Aboriginal pre-school children participating in an art     Indigenous          The initial evaluation of the program reported that the
expression                      program with an environmental tobacco smoke theme. Art by the            smokers             music and art aspects of this program were the most
                                children was put onto t-shirts and library bags and given to the                             successful. A later evaluation found an increase of 55%
                                children who participated in the program. Furthermore, two Koori-                            in the number of homes that reported to be smoke free,
                                specific song about environmental tobacco smoke were created by                              from 2002 to 2005. This same evaluation also reported
                                one school.                                                                                  that a 42% increase in the number of smoke free cars,
                                                                                                                             over the same period. It was concluded that, following the
                                                                                                                             program, people were more aware that exposing children
                                                                                                                             to tobacco smoke in the home and car affects their health.


Training/Education for health   Training was provided to GPs and AHWs on utilising carbon                Indigenous          The initial evaluation of the program reported a number of
workers                         monoxide analysers when treating children.                               smokers             barriers regarding the use of carbon monoxide analysers.
                                                                                                                             Specifically, GPs reported a lack of time to use them, as
                                                                                                                             well as concern that children had been out of smoky
                                                                                                                             environments for a period of time and therefore the
                                                                                                                             analysers were incorrect. Aboriginal health workers
                                                                                                                             reported feeling that the analysers place blame on the
                                                                                                                             parents for their children’s sickness. Small children also
                                                                                                                             had difficulty using the analysers. A later evaluation found
                                                                                                                             an increase of 55% in the number of homes that reported
                                                                                                                             to be smoke free, over a 3 year period that the program
                                                                                                                             was offered. This same evaluation also reported that a
                                                                                                                             42% increase in the number of smoke free cars, over the
                                                                                                                             same period. It was concluded that, following the
                                                                                                                             program, people were more aware that exposing children
                                                                                                                             to tobacco smoke in the home and car affects their health.


Health promotion materials      This involved providing parents and carers with information regarding Indigenous             An evaluation found an increase of 55% in the number of
                                how to reduce children's exposure to ETS, including brochures,        smokers                homes that reported to be smoke free, over a 3 year
                                posters, key-rings, magnets and stickers.                                                    period that the program was offered. This same
                                                                                                                             evaluation also reported that a 42% increase in the
                                                                                                                             number of smoke free cars, over the same period. It was
                                                                                                                             concluded that, following the program, people were more
                                                                                                                             aware that exposing children to tobacco smoke in the
                                                                                                                             home and car affects their health.




Training/Education for health   This involved the provision of a practical manual that consists of       Aboriginal health   No evaluation data was provided for this program.
workers                         information on smoking and its effects on health, ways in which to       workers
                                build community support for tobacco control, strategies to use when
                                talking to people about quitting, how to do research into smoking, step-
                                by-step tools that can be used by AHWs to implement a tobacco
                                control program, ways to gain interest in tobacco control programs,
                                and additional resources and references. A CD-Rom featuring all of
                                this information is also provided.

Training/Education for health   This program offered a Quit newsletter to AHWs. The newsletter           Aboriginal health   Feedback from Aboriginal health workers to the Aboriginal It is suggested that a newsletter is a successful way in which to provide advise to AHWs and assist
workers                         aimed to encourage health workers who smoked to quit smoking, as         workers             Smoking Project officer suggested that the newsletter did them to quit smoking.
                                well as inform them about the health effects of smoking.                                     help in raising awareness of the health effects of smoking
                                                                                                                             among the Aboriginal health workers. More than half of
                                                                                                                             the Aboriginal health workers reported that information on
                                                                                                                             the harmful effects of smoking had motivated them to
                                                                                                                             attempt to quit smoking.




Media advertising               This involved the production of Quit radio advertisements targeting  Indigenous males        The response to these radio advertisements was positive It is recommended that more face-to-face approaches in the evaluation of strategies involving
                                Aboriginal adults. These advertisements aired over three weeks in                            and encouraging. However, a formal evaluation of these  AHWs be used in future.
                                both rural and metro areas, and featured Aboriginal actors employing                         media campaigns was unable to be conducted due to a
                                humour to convey the Quit message. They coincided with World No                              poor response rate to the survey sent out to AHWs
                                Tobacco Day. The radio campaigns were subsequently used in the                               regarding the radio advertisements.
                                1995 and 1996 Quit campaigns. In 1997, an Aboriginal media
                                production company was commissioned to produce four new radio
                                advertisements, as well as a 30-second television commercial.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       >> 9 <<
                                                                                                                                                                                           Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database                           Reason for
                                                     Date of     Producer/                                                                                                                                                                Program/Stu        Date of          Date of
 Category Format/type        Title of Material                                        Description of Material               Source of Material Program/Project Title Agency (manager)                              Contact/s                                                               program       Funding Information Objectives of Program                                             Description of Program
                                                     Material     author                                                                                                                                                                  dy Location        Delivery       completion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          cessation
Literature   Evaluation     The Western                  1998 Walley &           Provides an evaluation of the tobacco      Health Promotion       The Aboriginal Smoking       Smoking and Health        Clive Walley 9266 2639          Western                   1994                                 $30000 per annum.          To raise awareness of the         The Aboriginal Smoking Project employed one Aboriginal health promotion
                            Australian Aboriginal             Sullivan           control interventions and strategies       Journal of Australia   Project                      Program, Health           c.walley@curtin.edu.au          Australia                                                                                 health effects of smoking         officer, who was responsible for the development of strategies and resources
                            Smoking Project                                      used by the Aboriginal Smoking             (Vol 8)                                             Department of                                                                                                                                       among Aboriginal people and       for Aboriginal smoking and health issues in consultation with Aboriginal health
                                                                                 project.                                                                                       Western Australia.                                                                                                                                  to encourage Aboriginal           workers and agencies. A number of strategies and resources were developed.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    leaders and health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    professionals to make the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    reduction of death and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    disease caused by smoking-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    related
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    illnesses a priority.

Literature   Evaluation     The Western                  1998 Walley &           Provides an evaluation of the tobacco      Health Promotion       The Aboriginal Smoking       Smoking and Health        Clive Walley 9266 2639          Western                   1994                                 $30000 per annum.          To raise awareness of the         The Aboriginal Smoking Project employed one Aboriginal health promotion
                            Australian Aboriginal             Sullivan           control interventions and strategies       Journal of Australia   Project                      Program, Health           c.walley@curtin.edu.au          Australia                                                                                 health effects of smoking         officer, who was responsible for the development of strategies and resources
                            Smoking Project                                      used by the Aboriginal Smoking             (Vol 8)                                             Department of                                                                                                                                       among Aboriginal people and       for Aboriginal smoking and health issues in consultation with Aboriginal health
                                                                                 project.                                                                                       Western Australia.                                                                                                                                  to encourage Aboriginal           workers and agencies. A number of strategies and resources were developed.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    leaders and health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    professionals to make the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    reduction of death and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    disease caused by smoking-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    related
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    illnesses a priority.
Literature   Study          The Koori tobacco            2004 Mark, McLeod, Provides an explanation and                     Health Promotion       The Koori Tobacco            South Coast Aboriginal    Andy Mark, National Heart       NSW (Illawara        2001-2002       2002/2003 The funding ran $40,000                    To develop, implement and         This program offered quit smoking programs, involving subsidised nicotine
                            cessation project                 Booker & Ardler evaluation of a culturally appropriate        Journal of Australia   Cessation Project            Medical Service;          Foundation of Australia (NSW    and                                            out therefore the                          evaluate ongoing tobacco          replacement therapy and tobacco cessation counselling/support groups, to
                                                                              quit smoking program for Indigenous           (Vol 15)                                            Illawara Aboriginal       Division)                       Shoalhaven)                                     project became                            cessation programs for            Indigenous people living in the Illawarra and Shoalhaven regions of New South
                                                                              Australians living in the Illawara and                                                            Medical Service;          PH: (02) 4233 1033                                                               unsustainable                            Indigenous Australians.           Wales, Australia.
                                                                              Shoalhaven regions of NSW.                                                                        Illawara Health;
                                                                                                                                                                                National Heart
                                                                                                                                                                                Foundation of Australia
                                                                                                                                                                                NSW Division




Literature   Study          Aboriginal health            2005 Mark, McLeod, Provides an assessment of tobacco               Aboriginal and         The Koori Tobacco            National Heart          Andy Mark, National Heart         NSW (Illawarra       2001-2002       2002/2003 The funding ran $40,000                    To develop, implement and         This program offered quit smoking programs, involving subsidised nicotine
                            worker smoking: A                 Booker & Ardler use by Aboriginal health workers              Islander Health        Cessation Project            Foundation of Australia Foundation of Australia (NSW      and                                            out therefore the                          evaluate ongoing tobacco          replacement therapy and tobacco cessation counselling/support groups, to
                            barrier to lower                                  (AHWs) and their willingness to               Worker Journal (Vol                                 (NSW)                   Division)                         Shoalhaven)                                     project became                            cessation programs for            Indigenous people living in the Illawarra and Shoalhaven regions of New South
                            community smoking                                 provide cessation advice to                   29)                                                                         PH: (02) 4233 1033                                                                 unsustainable                            Indigenous Australians.           Wales, Australia.
                            rates?                                            Indigenous community members.
                                                                              Furthermore, the barriers preventing
                                                                              tobacco cessation for both AHWs and
                                                                              Indigenous people in general are
                                                                              explored. This study is part of the
                                                                              Koori Tobacco Cessation Project




Literature   Study          The Maningrida 'Be           1998 Johnston,          Provides an assessment of the         Health Promotion            The Maningrida Be Smoke                                Fay Johnston; Territory         Northern                  1998                                                            To develop a culturally           This program provided a two week educational intervention to primary and
                            Smoke Free' project               Beecham,           current knowledge, attitudes and      Journal of Australia        Free Project                                           Health Services Darwin (NT)     Territory                                                                                 sensitive educational             high school aged children in the Northern territory. This intervention included a
                                                              Dalgleish,         practices regarding tobacco use in    (Vol 8)                                                                            Robyn Beecham, Pozy                                                                                                       intervention that is able to be   range of educational activities and materials being offered to the Indigenous
                                                              Malpraburr &       school-aged Indigenous children, and                                                                                     Dalgleish & Georg                                                                                                         adapted to other remote           children involved.
                                                              Gamarania          evaluates an educational tobacco                                                                                         Gamarania; Maningrida                                                                                                     Aboriginal communities.
                                                                                 intervention used with such children.                                                                                    Community Education Centre
                                                                                                                                                                                                          (NT)
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Thomas Malpraburr;
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Maningrida (NT)


Literature   Paper          Aboriginal and Torres        2003 Briggs, Lindorff   Provides a description of the cultural,    Tobacco Control (Vol   The National Aboriginal      National Aboriginal       Kylie Lindorff, Project Officer, National        November 2000                                                            To determine key issues for
             (discussion)   Strait Islander                   & Ivers            historical and political factors leading   12)                    and Torres Strait Islander   Community Controlled      Tobacco Control Project,                           to June 2002                                                           tobacco control in ATSI
                            Australians and                                      to the high prevalence of smoking in                              Tobacco Control Project      Health Organisation       NACCHO (ACT)                                                                                                              communities and make
                            tobacco: suffering                                   ATSI populations. The strengths and                                                            (NACCHO)                  Email:                                                                                                                    recommendations for future
                            high mortality and                                   weaknesses of interventions                                                                                              kylie.lindorff@cancervic.org.au                                                                                           action, based on
                            morbidity rates from                                 undertaken with such populations are                                                                                                                                                                                                               comprehensive consultation
                            conditions related to                                also outlined.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     with ATSI community
                            tobacco use                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             members and health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    professionals across Australia

Literature   Evaluation     Evaluation of a multi-       2006 Ivers, Catro,      Provides an evaluation of a multi-         Australian and New     Tobacco Action Project       Cooperative Research Dr Rowena Ivers               Northern                    1999-2000                                Northern Territory          To evaluate the effect of multi   The program involved a number of interventions, some of which were
                            component                         Parfitt, Bailie,   component, community based                 Zealand Journal of                                  Centre for Aboriginal rowenaivers@bigpond.com      Territory                                                            Department of Health and    component community based         developed by the community, while others were evidence-based tobacco
                            community tobacco                 D'Abbs &           tobacco intervention used in remote        Public Health (Vol 30)                              and Tropical Health                                (remote)                                                             Community Services          tobacco interventions, which      interventions delivered by Aboriginal project officers. The interventions were
                            intervention in three             Richmond           Aboriginal communities in the                                                                                        Cooperative Research                                                                              (NTDHCS). It was first      were delivered in conjunction     spread across three communities.
                            remote Australian                                    Northern Territory.                                                                                                  Centre for Aboriginal Health                                                                      funded in 1995, receiving   with a range of evidence-
                            Aboriginal                                                                                                                                                                (NT)                                                                                              approximately $500000       based tobacco interventions,
                            communities                                                                                                                                                               PH: (08) 8922 8196                                                                                per year.                   in three intervention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    communities




Literature   Evaluation     Evaluation of a multi-       2006 Ivers, Catro,      Provides an evaluation of a multi-         Australian and New     Tobacco Action Project       Cooperative Research Dr Rowena Ivers               Northern                    1999-2000                                Northern Territory          To evaluate the effect of multi   The program involved a number of interventions, some of which were
                            component                         Parfitt, Bailie,   component, community based                 Zealand Journal of                                  Centre for Aboriginal rowenaivers@bigpond.com      Territory                                                            Department of Health and    component community based         developed by the community, while others were evidence-based tobacco
                            community tobacco                 D'Abbs &           tobacco intervention used in remote        Public Health (Vol 30)                              and Tropical Health                                (remote)                                                             Community Services          tobacco interventions, which      interventions delivered by Aboriginal project officers. The interventions were
                            intervention in three             Richmond           Aboriginal communities in the                                                                                        Cooperative Research                                                                              (NTDHCS). It was first      were delivered in conjunction     spread across three communities.
                            remote Australian                                    Northern Territory.                                                                                                  Centre for Aboriginal Health                                                                      funded in 1995, receiving   with a range of evidence-
                            Aboriginal                                                                                                                                                                (NT)                                                                                              approximately $500000       based tobacco interventions,
                            communities                                                                                                                                                               PH: (08) 8922 8196                                                                                per year.                   in three intervention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    communities




Literature   Evaluation     Evaluation of a multi-       2006 Ivers, Catro,      Provides an evaluation of a multi-         Australian and New     Tobacco Action Project       Cooperative Research Dr Rowena Ivers               Northern                    1999-2000                                Northern Territory        To evaluate the effect of multi     The program involved a number of interventions, some of which were
                            component                         Parfitt, Bailie,   component, community based                 Zealand Journal of                                  Centre for Aboriginal rowenaivers@bigpond.com      Territory                                                            Department of Health and  component community based           developed by the community, while others were evidence-based tobacco
                            community tobacco                 D'Abbs &           tobacco intervention used in remote        Public Health (Vol 30)                              and Tropical Health                                (remote)                                                             Community Services        tobacco interventions, which        interventions delivered by Aboriginal project officers. The interventions were
                            intervention in three             Richmond           Aboriginal communities in the                                                                                        Cooperative Research                                                                              (NTDHCS). It was first    were delivered in conjunction       spread across three communities.
                            remote Australian                                    Northern Territory.                                                                                                  Centre for Aboriginal Health                                                                      funded in 1995, receiving with a range of evidence-
                            Aboriginal                                                                                                                                                                (NT)                                                                                              approximately $500000     based tobacco interventions,
                            communities                                                                                                                                                               PH: (08) 8922 8196                                                                                per year.                 in three intervention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  communities
Literature   Evaluation     Evaluation of a multi-       2006 Ivers, Catro,      Provides an evaluation of a multi-         Australian and New     Tobacco Action Project       Cooperative Research Dr Rowena Ivers               Northern                    1999-2000                                Northern Territory        To evaluate the effect of multi     The program involved a number of interventions, some of which were
                            component                         Parfitt, Bailie,   component, community based                 Zealand Journal of                                  Centre for Aboriginal rowenaivers@bigpond.com      Territory                                                            Department of Health and component community based            developed by the community, while others were evidence-based tobacco
                            community tobacco                 D'Abbs &           tobacco intervention used in remote        Public Health (Vol 30)                              and Tropical Health                                (remote)                                                             Community Services        tobacco interventions, which        interventions delivered by Aboriginal project officers. The interventions were
                            intervention in three             Richmond           Aboriginal communities in the                                                                                        Cooperative Research                                                                              (NTDHCS). It was first    were delivered in conjunction       spread across three communities.
                            remote Australian                                    Northern Territory.                                                                                                  Centre for Aboriginal Health                                                                      funded in 1995, receiving with a range of evidence-
                            Aboriginal                                                                                                                                                                (NT)                                                                                              approximately $500000     based tobacco interventions,
                            communities                                                                                                                                                               PH: (08) 8922 8196                                                                                per year.                 in three intervention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  communities




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     >> 10 <<
                                                                                                                                                                                             Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database
       Strategies Used                              Description of Strategies                           Target Audience                            Key Findings                                                  Recommendations & Best Practice Suggestions

Health promotion materials      These materials included posters depicting young Aboriginal non-          Indigenous youth    No evaluation data was provided for this program.
                                smoking role models from a variety of sports popular among
                                Aboriginal people. The role models also represented different regions
                                in Western Australia. The posters were used to encourage young
                                people to remain non-smokers and to be positive role models for
                                others in their communities. They were distributed to Aboriginal
                                health workers and health agencies, as well as mainstream health
                                agencies, schools and community organisations. Furthermore, this
                                program included the use of Sports Star Swap Cards, which
                                promoted a health message, again by using positive Aboriginal role
                                models.
Training/Education for health   This program offered a non-smoking training manual to AHWs,               Aboriginal health   It was thought that this training manual was an invaluable
workers                         known as The Gnummari Western Australian Non-smoking Manual. It workers                       resource for AHWs. Evaluation reports by AHWs
                                was produced for Noongar Aboriginal health workers in the southern                            involved in the training workshops suggest that
                                region of WA and in the Perth metropolitan area. The manual aimed                             participants found the workshops to be informative and
                                to inform AHWs about the health effects of smoking, the benefits of                           relevant and have felt encouraged in their own quit
                                quitting and who to contact for assistance in quitting. It aimed to raise                     attempts.
                                awareness of smoking issues and highlight the high prevalence of
                                smoking among Aboriginal people in Western Australia.


Counselling/Support groups      Counselling/support groups were facilitated by an Aboriginal project    Indigenous            Of the 115 people participating in the 22 support groups    It is recommended that future programs offer NRT for an 8 week period, or for at least the same
                                officer. These groups involved providing information about tobacco      smokers               offered, 94 (82%) chose to utilise NRT to support their     amount of time they run support groups for.
                                use by way of video, culturally specific flip charts, brochures and                           quit attempt. At the end of the four week program, 16
                                handouts. Group discussions also occurred regarding the pros and                              participants reported being abstinent from tobacco, and at
                                cons of smoking, the chemicals in cigarettes, quitting methods,                               the three month follow up only 7 participants reported that
                                withdrawal symptoms, environmental tobacco smoke, and dealing                                 they were still not smoking. It appears that cost of NRT
                                with problem situations. Furthermore, nicotine replacement therapy                            may be a barrier to continual use of NRT, as many
                                (NRT) was discussed and information provided regarding the                                    participants only attended the support groups when NRT
                                placement of patches, use of inhalers and gum , and side effects. All                         was offered (3 weeks), and then did not attend
                                participants were given the opportunity to utilise three weeks of NRT                         subsequent groups. Research indicates that a minimum
                                free of charge.                                                                               of eight weeks NRT use is necessary before it is more
                                                                                                                              effective than 'cold turkey'.

Counselling/Support groups      Counselling/support groups were facilitated by an Aboriginal project    Indigenous            This study found that AHWs' personal tobacco use is            It is recommended that programs aiming to assist AHWs to quit smoking consider the range of
                                officer. These groups involved providing information about tobacco      smokers               possibly a barrier to community tobacco use being              barriers found in this study and address them when possible. Workplace incentives and rewards
                                use by way of video, culturally specific flip charts, brochures and                           addressed as a health issue in Indigenous communities.         should be provided to encourage AHWs to quit. Likewise, quit programs with subsidised NRT for
                                handouts. Group discussions also occurred regarding the pros and                              Specifically, it was found that AHWs who smoke are less        AHWs and their family members, as well as resources that assist making homes and workplaces
                                cons of smoking, the chemicals in cigarettes, quitting methods,                               likely to offer cessation advice to community members.         smoke-free, may help AHWs to quit smoking. Finally, the results of this study suggest that tobacco
                                withdrawal symptoms, environmental tobacco smoke, and dealing                                 This was attributed to the lack of professional                cessation programs that are developed specifically for Indigenous communities must address the
                                with problem situations. Furthermore, nicotine replacement therapy                            development opportunities in tobacco cessation AHWs            role nicotine plays as a coping mechanism for stress, as this was a consistent factor mentioned as
                                (NRT) was discussed and information provided regarding the                                    are offered, as well as to a lack of information and support   a barrier preventing cessation.
                                placement of patches, use of inhalers and gum , and side effects. All                         being given to them to use when speaking with
                                participants were given the opportunity to utilise three weeks of NRT                         community members. Moreover, stress was reported as
                                free of charge.                                                                               being the main barrier preventing AHWs from quitting,
                                                                                                                              particularly stress resulting from the expectations of the
                                                                                                                              community and non-Indigenous health workers. Other
                                                                                                                              barriers included the addictive nature of tobacco, being in
                                                                                                                              a smoky environment, and having a partner who smoked.
                                                                                                                              Likewise, AHWs reported that the greatest barrier
                                                                                                                              preventing Indigenous community members from quitting
                                                                                                                              smoking is stress from racism, family and work
                                                                                                                              expectations. This study additionally found that
                                                                                                                              approximately 70% of AHWs reported referring
                                                                                                                              community members to the Koori Cessation Project's quit
                                                                                                                              support groups. and that 56% of AHWs who smoked
Education                       This was provided via a locally produced CD-ROM, classroom              Indigenous youth      A formal the support evaluation of the intervention could
                                                                                                                              attended pre and postgroups themselves. These results          It is concluded that a CD-ROM is a popular resource that should be developed much further in
                                teaching of the Northern Territory tobacco curriculum, information                            not be conducted due to variable school attendance by          future interventions. Furthermore, it is suggested that future tobacco programs avoid the use of
                                regarding smoke-free education and health centres, rewards for 'Be                            those children involved. Nonetheless, it was reported that     school-based surveys alone to evaluate such programs due to the variable school attendance of
                                Smoke Free' songs and posters created by students, a Be Smoke                                 the educational intervention met with enthusiasm and           Indigenous children in remote communities.
                                Free concert featuring local bands, visits from well-known local                              community-wide support, and that the children enjoyed
                                sporting personalities, and community educational displays.                                   the project, particularly the CD-ROM which was the most
                                                                                                                              popular activity. Furthermore, it was reported that the
                                                                                                                              children involved, despite having a reasonable level of
                                                                                                                              knowledge of the adverse health effects of tobacco,
                                                                                                                              perceived smoking as an acceptable and expected part of
                                                                                                                              being an adult.
                                                                                                        Indigenous                                                                           It is recommended that a more nationally coordinated approach to tobacco control is employed so
                                                                                                        smokers                                                                              as to use already scarce resources more efficiently, and so that lessons learned from one program
                                                                                                                                                                                             can be shared across communities. Furthermore, ATSI communities should be involved with and in
                                                                                                                                                                                             control of every aspect of a programme from development to evaluation. All people involved in a
                                                                                                                                                                                             program should understand and respect the social context in which ATSI people live their lives and
                                                                                                                                                                                             programmes should reflect this understanding. Finally, tobacco control programs should be holistic
                                                                                                                                                                                             and consider the social determinants of the health of ATSI populations.




Smoke Free Policy               This involved introducing enclosed public places where people were      Indigenous            Overall it was found that there was a slight increase in the   A number of recommendations were made based on the evaluation of the Tobacco Action Project.
Implementation                  not allowed to smoke.                                                   smokers               prevalence of tobacco use in community residents               Firstly, funding needs to be adequate and received in a timely matter for strategies to be successful.
                                                                                                                              following this program (68% rose to 70%). However,             Furthermore, the program must have adequate time to be implemented and delivered, with 2-3
                                                                                                                              people did report that they were taking action to quit or      years being suggested. Finally, the project should be driven by local community members and there
                                                                                                                              thinking about quitting and participants' knowledge about      must be ongoing communication with these community members. Without the support of the
                                                                                                                              the health effects of tobacco use had greatly increased.       community, these programs will not work.
                                                                                                                              For the smoke free policy strategy specifically, it was
                                                                                                                              reported that the policy had been widely accepted in the
                                                                                                                              communities, but many enclosed public places were
                                                                                                                              already officially or unofficially smoke-free prior to the
                                                                                                                              introduction of the new policy.

Education                       This involved a tobacco education program being provided at a           Indigenous females Overall it was found that there was a slight increase in the      A number of recommendations were made based on the evaluation of the Tobacco Action Project.
                                Women's centre.                                                                            prevalence of tobacco use in community residents                  Firstly, funding needs to be adequate and received in a timely matter for strategies to be successful.
                                                                                                                           following this program (68% rose to 70%). However,                Furthermore, the program must have adequate time to be implemented and delivered, with 2-3
                                                                                                                           people did report that they were taking action to quit or         years being suggested. Finally, the project should be driven by local community members and there
                                                                                                                           thinking about quitting and participants' knowledge about         must be ongoing communication with these community members. Without the support of the
                                                                                                                           the health effects of tobacco use had greatly increased.          community, these programs will not work.
                                                                                                                           For the education strategy specifically, it was found that,
                                                                                                                           while many smokers had received advice on quitting, no
                                                                                                                           significant increase in the proportion of smokers
                                                                                                                           discussing tobacco with health professionals had
                                                                                                                           occurred.
Event sponsorship               This involved the project sponsoring a 3-5 day sports carnival within   Indigenous youth   Overall it was found that there was a slight increase in the      A number of recommendations were made based on the evaluation of the Tobacco Action Project.
                                the community                                                                              prevalence of tobacco use in community residents                  Firstly, funding needs to be adequate and received in a timely matter for strategies to be successful.
                                                                                                                           following this program (68% rose to 70%). However,                Furthermore, the program must have adequate time to be implemented and delivered, with 2-3
                                                                                                                           people did report that they were taking action to quit or         years being suggested. Finally, the project should be driven by local community members and there
                                                                                                                           thinking about quitting and participants' knowledge about         must be ongoing communication with these community members. Without the support of the
                                                                                                                           the health effects of tobacco use had greatly increased.          community, these programs will not work.
                                                                                                                           For the use of event sponsorship, no evaluative data was
                                                                                                                           provided.
Training/Education for health   This program provided training in how to deliver brief intervention.    Aboriginal health  Overall it was found that there was a slight increase in the      A number of recommendations were made based on the evaluation of the Tobacco Action Project.
workers                         This training involved teaching AHWs how to give brief advice on        workers            prevalence of tobacco use in community residents                  Firstly, funding needs to be adequate and received in a timely matter for strategies to be successful.
                                cessation and how it use culturally appropriate health promotion                           following this program (68% rose to 70%). However,                Furthermore, the program must have adequate time to be implemented and delivered, with 2-3
                                materials (pamphlets, posters, and flipcharts) developed by the                            people did report that they were taking action to quit or         years being suggested. Finally, the project should be driven by local community members and there
                                Aboriginal communities within the region.                                                  thinking about quitting and participants' knowledge about         must be ongoing communication with these community members. Without the support of the
                                                                                                                           the health effects of tobacco use had greatly increased.          community, these programs will not work.
                                                                                                                           For the training of AHWs specifically, it was found that,
                                                                                                                           while many smokers in the community had received
                                                                                                                           advice on quitting from AHWs, there was no increase in
                                                                                                                           the proportion of smokers who reported discussing
                                                                                                                           tobacco with health professionals.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       >> 11 <<
                                                                                                                                                                                         Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database              Reason for
                                                        Date of     Producer/                                                                                                                                                     Program/Stu   Date of         Date of
 Category Format/type        Title of Material                                           Description of Material            Source of Material Program/Project Title Agency (manager)                        Contact/s                                                      program     Funding Information Objectives of Program                                              Description of Program
                                                        Material     author                                                                                                                                                       dy Location   Delivery      completion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           cessation
Literature   Evaluation     Evaluation of a multi-          2006 Ivers, Catro,      Provides an evaluation of a multi-      Australian and New     Tobacco Action Project      Cooperative Research Dr Rowena Ivers               Northern        1999-2000                             Northern Territory          To evaluate the effect of multi   The program involved a number of interventions, some of which were
                            component                            Parfitt, Bailie,   component, community based              Zealand Journal of                                 Centre for Aboriginal rowenaivers@bigpond.com      Territory                                             Department of Health and    component community based         developed by the community, while others were evidence-based tobacco
                            community tobacco                    D'Abbs &           tobacco intervention used in remote     Public Health (Vol 30)                             and Tropical Health                                (remote)                                              Community Services          tobacco interventions, which      interventions delivered by Aboriginal project officers. The interventions were
                            intervention in three                Richmond           Aboriginal communities in the                                                                                    Cooperative Research                                                               (NTDHCS). It was first      were delivered in conjunction     spread across three communities.
                            remote Australian                                       Northern Territory.                                                                                              Centre for Aboriginal Health                                                       funded in 1995, receiving   with a range of evidence-
                            Aboriginal                                                                                                                                                               (NT)                                                                               approximately $500000       based tobacco interventions,
                            communities                                                                                                                                                              PH: (08) 8922 8196                                                                 per year.                   in three intervention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    communities




Literature   Evaluation     Evaluation of a multi-          2006 Ivers, Catro,      Provides an evaluation of a multi-      Australian and New     Tobacco Action Project      Cooperative Research Dr Rowena Ivers               Northern        1999-2000                             Northern Territory          To evaluate the effect of multi   The program involved a number of interventions, some of which were
                            component                            Parfitt, Bailie,   component, community based              Zealand Journal of                                 Centre for Aboriginal rowenaivers@bigpond.com      Territory                                             Department of Health and    component community based         developed by the community, while others were evidence-based tobacco
                            community tobacco                    D'Abbs &           tobacco intervention used in remote     Public Health (Vol 30)                             and Tropical Health                                (remote)                                              Community Services          tobacco interventions, which      interventions delivered by Aboriginal project officers. The interventions were
                            intervention in three                Richmond           Aboriginal communities in the                                                                                    Cooperative Research                                                               (NTDHCS). It was first      were delivered in conjunction     spread across three communities.
                            remote Australian                                       Northern Territory.                                                                                              Centre for Aboriginal Health                                                       funded in 1995, receiving   with a range of evidence-
                            Aboriginal                                                                                                                                                               (NT)                                                                               approximately $500000       based tobacco interventions,
                            communities                                                                                                                                                              PH: (08) 8922 8196                                                                 per year.                   in three intervention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    communities




Literature   Evaluation     Evaluation of a multi-          2006 Ivers, Catro,      Provides an evaluation of a multi-      Australian and New     Tobacco Action Project      Cooperative Research Dr Rowena Ivers               Northern        1999-2000                             Northern Territory          To evaluate the effect of multi   The program involved a number of interventions, some of which were
                            component                            Parfitt, Bailie,   component, community based              Zealand Journal of                                 Centre for Aboriginal rowenaivers@bigpond.com      Territory                                             Department of Health and    component community based         developed by the community, while others were evidence-based tobacco
                            community tobacco                    D'Abbs &           tobacco intervention used in remote     Public Health (Vol 30)                             and Tropical Health                                (remote)                                              Community Services          tobacco interventions, which      interventions delivered by Aboriginal project officers. The interventions were
                            intervention in three                Richmond           Aboriginal communities in the                                                                                    Cooperative Research                                                               (NTDHCS). It was first      were delivered in conjunction     spread across three communities.
                            remote Australian                                       Northern Territory.                                                                                              Centre for Aboriginal Health                                                       funded in 1995, receiving   with a range of evidence-
                            Aboriginal                                                                                                                                                               (NT)                                                                               approximately $500000       based tobacco interventions,
                            communities                                                                                                                                                              PH: (08) 8922 8196                                                                 per year.                   in three intervention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    communities




Literature   Evaluation     Evaluation of a multi-          2006 Ivers, Catro,      Provides an evaluation of a multi-      Australian and New     Tobacco Action Project      Cooperative Research Dr Rowena Ivers               Northern        1999-2000                             Northern Territory          To evaluate the effect of multi   The program involved a number of interventions, some of which were
                            component                            Parfitt, Bailie,   component, community based              Zealand Journal of                                 Centre for Aboriginal rowenaivers@bigpond.com      Territory                                             Department of Health and    component community based         developed by the community, while others were evidence-based tobacco
                            community tobacco                    D'Abbs &           tobacco intervention used in remote     Public Health (Vol 30)                             and Tropical Health                                (remote)                                              Community Services          tobacco interventions, which      interventions delivered by Aboriginal project officers. The interventions were
                            intervention in three                Richmond           Aboriginal communities in the                                                                                    Cooperative Research                                                               (NTDHCS). It was first      were delivered in conjunction     spread across three communities.
                            remote Australian                                       Northern Territory.                                                                                              Centre for Aboriginal Health                                                       funded in 1995, receiving   with a range of evidence-
                            Aboriginal                                                                                                                                                               (NT)                                                                               approximately $500000       based tobacco interventions,
                            communities                                                                                                                                                              PH: (08) 8922 8196                                                                 per year.                   in three intervention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    communities




Literature   Report         Galnya Angin (Good              2005 Adams & Briggs Provides an overview of the programs http://www.ceitc.org.au Tobacco Control Project           Aboriginal Health                                  South           1999-2005                             Anti-Tobacco Ministerial    To provide smoking                This program involved three phases. The first was a research phase, which
                            Air): Partnerships in                               being conducted throughout Australia /images/ceitc/Galnya_                                     Council South                                      Australia                                             Advisory Task Force         awareness education for           lead to a number of recommendations being made as to what tobacco
                            Indigenous tobacco                                  to address tobacco smoking in         Angin.pdf                                                Australia                                                                                                through the Tobacco         current and future AHWs in        cessation interventions should be utilised. Phase 2 involved the development
                            control                                             Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander                                                          (AHCSA) and QUIT SA                                                                                      Control Unit of the         non-urban areas. It also aimed    of a training manual for AHWs. Phase 3 is not complete but aims to ensure
                                                                                communities.                                                                                                                                                                                            Department of Human         to produce culturally             AHWs understand how to use and apply the training manual developed in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Services (DHS).             appropriate, state-based          previous phase.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    resources, and to support
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    health workers in their own
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    attempts to quit smoking.
Literature   Evaluation     Aminina Nud                     2004 Davis, McGrath,    Provides an evaluation of the use of   Australian                Aminina Nud Malumaluna: The project was a       Barbara Davis: Monash        Western                                                                           To involve the wider Kimberley    This program involved the collaboration of ATSIC regional councillors, health
                            Malumaluna ("You                     Knight, Davis,     traditional art and language in health Psychologist (Vol 39)     "You Gotta Look After   collaboration between University                     Australia                                                                         community in developing           workers and professionals, community elders, the Mowanjum artists,
                            Gotta Look After                     Norval,            promotion for Aboriginal people in the                           Yourself"               The Jean Hailes         PH: (03) 99059153                                                                                              effective health education        educators and a local supermarket proprietor. Elders shared with us how they
                            Yourself"): Evaluation               Freelander &       Kimberley region of Western                                                              Foundation for Women                                                                                                                   resources for the region,         used to live, and together we discussed what community people could do now
                            of the use of                        Hudson             Australia.                                                                               and Aboriginal and non-                                                                                                                which address the high            to keep strong. From this information, a number of health promotion materials
                            traditional art in health                                                                                                                        Aboriginal health                                                                                                                      incidence of health problems      were developed and distributed among the communities.
                            promotion for                                                                                                                                    workers, educators                                                                                                                     while promoting the Aboriginal
                            Aboriginal people in                                                                                                                             and artists from                                                                                                                       culture among their people,
                            the Kimberley region                                                                                                                             Looma, Pandanus                                                                                                                        particularly the youth.
                            of Western Australia                                                                                                                             Park, Derby and
                                                                                                                                                                             Mowanjum.

Literature   Literature     A review of tobacco             2003 Ivers              Provides a review of interventions that Australian and New
             review         interventions for                                       reduce the harm resulting from          Zealand Journal of
                            Indigenous                                              tobacco use among Indigenous            Public Health (Vol 27)
                            Australians                                             Australians, and discusses the likely
                                                                                    effect of a range of interventions if
                                                                                    conducted in this population.

Literature   Literature     A review of tobacco             2003 Ivers              Provides a review of interventions that Australian and New
             review         interventions for                                       reduce the harm resulting from          Zealand Journal of
                            Indigenous                                              tobacco use among Indigenous            Public Health (Vol 27)
                            Australians                                             Australians, and discusses the likely
                                                                                    effect of a range of interventions if
                                                                                    conducted in this population.

Literature   Literature     A review of tobacco             2003 Ivers              Provides a review of interventions that Australian and New
             review         interventions for                                       reduce the harm resulting from          Zealand Journal of
                            Indigenous                                              tobacco use among Indigenous            Public Health (Vol 27)
                            Australians                                             Australians, and discusses the likely
                                                                                    effect of a range of interventions if
                                                                                    conducted in this population.

Literature   Literature     A review of tobacco             2003 Ivers              Provides a review of interventions that Australian and New
             review         interventions for                                       reduce the harm resulting from          Zealand Journal of
                            Indigenous                                              tobacco use among Indigenous            Public Health (Vol 27)
                            Australians                                             Australians, and discusses the likely
                                                                                    effect of a range of interventions if
                                                                                    conducted in this population.

Literature   Paper          Recommendations to              1996 Andrews,           Provides a summary of the concerns      Aboriginal and
             (discussion)   'Health Australia' from              Briggs, Walley,    and recommendations proposed to         Islander Health
                            the 1995 tobacco                     Greenland,         'Health Australia' by a Working Group   Worker Journal (Vol
                            control summit                       Purcell,           convened from the 2nd National          20)
                            working group                        Swanson, Wood      Tobacco Control Summit in Sydney in
                                                                 & Walker           1995.
Literature   Paper          Recommendations to              1996 Andrews,           Provides a summary of the concerns      Aboriginal and
             (discussion)   'Health Australia' from              Briggs, Walley,    and recommendations proposed to         Islander Health
                            the 1995 tobacco                     Greenland,         'Health Australia' by a Working Group   Worker Journal (Vol
                            control summit                       Purcell,           convened from the 2nd National          20)
                            working group                        Swanson, Wood      Tobacco Control Summit in Sydney in
                                                                 & Walker           1995.

Literature   Paper          Recommendations to              1996 Andrews,           Provides a summary of the concerns      Aboriginal and
             (discussion)   'Health Australia' from              Briggs, Walley,    and recommendations proposed to         Islander Health
                            the 1995 tobacco                     Greenland,         'Health Australia' by a Working Group   Worker Journal (Vol
                            control summit                       Purcell,           convened from the 2nd National          20)
                            working group                        Swanson, Wood      Tobacco Control Summit in Sydney in
                                                                 & Walker           1995.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              >> 12 <<
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database
       Strategies Used                                 Description of Strategies                            Target Audience                            Key Findings                                                  Recommendations & Best Practice Suggestions

Nicotine replacement therapy       This involved nicotine patches being used to assist Indigenous           Indigenous            Overall it was found that there was a slight increase in the   A number of recommendations were made based on the evaluation of the Tobacco Action Project.
(NRT)                              smokers to quit.                                                         smokers               prevalence of tobacco use in community residents               Firstly, funding needs to be adequate and received in a timely matter for strategies to be successful.
                                                                                                                                  following this program (68% rose to 70%). However,             Furthermore, the program must have adequate time to be implemented and delivered, with 2-3
                                                                                                                                  people did report that they were taking action to quit or      years being suggested. Finally, the project should be driven by local community members and there
                                                                                                                                  thinking about quitting and participants' knowledge about      must be ongoing communication with these community members. Without the support of the
                                                                                                                                  the health effects of tobacco use had greatly increased.       community, these programs will not work.
                                                                                                                                  For the use of NRT specifically, it was found that few
                                                                                                                                  participants used NRT during the intervention year, mainly
                                                                                                                                  due to its cost. However, in the community where it was
                                                                                                                                  available at no cost, few people still used it. Only one
                                                                                                                                  person who had used NRT during the intervention year
                                                                                                                                  had quit smoking.
Education                          This involved a school education program being delivered over a          Indigenous youth      Overall it was found that there was a slight increase in the   A number of recommendations were made based on the evaluation of the Tobacco Action Project.
                                   number of months.                                                                              prevalence of tobacco use in community residents               Firstly, funding needs to be adequate and received in a timely matter for strategies to be successful.
                                                                                                                                  following this program (68% rose to 70%). However,             Furthermore, the program must have adequate time to be implemented and delivered, with 2-3
                                                                                                                                  people did report that they were taking action to quit or      years being suggested. Finally, the project should be driven by local community members and there
                                                                                                                                  thinking about quitting and participants' knowledge about      must be ongoing communication with these community members. Without the support of the
                                                                                                                                  the health effects of tobacco use had greatly increased.       community, these programs will not work.
                                                                                                                                  For the school education strategy specifically, it was
                                                                                                                                  found that the educational talks provided to adolescents
                                                                                                                                  did not increase the quitting rate of Indigenous
                                                                                                                                  adolescents who had attended the talks. However, it must
                                                                                                                                  be noted that the number of adolescents who took part in
                                                                                                                                  both the baseline and follow -up survey was very small.

Media advertising                  This involved using presentations on local media (radio or television)   Indigenous            Overall it was found that there was a slight increase in the   A number of recommendations were made based on the evaluation of the Tobacco Action Project.
                                   about the effects of tobacco use.                                        smokers               prevalence of tobacco use in community residents               Firstly, funding needs to be adequate and received in a timely matter for strategies to be successful.
                                                                                                                                  following this program (68% rose to 70%). However,             Furthermore, the program must have adequate time to be implemented and delivered, with 2-3
                                                                                                                                  people did report that they were taking action to quit or      years being suggested. Finally, the project should be driven by local community members and there
                                                                                                                                  thinking about quitting and participants' knowledge about      must be ongoing communication with these community members. Without the support of the
                                                                                                                                  the health effects of tobacco use had greatly increased.       community, these programs will not work. For Media advertisements specifically, it is
                                                                                                                                  For the media advertisements specifically, it was found        recommended that they are broadcasted over time, as they may have a 'sleeper' effect, which
                                                                                                                                  that many of the community members recalled seeing the         causes smokers to quit in the future. It is also suggested that media advertisements be used over
                                                                                                                                  anti-tobacco advertisements, however recalling he              other interventions, as they are able to reach a larger number of Aboriginal communities.
                                                                                                                                  advertisements was not at all related to giving up
                                                                                                                                  smoking.

Health promotion materials         These involved the distribution of posters, pamphlets, stickers and      Indigenous            Overall it was found that there was a slight increase in the   A number of recommendations were made based on the evaluation of the Tobacco Action Project.
                                   other health promotion material around the community.                    smokers               prevalence of tobacco use in community residents               Firstly, funding needs to be adequate and received in a timely matter for strategies to be successful.
                                                                                                                                  following this program (68% rose to 70%). However,             Furthermore, the program must have adequate time to be implemented and delivered, with 2-3
                                                                                                                                  people did report that they were taking action to quit or      years being suggested. Finally, the project should be driven by local community members and there
                                                                                                                                  thinking about quitting and participants' knowledge about      must be ongoing communication with these community members. Without the support of the
                                                                                                                                  the health effects of tobacco use had greatly increased.       community, these programs will not work.
                                                                                                                                  For the use of health materials specifically, it was found
                                                                                                                                  that the development and distribution of health promotion
                                                                                                                                  materials was an important determinant of the success of
                                                                                                                                  the program. 83% of community members recalled
                                                                                                                                  seeing anti-tobacco posters during the intervention year,
                                                                                                                                  therefore indicating that the posters reached a large
                                                                                                                                  sector of the target audience. Those who recalled seeing
                                                                                                                                  health promotion material, however, were less likely to
                                                                                                                                  have quit than those who did not, but this difference was
                                                                                                                                  not significant.

Training/Education for health      This involved the development of the 'Tobacco Control Brief                Aboriginal health   No evaluation data was provided for this program.
workers                            Intervention Facilitator’s Manual'. This manual was originally             workers
                                   produced by Queensland Health (Smoke Check), but required
                                   alterations, such as text and illustrations, to ensure it was suitable for
                                   the South Australian
                                   context.



Health promotion materials         Health promotion materials were developed using traditional art and      Indigenous people     It was reported that these health resources were well          It is recommended that future health promotion strategies utilise traditional art and language in their
                                   language. Health booklets featured art, that used traditional themes     in general            received by communities. Specifically, results showed          materials, as it addresses the holistic need of Aboriginal health promotion. Furthermore, it is
                                   to support contemporary health messages. Two health booklets                                   that the use of art had fostered a great deal of interest      recommended that elders are used to both guide the production of artworks and translated the
                                   containing traditional artworks were produced, and named by elders:                            among community people. Furthermore, the simple                health messages in the local vernacular. The use of traditional art and language presents a viable
                                   Aminina Nud Mulumuluna (‘‘You Gotta Look After Yourself’’) and                                 language used required less translation than with other        method for addressing the holistic needs of Aboriginal health promotion.
                                   Wungai Ngunga (‘‘Women’s Business’’). Furthermore, a video                                     materials, and it was evident that the community
                                   entitled Aminina Nud Mulumuluna (‘‘You Gotta Look After Yourself’’)                            members understood the health messages being
                                   was                                                                                            conveyed, by the way they discussed their health after
                                   also produced. The elders were the sole presenters and spoke about                             viewing the booklets. An increase in community pride and
                                   the health and wellbeing of their communities.                                                 self-esteem was also observed, with both the artists and
                                                                                                                                  Aboriginal health workers reporting that the community
                                                                                                                                  involvement generated pride among locals.
Advise from health professionals This involved AHWs delivering advice to Indigenous smokers in their        Indigenous            Aboriginal health workers report that they don't always        It is recommended that culturally appropriate, non-coercive methods of counselling should be used
                                 community regarding the negative effects of smoking, and quit              smokers               feel comfortable delivering advice to smokers in their         with Indigenous people.
                                 strategies.                                                                                      community, and such advice is not always accepted. This
                                                                                                                                  is partly attributed to the high number of Indigenous health
                                                                                                                                  workers who smoke themselves feeling that they are
                                                                                                                                  unable to give such advice.

Nicotine replacement therapy       This involved Indigenous smokers using NRT to assist them in their       Indigenous            Many Indigenous smokers reported that they believe that        It is recommended that the cost of NRT is taken into account when recommending this strategy to
(NRT)                              attempts to quit.                                                        smokers               NRT is necessary to quit smoking.                              Indigenous smokers, as it may be inaccessible to many Indigenous people because of its cost.




Media advertising                  This study looked specifically at the National Tobacco Campaign.         Indigenous            Indigenous people reported that they would prefer media It is recommended that marketing campaigns are locally developed, involve Aboriginal elders and
                                                                                                            smokers               campaigns that were designed specifically for Indigenous significant community members in both their design and delivery, and have a broad community
                                                                                                                                  people.                                                  focus.




Health promotion materials         These materials included posters, videos, pamphlets, CD-ROMs,            Indigenous             It was reported that Indigenous people prefer materials       It is recommended that materials should be visual, colourful, easy to read, and include pictures of
                                   stickers and t-shirts.                                                   smokers               that specifically target an Indigenous audience.               local and well-known Indigenous people.




Training/Education for health      This paper suggests training be offered to AHWs and other                Aboriginal health     This paper reports that, apart from one pilot project          It is recommended that training is provided at both the state and local level, and based on a
workers                            Indigenous health personnel.                                             workers               occurring in Western NSW, no training or staff                 common syllabus. Such training should focus on public health/disease prevention, and explain the
                                                                                                                                  development in tobacco control has been offered to             'big picture' of tobacco control. Specifically, the training must address what tobacco control is, why
                                                                                                                                  AHWs in Australia.                                             it is necessary, how it works, and how it is relevant to AHWs and Aboriginal people in general. It is
                                                                                                                                                                                                 also noted that the participation of AHWs who smoke is imperative to the success of such training.

Conferences/Summits                This paper suggests that a National Indigenous People's Tobacco          All community         This paper reports that a 'national' tobacco control           It is recommended that a National Aboriginal Tobacco Control Conference be held in Australia. It is
                                   Control Conference, as well as local, regional or state-based            members               conference has never yet been held in Australia.               thought that such a conference would not only stimulate national action and help shape the political
                                   Aboriginal Tobacco Control training workshops, be held.                                                                                                       agenda, but also generate media attention, unify various participants and agencies and help set
                                                                                                                                                                                                 objectives for the future. Furthermore, it is suggested that smaller local, regional, or state-based
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Aboriginal Tobacco Control training workshops take place in order to provide participants with an
                                                                                                                                                                                                 understanding of the issue and stimulate Aboriginal action regarding tobacco control.

Quit Telephone Service             This paper suggests that a state or regional Aboriginal quit telephone Indigenous              This paper reports that a national QUIT line may be            It is recommended that an Aboriginal QUIT telephone service be trialled at a state or regional level
                                   service, which overcomes the social and language differences faced smokers                     inappropriate for Aboriginal tobacco users due to the          to determine the demand, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of such a service.
                                   by the Indigenous population, be provided.                                                     social and language differences in the Aboriginal
                                                                                                                                  population.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           >> 13 <<
                                                                                                                                                                         Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database                    Reason for
                                                     Date of    Producer/                                                                                                                                            Program/Stu     Date of          Date of
 Category Format/type        Title of Material                                        Description of Material            Source of Material Program/Project Title Agency (manager)           Contact/s                                                            program     Funding Information Objectives of Program                             Description of Program
                                                     Material    author                                                                                                                                              dy Location     Delivery       completion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 cessation
Literature   Report         Bumpa Shooters: A            1998 Moloney &          Provides an investigation into the      http://dspace.anu.edu.                                                                      ACT                                                      Australian Research
                            study of the smoking              Mozley             smoking habits of ATSI people, and      au/bitstream/1885/412                                                                       (Canberra,                                               Council Aboriginal and
                            habits among the                                     makes recommendations for future        56/1/bumpa_shooters.                                                                        Queanbeyan,                                              Torres Strait Islanders
                            Aboriginal and Torres                                programs. This study is the first to    pdf                                                                                         and Yass)                                                Researchers Development
                            Strait Islander                                      contribute to the development of a                                                                                                                                                           Program
                            community of the ACT                                 comprehensive database on smoking
                            region.                                              habits among ATSI populations within
                                                                                 the ACT area.




Literature   Study          Culturally appropriate       2004 McLennan &         Provides an a investigation into the    Health Promotion
                            health promotion: its             Khavarpour         specific health needs of ATSI           Journal of Australia
                            meaning and                                          population and makes                    (Vol 15)
                            application in                                       recommendations regarding future
                            Aboriginal                                           health promotion strategies.
                            communities




Literature   Study          Factors to consider in       2006 Heath,             Provides an investigation into the    Australian Journal of                                         Deanna Heath; TAIHS             Queensland     2003 and 2005
                            smoking interventions             Panaretto,         smoking habits, attitudes, nicotine   Primary Health (Vol                                           Email: dheath@taihs.net.au      (Townsville-
                            for Indigenous women              Manessis,          dependence, and readiness to change 12)                                                                                             urban)
                                                              Larkins, Malouf,   of pregnant and postnatal Indigenous
                                                              Reilly & Elston    women. This study involved
                                                                                 interviewing tobacco-using women
                                                                                 attending a maternal and child health
                                                                                 service at the Townsville Aboriginal
                                                                                 and Islanders Health Service (TAIHS),
                                                                                 in 2003 and 2005. It was hoped that
                                                                                 the results would help plan and
                                                                                 develop future tobacco cessation
                                                                                 programs for young Indigenous
                                                                                 women.




Literature   Report         Principles for better        2004 NSW                Provides an overview of a workshop      http://www.health.nsw.                                      NSW Department of Health
                            practice in Aboriginal            Department of      held by the NSW Department of           gov.au/pubs/2004/pdf/                                       PH: (02) 9391 9000
                            health promotion                  Health             Health which involved key               principles_aboriginal.p
                                                                                 representatives from all states who     df
                                                                                 work in health promotion, coming
                                                                                 together to develop a greater
                                                                                 understanding of the best practice
                                                                                 principles for Aboriginal health
                                                                                 promotion. These principles are
                                                                                 outlined in this report.




Literature   Study          Smokes and                   2006 Adams &            Provides an investigation into the      Aboriginal and
                            Aboriginal Health                 Walker             practices being used by nine AHW        Islander Health
                            Worker Training                                      training providers throughout           Worker Journal (Vol
                                                                                 Australia, and outlines the resources   30)
                                                                                 required in these training sessions.




Literature   Paper          Stressful life events,       2007 Digiacomo,         Provides a description of a smoking     Australian and New                                          Dr Michelle DiGiacomo;          NSW               2005-2006                                                                          This high-intensity smoking cessation program was conducted within a
             (discussion)   resources, and                    Davidson,          cessation intervention at an Aboriginal Zealand Journal of                                          Sydney West Area Health         (suburban                                                                                            primary care setting at a suburban Aboriginal medical service in Sydney. All
                            access: key                       Davidson,          Medical Service. Observations from      Public Health (Vol 31)                                      Service, NSW                    Western                                                                                              clients and staff of the medical service were invited by GPs and AHWs to
                            considerations in                 Moore & Abbott     this intervention are made, and useful                                                              Email:                          Sydney)                                                                                              participate. The nicotine dependency of all participants was assessed, and
                            quitting smoking at an                               information for intervention                                                                        michelle_digiacomo@wsahs.n                                                                                                           contextual information regarding the participants' family, work, living situation,
                            Aboriginal Medical                                   development is provided.                                                                            sw.gov.au                                                                                                                            health, and background information was collected, so as to tailor the
                            Service                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       intervention to the needs of each client.



Literature   Paper          Stressful life events,       2007 Digiacomo,         Provides a description of a smoking     Australian and New                                          Dr Michelle DiGiacomo;          NSW               2005-2006                                                                          This high-intensity smoking cessation program was conducted within a
             (discussion)   resources, and                    Davidson,          cessation intervention at an Aboriginal Zealand Journal of                                          Sydney West Area Health         (suburban                                                                                            primary care setting at a suburban Aboriginal medical service in Sydney. All
                            access: key                       Davidson,          Medical Service. Observations from      Public Health (Vol 31)                                      Service, NSW                    Western                                                                                              clients and staff of the medical service were invited by GPs and AHWs to
                            considerations in                 Moore & Abbott     this intervention are made, and useful                                                              Email:                          Sydney)                                                                                              participate. The nicotine dependency of all participants was assessed, and
                            quitting smoking at an                               information for intervention                                                                        michelle_digiacomo@wsahs.n                                                                                                           contextual information regarding the participants' family, work, living situation,
                            Aboriginal Medical                                   development is provided.                                                                            sw.gov.au                                                                                                                            health, and background information was collected, so as to tailor the
                            Service                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       intervention to the needs of each client.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  >> 14 <<
                                                                                                                                                                                         Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database
       Strategies Used                            Description of Strategies                          Target Audience                           Key Findings                                                  Recommendations & Best Practice Suggestions

                                                                                                                          Results showed that the main reason ATSI people began It is recommended that future intervention strategies identify tobacco as a drug and outline the
                                                                                                                          smoking was because it is associated with adulthood and ultimate consequences of its use to ATSI people. They should also involve ATSI community
                                                                                                                          'being in control'. All participants grew up in families who members educating young people about tobacco use. Furthermore, the issue of depression and
                                                                                                                          smoked, with many reporting that they obtain their            stress, and ATSI people's dependence on tobacco to deal with these issues, needs to be
                                                                                                                          cigarettes from family members, including parents and         addressed. Finally, it is imperative that mainstream funding bodies recognise the differences
                                                                                                                          uncles. Furthermore, the smoking habits of ATSI people between ATSI and non-Indigenous people, and fund projects that are Aboriginal specific.
                                                                                                                          were quite consistent, with very few reporting that they
                                                                                                                          smoke in the morning, and all reporting that they smoke at
                                                                                                                          night. Older respondents were found to often drink tea
                                                                                                                          and coffee when they smoke, and all respondents smoked
                                                                                                                          more when drinking alcohol, particularly men. The
                                                                                                                          majority of participants reported smoking bumpas (a
                                                                                                                          collection of tobacco from used butts) when nothing else
                                                                                                                          is available. Only 50% of respondents indicated an
                                                                                                                          understanding that others are harmed by their smoking
                                                                                                                          (i.e. passive smoking). Finally, all participants stated that
                                                                                                                          either addiction and/or stress were the cause of their
                                                                                                                          smoking, and that they believe they would need
                                                                                                                          counselling or medical help to assist them to quit.
                                                                                                                          However, all of the participants who had quit in this study
                                                                                                                          reported that they did so "cold turkey".
                                                                                                                          It was found that Indigenous people define health and well- It is recommended that health promotion strategies take a holistic approach, which encompasses
                                                                                                                          being differently to the Western biomedical perspective       the many aspects of health according to Indigenous people. Specifically, the spiritual connection
                                                                                                                          Rather than just physical and mental well-being being         with ancestors and the land should be used and encouraged in health promotion initiatives.
                                                                                                                          considered the determinants of health, Indigenous people Likewise, the promotion of positive self and community identity through opportunities for spiritual
                                                                                                                          reported that health is influenced by identity, family,       expression should be integrated into health promotion activities, through such means as ceremonial
                                                                                                                          community kinship, culture, spirituality and land, and is a performances, rituals, painting, storytelling, community/family gatherings, and dance. Moreover, it is
                                                                                                                          complex and interdependent concept. Specifically,             important that non-Indigenous health professionals take time to understand the dynamic
                                                                                                                          relationships within the community and a sense of             relationship Aboriginals see between mind, body and spirit, so the 'whole' health of such clients can
                                                                                                                          belonging were identified as integral aspects of health       be addressed. Finally, it is imperative that consultation and collaboration occurs with Indigenous
                                                                                                                          and well being. Furthermore, all participants considered      individuals and communities in order to establish a culturally appropriate and more effective
                                                                                                                          cultural practices, sacred sites and spiritual connections approach to health promotion, that incorporates spirituality into health care.
                                                                                                                          with ancestors as important aspects of their well-being.

                                                                                                                          Results revealed that tobacco-using pregnant and               It is recommended that future tobacco cessation programs take an individual, family and whole
                                                                                                                          postnatal Indigenous women were more ready to change           community approach, as there are a multitude of factors influencing Indigenous women's' tobacco
                                                                                                                          their smoking behaviour than the general Indigenous            use. Likewise, it is suggested that intervention programs address/challenge the association
                                                                                                                          population. Furthermore, it was found that over 75% of the     Indigenous women make between tobacco use and stress relief and weight control, as this is a
                                                                                                                          women interviewed were classed as having a low-                barrier to their quitting. Finally , it is recommended that intervention programs strongly emphasise
                                                                                                                          medium nicotine dependency, suggesting that their              education regarding the harmful effects of passive smoking on children, and the increased
                                                                                                                          tobacco use may in fact be more a result of habit and/or       incidence of SIDS, asthma, respiratory problems, and low birth weight associated with tobacco use
                                                                                                                          social normality, than a chemical dependence.                  during pregnancy.
                                                                                                                          Nonetheless, over one third of the women reported that
                                                                                                                          they, and on average two other adults, regularly smoke
                                                                                                                          inside the house, even though there were generally at
                                                                                                                          least three children living in the house. Likewise, it was
                                                                                                                          reported that 58% of the women drank alcohol and 22%
                                                                                                                          used non-prescription drugs, even while pregnant. This
                                                                                                                          suggests that Indigenous women lack knowledge
                                                                                                                          regarding the harmful effects of smoking and other drug
                                                                                                                          use on children. While 15% of the women reported that
                                                                                                                          they had attempted to quit smoking over 10 times and
                                                                                                                          75% said that they had tried to quit between 1 and 10
                                                                                                                          times, all of them were still currently smoking, despite
                                                                                                                          their low dependency and high motivation to quit. A
                                                                                                                          number of barriers to quitting were identified by the
                                                                                                     Indigenous people    women and included stress, other people smoking in the
                                                                                                                          A number of principles were developed for better practice      In accordance with these principles, a number of recommendations were made. First, all Aboriginal
                                                                                                     in general           in Aboriginal health promotion. All of the workshop            health promotion activities meed to acknowledge, affirm and reflect the values, history and social
                                                                                                                          participants agreed on these principles. The first is that     environment of the Aboriginal culture. Second, they should be based on both qualitative and
                                                                                                                          Aboriginal health promotion should acknowledge                 quantitative evidence. Thirdly, others should be encouraged to participate in, or take on, programs;
                                                                                                                          Aboriginal cultural influences and the historical, social      individuals, units or even
                                                                                                                          and cultural context of communities. Secondly, Aboriginal      government departments should have greater ability to work together to solve problems, and a
                                                                                                                          health promotion practice should be based on evidence.         process should be established for routinely improving practice. Fourth, community input at all levels
                                                                                                                          Thirdly, health promotion initiatives should build the         of program planning, implementation and
                                                                                                                          capacities of the community, government, service               evaluation is necessary. Fifth, Aboriginal people should be encouraged to work in partnership with
                                                                                                                          systems, organisations and the workforce, ensuring             relevant organisations on interventions that build community ownership and respond to the needs
                                                                                                                          equitable resource allocation, cultural security and           and motivations of the community. Sixth, there should be a coordinated and proactive approach to
                                                                                                                          respect in the workplace. Fourth, it was stated that           primary health care that includes early intervention and prevention strategies. Seventh, different
                                                                                                                          Aboriginal health promotion should ensure ongoing              collaborations and partnerships are necessary for effective action as many of the determinants of
                                                                                                                          community involvement and consultation. Fifth, the             health are beyond the health sector alone. Eighth, programs should be multi-faceted and include
                                                                                                                          practical application of Aboriginal self-determination         effective evaluation and sustainability strategies to improve the design of future programs. Finally,
                                                                                                                          principles is fundamental when planning initiatives. Sixth,    decision-making policies and practices should be based on a sound rationale so as to have the
                                                                                                                          Aboriginal health promotion should adhere to the holistic      capacity to take into account the complex and changing nature of Aboriginal health promotion.
                                                                                                                          definition of health and acknowledge that primary health
                                                                                                                          care in Aboriginal communities incorporates Aboriginal
                                                                                                                          health promotion. Seventh, The effective partnerships
                                                                                                                          must be established to address many of the determinants
                                                                                                                          of health. Eighth, Aboriginal health promotion programs
Training/Education for health   This program offered raining courses for AHWs. The majority of        Aboriginal health   shouldfound that training providers use aAnd finally,
                                                                                                                          It was be sustainable and transferable. range of               It is recommended that training courses designed for AHWs take the findings of the current study
workers                         these courses aimed to teach AHWs about the health effects of         workers             resources to teach AHWs about smoking. These                   into account.
                                smoking on the individual, in pregnancy, and on children. A number of                     resources included QUIT campaign resources (5
                                the courses taught about brief intervention and methods of stopping                       providers), in-house developed resources (two providers),
                                smoking. Fewer courses taught about Quit group facilitation skills,                       artificial smoking machine (one provider), Asthma
                                skills in using nicotine replacement therapy, and information about                       Foundation 'Short Wind' booklet and video (one provider),
                                Zyban.                                                                                    'Smoke Check' brief intervention (one provider), 'The
                                                                                                                          Tobacco Book' (one provider), CARPA Standard
                                                                                                                          Treatment Manual and Women's Business
                                                                                                                          Manual (1 provider), and one provider said they used no
                                                                                                                          resources. Furthermore, when asked if they required any
                                                                                                                          resources to teach about smoking, they suggested a kit
                                                                                                                          that suits educators to deliver smoking information,
                                                                                                                          resources in all areas of tobacco control, something that
                                                                                                                          helps AHWs and community members to prioritise
                                                                                                                          smoking as a health problem, Indigenous specific
                                                                                                                          resources with local focus, Indigenous specific interactive
                                                                                                                          resources, stories about giving up especially AHWs who
                                                                                                                          have given up, CD-Rom or DVD suitable for remote areas
                                                                                                                          where English is often a second language, and a video
                                                                                                                          about effects of smoking in pregnancy and on children.

Nicotine replacement therapy    NRT was provided to each participant free of charge (it was funded by Indigenous          Thirty-seven people decided to join the program, but only      It is recommended that, while this program resulted in a rather low cessation rate, free NRT should
(NRT)                           the local area health service). NRT was only provided on the condition smokers            thirty-two participants actually attempted to quit by taking   be offered to Indigenous smokers, as it at least prompts smokers to make an attempt to quit.
                                that each participant would attend counselling sessions.                                  part in the program. Of those thirty two, three                Furthermore, it is suggested that programs encourage AHWs to be involved, as they are pivotal in
                                                                                                                          successfully quit smoking and continued to be smoke-free       communicating accessibility and enthusiasm for the program. Finally, it is thought that the
                                                                                                                          at the six month follow-up. Twenty-three began the             provision of only one-week supply of NRT encouraged participants to return and take part in
                                                                                                                          program, but continued for less than four weeks before         counselling sessions.
                                                                                                                          relapsing. The remaining six participants took part in the
                                                                                                                          program for more than four weeks but eventually
                                                                                                                          relapsed. Stress was noted as the main reason people
                                                                                                                          had relapsed.
Counselling/Support groups      Counselling sessions were provided, and weekly follow up sessions    Indigenous           Thirty-seven people decided to join the program, but only      It is recommended that, while this program resulted in a rather low cessation rate, free NRT should
                                ensued. AHWs also engaged in concurrent culturally appropriate       smokers              thirty-two participants actually attempted to quit by taking   be offered to Indigenous smokers, as it at least prompts smokers to make an attempt to quit.
                                counselling via brief opportunistic interventions.                                        part in the program. Of those thirty two, three                Furthermore, it is suggested that programs encourage AHWs to be involved, as they are pivotal in
                                                                                                                          successfully quit smoking and continued to be smoke-free       communicating accessibility and enthusiasm for the program. Finally, it is thought that the
                                                                                                                          at the six month follow-up. Twenty-three began the             provision of only one-week supply of NRT encouraged participants to return and take part in
                                                                                                                          program, but continued for less than four weeks before         counselling sessions.
                                                                                                                          relapsing. The remaining six participants took part in the
                                                                                                                          program for more than four weeks but eventually
                                                                                                                          relapsed. Stress was noted as the main reason people
                                                                                                                          had relapsed.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  >> 15 <<
                                                                                                                                                                                 Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database                       Reason for
                                                  Date of     Producer/                                                                                                                                                   Program/Stu      Date of           Date of
 Category Format/type       Title of Material                                  Description of Material           Source of Material Program/Project Title Agency (manager)                           Contact/s                                                               program     Funding Information Objectives of Program                                        Description of Program
                                                  Material     author                                                                                                                                                     dy Location      Delivery        completion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            cessation
Literature    Literature   Tobacco and                 2008 Ivers         Provides an overview of evidence-     http://www.publish.csir                                                      Dr Rowena Ivers; Email:      NSW
              review       Aboriginal people in                           based interventions thought to reduce o.au/?act=view_file&fil                                                      rowenaivers@bigpond.com
                           NSW                                            the harm resulting from tobacco use   e_id=NB07123.pdf
                                                                          by Aboriginal people, in order to
                                                                          inform decision making when planning
                                                                          and funding anti-tobacco activities.

Literature    Literature   Tobacco and                 2008 Ivers         Provides an overview of evidence-     http://www.publish.csir                                                      Dr Rowena Ivers; Email:      NSW
              review       Aboriginal people in                           based interventions thought to reduce o.au/?act=view_file&fil                                                      rowenaivers@bigpond.com
                           NSW                                            the harm resulting from tobacco use   e_id=NB07123.pdf
                                                                          by Aboriginal people, in order to
                                                                          inform decision making when planning
                                                                          and funding anti-tobacco activities.




Literature    Literature   Tobacco and                 2008 Ivers         Provides an overview of evidence-     http://www.publish.csir                                                      Dr Rowena Ivers; Email:      NSW
              review       Aboriginal people in                           based interventions thought to reduce o.au/?act=view_file&fil                                                      rowenaivers@bigpond.com
                           NSW                                            the harm resulting from tobacco use   e_id=NB07123.pdf
                                                                          by Aboriginal people, in order to
                                                                          inform decision making when planning
                                                                          and funding anti-tobacco activities.

Literature    Literature   Tobacco and                 2008 Ivers         Provides an overview of evidence-     http://www.publish.csir                                                      Dr Rowena Ivers; Email:      NSW
              review       Aboriginal people in                           based interventions thought to reduce o.au/?act=view_file&fil                                                      rowenaivers@bigpond.com
                           NSW                                            the harm resulting from tobacco use   e_id=NB07123.pdf
                                                                          by Aboriginal people, in order to
                                                                          inform decision making when planning
                                                                          and funding anti-tobacco activities.

Literature    Literature   Tobacco and                 2008 Ivers         Provides an overview of evidence-     http://www.publish.csir                                                      Dr Rowena Ivers; Email:      NSW
              review       Aboriginal people in                           based interventions thought to reduce o.au/?act=view_file&fil                                                      rowenaivers@bigpond.com
                           NSW                                            the harm resulting from tobacco use   e_id=NB07123.pdf
                                                                          by Aboriginal people, in order to
                                                                          inform decision making when planning
                                                                          and funding anti-tobacco activities.

Literature    Literature   Tobacco and                 2008 Ivers         Provides an overview of evidence-     http://www.publish.csir                                                      Dr Rowena Ivers; Email:      NSW
              review       Aboriginal people in                           based interventions thought to reduce o.au/?act=view_file&fil                                                      rowenaivers@bigpond.com
                           NSW                                            the harm resulting from tobacco use   e_id=NB07123.pdf
                                                                          by Aboriginal people, in order to
                                                                          inform decision making when planning
                                                                          and funding anti-tobacco activities.

Literature    Literature   Tobacco and                 2008 Ivers         Provides an overview of evidence-     http://www.publish.csir                                                      Dr Rowena Ivers; Email:      NSW
              review       Aboriginal people in                           based interventions thought to reduce o.au/?act=view_file&fil                                                      rowenaivers@bigpond.com
                           NSW                                            the harm resulting from tobacco use   e_id=NB07123.pdf
                                                                          by Aboriginal people, in order to
                                                                          inform decision making when planning
                                                                          and funding anti-tobacco activities.

Literature    Literature   Tobacco and                 2008 Ivers         Provides an overview of evidence-     http://www.publish.csir                                                      Dr Rowena Ivers; Email:      NSW
              review       Aboriginal people in                           based interventions thought to reduce o.au/?act=view_file&fil                                                      rowenaivers@bigpond.com
                           NSW                                            the harm resulting from tobacco use   e_id=NB07123.pdf
                                                                          by Aboriginal people, in order to
                                                                          inform decision making when planning
                                                                          and funding anti-tobacco activities.

Literature    Literature   Tobacco and                 2008 Ivers         Provides an overview of evidence-     http://www.publish.csir                                                      Dr Rowena Ivers; Email:      NSW
              review       Aboriginal people in                           based interventions thought to reduce o.au/?act=view_file&fil                                                      rowenaivers@bigpond.com
                           NSW                                            the harm resulting from tobacco use   e_id=NB07123.pdf
                                                                          by Aboriginal people, in order to
                                                                          inform decision making when planning
                                                                          and funding anti-tobacco activities.

Literature    Literature   Tobacco and                 2008 Ivers         Provides an overview of evidence-     http://www.publish.csir                                                      Dr Rowena Ivers; Email:      NSW
              review       Aboriginal people in                           based interventions thought to reduce o.au/?act=view_file&fil                                                      rowenaivers@bigpond.com
                           NSW                                            the harm resulting from tobacco use   e_id=NB07123.pdf
                                                                          by Aboriginal people, in order to
                                                                          inform decision making when planning
                                                                          and funding anti-tobacco activities.

Literature    Literature   Tobacco and                 2008 Ivers         Provides an overview of evidence-     http://www.publish.csir                                                      Dr Rowena Ivers; Email:      NSW
              review       Aboriginal people in                           based interventions thought to reduce o.au/?act=view_file&fil                                                      rowenaivers@bigpond.com
                           NSW                                            the harm resulting from tobacco use   e_id=NB07123.pdf
                                                                          by Aboriginal people, in order to
                                                                          inform decision making when planning
                                                                          and funding anti-tobacco activities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 To train Aboriginal Health
                                                                                                                                                                                             Toni Mason Quit Victoria                                                                                            Professionals on how to
                                                                                                                                                                                             (03) 9419 3350                                                                                                      provide smoking cessation       This training program targets Aboriginal Health and Community Professionals
Unpublished Project        Aboriginal Health                                                                                              Aboriginal Health Worker                           toni.mason@cancervic.org.a                                                                  Cancer Victoria core    brief intervention with their   to provide smoking cessation brief intervention with their clients to encourage
source      Overview       Worker training        NA         NA           Unpublished                           Interview                 training                   Quit Victoria           u                          Victoria        2006-to present Still in progress   NA           funding                 clients.                        more Aboriginal people to increase quit attempts and to stop smoking tobacco.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Work in collaboration with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Victorian peak Aboriginal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 health organisation, VACCHO
                                                                                                                                                                                             Toni Mason Quit Victoria                                                                  Cancer Victoria (core     to assist Aboriginal Medical    Through the implementation of a Smoke free Workplace Policy within
                           Smoke Free                                                                                                                                                        (03) 9419 3350                                                                            funding) and VACCHO -     Services and Corporations to    Aboriginal Medical Services and Corporations, we hope to change smoking
Unpublished   Project      Aboriginal health                                                                                                                                                 toni.mason@cancervic.org.a                                                                although no funding set   implement a Smoke free          behaviours amongst health staff and ultimately the whole Aboriginal
source        Overview     workplace strategies   NA         NA           Unpublished                           Interview                 Smoke free workplaces      Quit Victoria           u                          Victoria                 Aug-08 Still in progress   NA         aside for this project.   Workplace Policy                community.
Informal      Project      Make Smoking           NA         NA           Unpublished                           Interview                 Make Smoking History:      Cancer Council          Denise Sullivan The Cancer WA                  April 1 2008                            NA Cancer council            To train, mentor and support    Provides professional development opportunities for indigenous and/or
document      Overview     History: Fresh Start                                                                                           Fresh start program                                Council of WA (08) 9212                                                                                             to project staff through the    regional/remote workers
                           Program                                                                                                                                                           4333                                                                                                                Fresh Start program to help
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 their clients quit
Informal      Project      Make Smoking           NA         NA           Unpublished                           Interview                 Make Smoking History:      Cancer Council          Denise Sullivan The Cancer   WA                       2006              2010           NA Cancer council            To make cars and homes          Television and radio advertisements, pamphlets, stickers, building indigenous
document      Overview     History: Smoke free                                                                                            Smoke free homes and                               Council of WA (08) 9212                                                                                             smoke free and for parents to   inter-agency communication
                           homes and cars                                                                                                 cars campaign                                      4333                                                                                                                reduce children's exposure to
                           campaign                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ETS
Informal      Project      Make Smoking           NA         NA           Unpublished                           Interview                 Make Smoking History:      Cancer Council          Denise Sullivan The Cancer   WA                       2006                             NA Cancer council            General anti-smoking            Radio advertisement targeted at the indigenous population
document      Overview     History: Bubblewrap                                                                                            Bubblewrap                                         Council of WA (08) 9212                                                                                             messages
                                                                                                                                                                                             4333
Informal      Project      WA Aboriginal Health NA           N/A          Unpublished                           Interview                 WA Aboriginal Health       WA Aboriginal Health                                 WA                   1-Jan-08              2010                                        To increase the capacity of the Creation of six Aboriginal Health Promotion Officer positions to be based in
document      Overview     Promotion                                                                                                      Promotion Collaborative    Promotion                                                                                                                                   Aboriginal Health Promotion     the Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services across WA
                           Collaborative Program                                                                                          Program                    Collaborative Program                                                                                                                       workforce




Informal      Project      Quit line              NA         NA           Unpublished                           Interview                 Quit line                  Alcohol and Drug                                     WA                                                                                     To provide a free telephone     To provide a free telephone counselling service to mainstream and indigenous
document      Overview                                                                                                                                               Information Service                                                                                                                         counselling service             people
                                                                                                                                                                     (ADIS)
Informal      Project      Smarter than Smoking NA           NA           Unpublished                           Interview                 Smarter than Smoking       Heart Foundation                                     WA                 since 1995                                  Healthway               Multi-strategy project to     Although mainly targeting mainstream teenagers, there are plans for inter-
document      Overview                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           prevent smoking in the 10-15 agency collaboration for targeting Indigenous young people
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 year old age group. Recent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 focus on developing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Indigenous specific resources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       >> 16 <<
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database
        Strategies Used                                  Description of Strategies                             Target Audience                            Key Findings                                               Recommendations & Best Practice Suggestions

Advise from health professionals This involved health professionals offering advice to Indigenous              Indigenous            Evidence suggests that advice from health professionals     It is recommended that advice on cessation be given to Indigenous smokers at every opportunity,
                                 smokers regarding their tobacco use.                                          smokers               can help about 6% of smokers to quit. However, while a      such as in Aboriginal medical services, other community health services and hospital settings
                                                                                                                                     number of programs aimed at Indigenous smokers are
                                                                                                                                     currently underway, none offering advice from health
                                                                                                                                     professionals have formally been evaluated.


Nicotine replacement therapy        This involved providing subsidised NRT to Indigenous smokers to            Indigenous       Precious research has shown that NRT and bupropion               It is recommended that NRT is offered for free to Indigenous smokers, as it is likely to be
(NRT)                               assist them to quit.                                                       smokers          increase cessation rates in other populations. For               inaccessible to many Aboriginal smokers due to its cost.
                                                                                                                                Indigenous smokers, one evaluation showed that free
                                                                                                                                NRT assisted 15% of Aboriginal smokers to quit over a 6-
                                                                                                                                month period. Bupropion had not yet been evaluated
                                                                                                                                specifically in an Indigenous setting, but recent results
                                                                                                                                from a pilot program in correctional facility inmates (which
                                                                                                                                included Aboriginal inmates) are encouraging. Varenicline
                                                                                                                                has only recently been licensed for use in smoking
                                                                                                                                cessation, and studies have demonstrated that it lead to
                                                                                                                                an abstinence rate of 23% at
                                                                                                                                12 months.
Interventions for pregnant          This involved providing advice and services to pregnant Indigenous         Pregnant         At present there has been no evaluations of any tobacco          It is recommended that antenatal services for Aboriginal women ensure that smoking-cessation
women                               women.                                                                     Indigenous women interventions aimed at pregnant Indigenous women.                advice is given to all pregnant smokers, and that they are offered referral to a specialist quit service
                                                                                                                                However, a randomised trial of an intensive smoking-             where it is available. It is also noted that pregnant women may also be offered NRT.
                                                                                                                                cessation intervention is underway.



Hospital-based intervention         This involved providing high intensity tobacco interventions to hospital Indigenous              There have been no trials of hospital-based cessation       It is recommended that Indigenous inpatients who are smokers are offered cessation support.
                                    inpatients.                                                              inpatients who          services for Aboriginal inpatients.                         Specifically, all nicotine-dependent inpatients (Indigenous or not) should be identified, informed of
                                                                                                             smoke                                                                               the smoke-free workplace policy and advised of their options for managing their nicotine withdrawal
                                                                                                                                                                                                 during their stay in hospital (and provided with a three day supply of NRT). They should also be
                                                                                                                                                                                                 offered ongoing support following discharge.


Media advertising                   This involved either paid or unpaid anti-tobacco advertising.              Indigenous people     A survey of Aboriginal people in the NT revealed that
                                                                                                               in general            most people surveyed recalled anti-tobacco advertising
                                                                                                                                     and some smokers had quit as a result of seeing this
                                                                                                                                     advertising.



Event sponsorship                   This involved sponsoring cultural, sporting or community events so         Indigenous people     Sponsorship has been used in Aboriginal anti-tobacco
                                    that they are smoke-free.                                                  in general            programs, however, such activities have not been
                                                                                                                                     evaluated.




Health promotion materials          This involved providing materials, including self-help information, to     Indigenous            The evidence regarding health promotion materials is        It is recommended that health materials aimed at Indigenous people are targeted at their own
                                    smokers to encourage cessation.                                            smokers               unclear.                                                    community, and use visual
                                                                                                                                                                                                 media or are easy to read, colourful and include pictures of local or well known people.




Control of tobacco sales            This involved restricting tobacco sales to minors.                         Indigenous youth      There is no published evidence of the effect of enforcing   It is suggested that the restriction of sales to minors is an important strategy for the Indigenous
                                                                                                                                     restrictions on sales to Aboriginal minors. Health          population.
                                                                                                                                     warnings may be effective in reducing tobacco use, but
                                                                                                                                     written warnings may be less useful for people with low
                                                                                                                                     literacy skills.


Changes to tobacco pricing          This involved increasing the price of tobacco products.                    Indigenous            The effects of taxation and pricing changes for tobacco     It is recommended that this strategy be used with caution as increases in the price of tobacco
                                                                                                               smokers               products have not been evaluated for Aboriginal people,     products may result in financial hardship for smokers and result in less money for food and other
                                                                                                                                     but is thought to have the potential to decrease            life necessities.
                                                                                                                                     consumption.



Smoke Free Policy                   This involved implementing policies that make certain public places        Indigenous            There is no evidence regarding the effect of smoke-free     It is recommended that any area designated as being smoke-free display ‘no smoking’ signs in
Implementation                      smoke-free.                                                                smokers               policy implementation on Aboriginal people. However, it     prominent positions and
                                                                                                                                     is thought that policies banning smoking in mainstream      remove all ashtrays, matches, lighters and other items used for smoking from smoke-free areas.
                                                                                                                                     organisations may have had some effect on encouraging
                                                                                                                                     some Aboriginal people to quit.


Quit Telephone Service              This involved providing a quitline that offers support to Indigenous       Indigenous            There have been no evaluations of quitlines for Aboriginal It is recommended that quitlines targeting Indigenous people take into account their social, cultural
                                    smokers.                                                                   smokers               people, or of Aboriginal people’s use of mainstream            and economic constraints, and provide a service that is accessible and appropriate for this
                                                                                                                                     services. However, it is thought that they are likely to be of population.
                                                                                                                                     use to some people.




                                    Run 1-day smoking cessation training on site at Aboriginal
Training/Education for health       organisation for all staff available to attend. Provide training free of   Aboriginal health     Each training session is evaluated - no overall report
workers                             charge and assist with catering costs when required.                       workers               published.


Work with Aboriginal
organisation Management and
staff to draft new policy. Survey
to all staff to address smoking     Involve Managers and staff within organisation to provide input into
cessation support options for       new Smoke free Policy. Survey issued to staff to determine methods         All staff within
staff and community, timeline of    of assistance organisation should provide to assist staff to quit. Draft   Aboriginal Medical
implementation and designated       smoke free policy and present to organisation Board to gain                Services and
smoke free areas on site.           endorsement.                                                               Corporations         Project is still underway and will be evaluated.
Training/Education for health       Provides professional development opportunities for indigenous             Staff working in the
workers                             and/or regional/remote workers                                             area of aboriginal
                                                                                                               health

Health promotion materials          Television and radio advertisements, pamphlets, stickers, building         Mainstream and
                                    indigenous inter-agency communication                                      indigenous
                                                                                                               populations

Media Advertising                   Radio advertisements                                                       General indigenous Only informal feedback of a positive nature                    This work set the foundation to develop culturally appropriate campaigns/educational resources
                                                                                                               population

Training and placement              The Aboriginal Health Promotion Officer will be responsible for            Aboriginal health
                                    developing and implementing health promotion activities for the            promotion
                                    community (i.e., not within the ACCHS). In addition, they will also be     workforce
                                    responsible for referrals to clinics and giving advice about chronic
                                    disease. The Aboriginal Health Promotion Officer will also complete
                                    tertiary training in health promotion and work for three months within
                                    an NGO that values health promotion.
Telephone counselling               Telephone counselling                                                      Indigenous and
                                                                                                               mainstream

Mass media, school resources,       These strategies will be adapted for use with Indigenous youth             Indigenous and
community activities                                                                                           mainstream youth



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            >> 17 <<
                                                                                                                                                                  Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database                              Reason for
                                                  Date of        Producer/                                                                                                                                      Program/Stu       Date of             Date of
 Category Format/type     Title of Material                                      Description of Material   Source of Material Program/Project Title Agency (manager)                    Contact/s                                                                    program           Funding Information Objectives of Program                                            Description of Program
                                                  Material        author                                                                                                                                        dy Location       Delivery          completion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    cessation
Informal      Project    Health Promotion         NA         NA              Unpublished                   Interview        Health Promotion           WA Health Promotion                                      WA                  Since 2007                                         WA Health Promotion     To identify priorities for work    To identify priorities for work with tobacco cessation for Aboriginal groups by
document      Overview   Strategic Framework                                                                                Strategic Framework        Strategic Framework                                                                                                             Strategic Framework     with tobacco cessation for         WA health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Aboriginal groups by WA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               health
Informal      Project    WA tobacco action        NA         NA              Unpublished                   Interview        WA tobacco action plan     Tobacco control                                          WA                  since 2007                                                                 Develop a framework for            To better integrate services and identify particular at risk groups
document      Overview   plan                                                                                                                          branch                                                                                                                                                  tobacco control activities in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               WA and implement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               recommendations from the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               National Tobacco Strategy
Informal      Project    Aboriginal Women's       NA         NA              Unpublished                   Interview        Aboriginal Women's         Women's Health Care Women's Health Care                                        1-Jan-08               2010                                              To empower Aboriginal              Providing information and a supportive environment for aboriginal women in
document      Overview   Project                                                                                            Project                    Association         Association                                                                                                                         women to improve their health      addition to training up AHW, volunteers and community organisations to be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  able to provide culturally appropriate health promotion information



                         Engagement of                                                                                                                                         Juli Coffin; Combined            Western                                                                                        To increase the number of
Unpublished Project      Aboriginal children to                                                                                                        Combined Universities Universities Centre for Rural      Australia                                                                                      households in the Pilbara that Attempts to get the whole household involved in making the environment
source      Overview     develop materials        NA         NA              Unpublished                   Interview        Smoke Free Kids            Centre for Rural Health Health PH:9956 0200              (Pilbara)      Current (2008)      Ongoing          NA                 Healthway funded        are smoke free                 smoke free


                         Engagement of                                                                                                                                         Juli Coffin; Combined            Western                                                                                        To increase the number of
Unpublished Project      Aboriginal children to                                                                                                        Combined Universities Universities Centre for Rural      Australia                                                                                      households in the Pilbara that     Attempts to get the whole household involved in making the environment
source      Overview     develop materials        NA         NA              Unpublished                   Interview        Smoke Free Kids            Centre for Rural Health Health PH:9956 0200              (Pilbara)      Current (2008)      Ongoing          NA                 Healthway funded        are smoke free                     smoke free
                         Engagement of                                                                                                                                         Juli Coffin; Combined            Western                                                                                        To increase the number of
Unpublished   Project    Aboriginal children to                                                                                                        Combined Universities Universities Centre for Rural      Australia                                                                                      households in the Pilbara that     Attempts to get the whole household involved in making the environment
source        Overview   develop materials        NA         NA              Unpublished                   Interview        Smoke Free Kids            Centre for Rural Health Health PH:9956 0200              (Pilbara)      Current (2008) Ongoing             NA                   Healthway funded        are smoke free                     smoke free
Unpublished   Project    Clean Air Dreaming       NA         NA              Unpublished                   Interview        Clean Air Dreaming         South Coast AMS         Lesley Roxbee and Jasmine        NSW             July 2007 - July             2009 The funding has      National Illicit Drug   To develop and implement           Established the placement of three health workers within AMS's in Sydney
Source        Overview   Project                                                                                                                                               Sarin (South Coast AMS) (02)                                2009                    to be re-applied    strategy through the    processes, systems and             responsible for developing systems and processes related to recording and
                                                                                                                                                                               4447 8037                                                                                         for   Indigenous Community    support groups in AMS's to         monitoring smoking behaviours of AMS users. This same worker is
                                                                                                                                                                               or Andy Mark, National Heart                                                                            Capacity Development    help people quit smoking.          responsible for developing and evaluating group / individual sessions and
                                                                                                                                                                               Foundation of Australia (NSW                                                                            Grant.                                                     providing health promotion information to those wanting to give up smoking.
                                                                                                                                                                               Division)
                                                                                                                                                                               PH: (02) 4233 1033
Unpublished Project      Clean Air Dreaming       NA         NA              Unpublished                   Interview        Clean Air Dreaming         South Coast AMS         Lesley Roxbee and Jasmine        NSW             July 2007 - July             2009 The funding has National Illicit Drug        To develop and implement           Established the placement of three health workers within AMS's in Sydney
Source      Overview     Project                                                                                                                                               Sarin (South Coast AMS) (02)                                2009                   to be re-applied strategy through the        processes, systems and             responsible for developing systems and processes related to recording and
                                                                                                                                                                               4447 8037                                                                                        for Indigenous Community       support groups in AMS's to         monitoring smoking behaviours of AMS users. This same worker is
                                                                                                                                                                               or Andy Mark, National Heart                                                                         Capacity Development       help people quit smoking.          responsible for developing and evaluating group / individual sessions and
                                                                                                                                                                               Foundation of Australia (NSW                                                                         Grant.                                                        providing health promotion information to those wanting to give up smoking.
                                                                                                                                                                               Division)
                                                                                                                                                                               PH: (02) 4233 1033
Unpublished Project      Clean Air Dreaming       NA         NA              Unpublished                   Interview        Clean Air Dreaming          South Coast AMS        Lesley Roxbee and Jasmine        NSW             July 2007 - July             2009 The funding has National Illicit Drug        To develop and implement           Established the placement of three health workers within AMS's in Sydney
Source      Overview     Project                                                                                                                                               Sarin (South Coast AMS) (02)                                2009                   to be re-applied strategy through the        processes, systems and             responsible for developing systems and processes related to recording and
                                                                                                                                                                               4447 8037                                                                                        for Indigenous Community       support groups in AMS's to         monitoring smoking behaviours of AMS users. This same worker is
                                                                                                                                                                               or Andy Mark, National Heart                                                                         Capacity Development       help people quit smoking.          responsible for developing and evaluating group / individual sessions and
                                                                                                                                                                               Foundation of Australia (NSW                                                                         Grant.                                                        providing health promotion information to those wanting to give up smoking.
                                                                                                                                                                               Division)
                                                                                                                                                                               PH: (02) 4233 1033
Unpublished Project      Clean Air Dreaming       NA         NA              Unpublished                   Interview        Clean Air Dreaming          South Coast AMS        Lesley Roxbee and Jasmine        NSW             July 2007 - July             2009 The funding has National Illicit Drug        To develop and implement           Established the placement of three health workers within AMS's in Sydney
Source      Overview     Project                                                                                                                                               Sarin (South Coast AMS) (02)                                2009                   to be re-applied strategy through the        processes, systems and             responsible for developing systems and processes related to recording and
                                                                                                                                                                               4447 8037                                                                                        for Indigenous Community       support groups in AMS's to         monitoring smoking behaviours of AMS users. This same worker is
                                                                                                                                                                               or Andy Mark, National Heart                                                                         Capacity Development       help people quit smoking.          responsible for developing and evaluating group / individual sessions and
                                                                                                                                                                               Foundation of Australia (NSW                                                                         Grant.                                                        providing health promotion information to those wanting to give up smoking.
                                                                                                                                                                               Division)
                                                                                                                                                                               PH: (02) 4233 1033
Unpublished Project      Clean Air Dreaming       NA         NA              Unpublished                   Interview        Clean Air Dreaming          South Coast AMS        Lesley Roxbee and Jasmine        NSW             July 2007 - July             2009 The funding has National Illicit Drug        To develop and implement           Established the placement of three health workers within AMS's in Sydney
Source      Overview     Project                                                                                                                                               Sarin (South Coast AMS) (02)                                2009                   to be re-applied strategy through the        processes, systems and             responsible for developing systems and processes related to recording and
                                                                                                                                                                               4447 8037                                                                                        for Indigenous Community       support groups in AMS's to         monitoring smoking behaviours of AMS users. This same worker is
                                                                                                                                                                               or Andy Mark, National Heart                                                                         Capacity Development       help people quit smoking.          responsible for developing and evaluating group / individual sessions and
                                                                                                                                                                               Foundation of Australia (NSW                                                                         Grant.                                                        providing health promotion information to those wanting to give up smoking.
                                                                                                                                                                               Division)
                                                                                                                                                                               PH: (02) 4233 1033
Unpublished Project      Randomised control       NA         NA              Unpublished                   Interview        Randomised control trial   James Cook University Dennis Gray PH: (08) 9266          WA                 April 1 2008                                                                                                   Randomised control Trial
source      Overview     trial                                                                                              (RCT)                      and KAMSC               1624

Unpublished Project      Randomised control       NA         NA              Unpublished                   Interview        Randomised control trial   Aboriginal Health and   Sean Appoo PH: (02) 9212         NSW                       2008                                                                 To train Aboriginal Health         Testing these strategies in 12 AMS's (i.e., 6 control) using a randomised
source      Overview     trial                                                                                              (RCT)                      Medical Research        4777                                                                                                                            Professionals on how to            control trial.
                                                                                                                                                       Council (AH&MRC)                                                                                                                                        provide smoking cessation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               brief intervention with their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               clients, develop processes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               and systems within AMSs,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               have counselling/quit groups,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               provide NRT
Unpublished Project      Randomised control       NA         NA              Unpublished                   Interview        Randomised control trial   Aboriginal Health and   Sean Appoo PH: (02) 9212         NSW                       2008                                                                 To train Aboriginal Health         Testing these strategies in 12 AMS's (i.e., 6 control) using a randomised
source      Overview     trial                                                                                              (RCT)                      Medical Research        4777                                                                                                                            Professionals on how to            control trial.
                                                                                                                                                       Council (AH&MRC)                                                                                                                                        provide smoking cessation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               brief intervention with their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               clients, develop processes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               and systems within AMS's,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               have counselling/quit groups,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               provide NRT
Unpublished Project      Men's work group         NA         NA              Unpublished                   Interview        Men's work group                                   Christine Ivan (for more         WA                                                                                             To help this particular group of   Supporting a group of men to quit smoking
source      Overview     program                                                                                            program                                            information) Aboriginal Health                                                                                                  men quit smoking
                                                                                                                                                                               Council of WA
                                                                                                                                                                               PH: (08) 9227 1631
Unpublished Project      Education and training NA           NA              Unpublished                   Interview        Education and training for Heart Foundation        Maurice Swanson Heart                                                                                                           Updating resources and             Updating and renewing teaching resources for AHW with particular emphasis
source      Overview     for AHW                                                                                            AHW                                                Foundation PH: (08) 9382                                                                                                        training                           on smoking cessation
                                                                                                                                                                               5901
Unpublished Project      Community                NA         N               Unpublished                   Interview        Community development, WA country health           Susan Gatti and Dawn             WA                       Jul-08              2009 Trying to extend                             Community development and There is not one particular program that represents these activities. Many
source      Overview     development, health                                                                                health promotion and                               Gilchrist PH: (08) 9080 8200     (Goldfields)                                        for three year                             health promotion. The focus is initiatives targeting a variety of health issues are developed and being
                         promotion and harm                                                                                 harm minimisation                                                                                                                              funding                             on all health issues (smoking, implemented by these individuals in partnership with the local community.
                         minimisation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          alcohol use, other drug use).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Specific emphasis on making
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               resources/messages
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               appropriate for each
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Aboriginal community in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Goldfields.

Unpublished Project      Community                NA         N               Unpublished                   Interview        Community development, WA country health           Susan Gatti and Dawn             WA                                                                                             Community development and There is not one particular program that represents these activities. Many
source      Overview     development, health                                                                                health promotion and                               Gilchrist PH: (08) 9080 8200     (Goldfields)                                                                                   health promotion. The focus is initiatives targeting a variety of health issues are developed and being
                         promotion and harm                                                                                 harm minimisation                                                                                                                                                                  on all health issues (smoking, implemented by these individuals in partnership with the local community.
                         minimisation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          alcohol use, other drug use).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Specific emphasis on making
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               resources/messages
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               appropriate for each
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Aboriginal community in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Goldfields.

Unpublished Project      Community                NA         N               Unpublished                   Interview        Community development, WA country health           Susan Gatti and Dawn             WA                Feb and Aug                                                                  Community development and There is not one particular program that represents these activities. Many
source      Overview     development, health                                                                                health promotion and                               Gilchrist PH: (08) 9080 8200     (Goldfields)             2007                                                                  health promotion. The focus is initiatives targeting a variety of health issues are developed and being
                         promotion and harm                                                                                 harm minimisation                                                                                                                                                                  on all health issues (smoking, implemented by these individuals in partnership with the local community.
                         minimisation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          alcohol use, other drug use).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Specific emphasis on making
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               resources/messages
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               appropriate for each
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Aboriginal community in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Goldfields.




                                                                                                                                                                                                          >> 18 <<
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database
        Strategies Used                                  Description of Strategies                                Target Audience                           Key Findings                                             Recommendations & Best Practice Suggestions

Policy development                  Specific actions will be devised particularly in the area of education,       Indigenous and
                                    support (individual and community), building evidence base for best           mainstream
                                    practice in this area.

Policy development                  To better integrate services and identify particular at risk groups           Indigenous and
                                                                                                                  mainstream



Building supportive                 The benefits of living a healthy lifestyle will be emphasised including       Aboriginal women
environments/health promotion       the advantages of smoking cessation. A supportive environment will
and training                        be set up for the women and their families. Training community staff
                                    is also included to increase the sustainability of the project.


Engagement of Aboriginal                                                                                                                                                                          Children have great language and artistic talents for creative messages, it has more impact on
children in Pilbara to develop      Competitions to develop logos and materials to use in the                                                                                                     many levels within the community. To compliment this an Elder would be great as well, and in
materials to use with community     campaign/program                                                              Aboriginal children   Parents/Caregivers are receptive to children messages     language.

                                                                                                          Parents/Caregivers
Engagement of adults in Pilbara                                                                           of Aboriginal
to have smoke free homes and        Education one to one with households, design of campaign to ensure Children, Aboriginal One to one education can be successful if it is managed               Some simple message like having stickers, asthma warnings and other signage are deterrents for
cars                                uptake and rewards for small successful households at short intervals community members in the right way by the appropriate educators.                        visiting smokers

Measurement of environmental        Measures of air quality; tracking of individual health records for            Parents/caregivers of Smokers need to move further from the main entry points
effects of smoking (ETS)            asthma attacks                                                                Aboriginal children   of the house as just outside is not effective           Help smoking families to set up areas of shade and distance from main buildings
Developing systems and              Establishing systems (i.e., survey/questionnaires) for all AMS users          Indigenous            Evaluations are currently being undertaken.
resources                           asking about smoking, coordinating other AMS staff to follow up on            smokers
                                    smokers in their program. Collaboration with other health
                                    professionals (e.g., GP's) if the person has issues other than
                                    smoking.


Training and placement              Trained three AHW (one of which acted as a coordinator) to run the            Indigenous            Evaluations are currently being undertaken.
                                    groups in three different AMS's. They are responsible for the tobacco         smokers
                                    control messages in their respective AMS.




Counselling/Support groups          Run 'quit' groups or have individual counselling sessions in the AMS/ Indigenous                    Evaluations are currently being undertaken.
                                    people's homes. The method is dependent on the needs of the client. smokers
                                    Interactive sessions, use of the 'smokaliser' and particular emphasis
                                    on relaxation strategies




Health promotion materials          Have general health promotion materials but looking to develop target Indigenous                    Evaluations are currently being undertaken.
                                    group specific resources for pregnant women and school aged           smokers
                                    children




Nicotine replacement therapy        Provided subsidised NRT. The individual had to attend the                     Indigenous            Evaluations are currently being undertaken.
(NRT)                               sessions/have a consult to receive them. Regular contact was kept.            smokers




Training and placement              Training an AHW to work in an AMS for 12 months, developing               Indigenous                Have a comprehensive evaluation plan
                                    systems and processes, providing brief intervention training to all staff smokers
                                    "making it everybody's business". Also responsible for coordinating
                                    the staff to utilise these systems and techniques.




Counselling/Support groups          The AHW will run these groups, and at the same time train AMS staff Indigenous                      Have a comprehensive evaluation plan
                                    so it becomes self sustainable                                      smokers




Nicotine replacement therapy        Provided nicotine replacement therapy (8/16hr patches). The men               Indigenous men
(NRT)                               were also supported and their feedback from using the 24hr patches
                                    giving them "wicked dreams" was listened to and methods
                                    subsequently adapted
Training/Education for health       Updating and renewing teaching resources for AHW with particular
workers                             emphasis on smoking cessation                                                 Aboriginal health
                                                                                                                  workers
Brief Intervention                  Every patient coming into a hospital is screened for their alcohol and        Hospital staff,                                                                 The community must be involved at all stages of any health promotion project. The communities
                                    tobacco use and provided with NRT and outpatient referral where               Aboriginal Health                                                               have skills that can be built on and developed. This has to be done in a positive, respectful,
                                    appropriate. This also involved training of AHW and Aboriginal                workers                                                                         proactive and inclusive way. The community needs to own the program, instead of external
                                    liaison officers. For the screenings, the AUDIT (alcohol use disorder                                                                                         agencies.
                                    identification test) and Fagerstrom tests were adapted for use with
                                    Aboriginal clients. There is regular consultation with hospital staff to
                                    address their concerns and build their motivation for asking the
                                    appropriate questions (i.e., addressing staff resistance).


Fresh start course (with a slight   Ran group sessions twice a week for ten weeks with the mental          Mental Health       All 9 participants cut down at leat 60% of tobacco use, an         The community must be involved at all stages of any health promotion project. The communities
difference)                         health patients (high dependency group). The patients could bring      patients and Health outcome maintained three months post intervention. This            have skills that can be built on and developed. This has to be done in a positive, respectful,
                                    their friends along, NRT was provided. The Fresh start staff were also workers             was a "real success".                                              proactive and inclusive way. The community needs to own the program, instead of external
                                    trained as a part of this process                                                                                                                             agencies.




Smoke Free Policy in hospitals:     Staff attended the Fresh start training run by the Cancer Council. In         Staff and patients    Resulted in a far higher level of compliance,             The community must be involved at all stages of any health promotion project. The communities
yarning and community specific      addition, they received an Aboriginal scholarship to employ a health          of hospitals          understanding and ownership of the smoke-free             have skills that can be built on and developed. This has to be done in a positive, respectful,
resources                           worker for 10 months to develop Aboriginal specific resources and                                   message. Outcomes are positive for the sites, the staff   proactive and inclusive way. The community needs to own the program, instead of external
                                    consult with the local communities on how they would like the smoke                                 and patients.                                             agencies.
                                    free policy implemented, and how it could best work for them.
                                    community Consultation was used in the development of paintings to
                                    go on posters and brochures (using very little words). This reflects a
                                    motivational interviewing approach at an individual and community
                                    level (i.e., being respectful and inclusive at all stages), "strong spirit,
                                    strong mind" cards depicting the stages of change were also used to
                                    help individuals identify where they are at in terms of positive
                                    behaviour change.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          >> 19 <<
                                                                                                                                                                        Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database                  Reason for
                                                Date of        Producer/                                                                                                                                             Program/Stu    Date of        Date of
Category Format/type    Title of Material                                       Description of Material         Source of Material Program/Project Title Agency (manager)                      Contact/s                                                       program     Funding Information Objectives of Program                                          Description of Program
                                                Material        author                                                                                                                                               dy Location    Delivery     completion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              cessation
Unpublished Project    Community                NA         N               Unpublished                          Interview        Community development, WA country health             Susan Gatti and Dawn           WA                                                                            Community development and There is not one particular program that represents these activities. Many
source      Overview   development, health                                                                                       health promotion and                                 Gilchrist PH: (08) 9080 8200   (Goldfields)                                                                  health promotion. The focus is initiatives targeting a variety of health issues are developed and being
                       promotion and harm                                                                                        harm minimisation                                                                                                                                                 on all health issues (smoking, implemented by these individuals in partnership with the local community.
                       minimisation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                alcohol use, other drug use).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Specific emphasis on making
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   resources/messages
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   appropriate for each
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Aboriginal community in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Goldfields.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1. To determine the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   prevalence of smoking among
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Pregnant Indigenous women
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   based on validation of self
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   reported smoking status with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   urine cotinine measurement 2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Aboriginal                                                                    To determine the
                       A randomised                                                                                                                                                                                  Community                                                                     effectiveness of a high
                       controlled trial of a              The University                                                         A randomised controlled                                                             Controlled                                                                    intensity pregnancy smoking      The 5 year study involves the randomisation of pregnant Indigenous women
                       high intensity smoking             of Newcastle                                                           trial of a high intensity                                                           Health                                                                        intervention on validated        who smoke into either an additional care group who receives high intensity
                       intervention to reduce             and Baker IDI                                                          smoking intervention to     The University of        Jessica Stewart, Study         Services:                                                                     smoking cessation rates at 34-   antenatal support to quit smoking compared to the control group who receives
                       smoking among                      Heart and                                                              reduce smoking among        Newcastle and Baker      Manager, The Sax Institute     Townsville,                                           NHMRC and Australian    36 weeks gestation and 6         usual clinic care. The intervention is delivered by clinic staff, and if it works to
Unpublished Project    pregnant Indigenous                Diabetes         Brief overview of RCT for Pregnant                    pregnant Indigenous         IDI Heart and Diabetes   PH: 08 9421 3888 / 02 9514     Cairns and                                            Government Department   months post partum among         increase quit rates, it can be easily incorporated into routine clinic care for all
Source      Overview   women                         2008 Institute        Indigenous Women                     Interview        women                       Institute                5972                           Perth                2005          2010 NA            of Health and Ageing    Indigenous women.                pregnant women who want to quit smoking.




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                                                                                                                                                                                                   Review of smoking prevention programs in ATSI populations - database
        Strategies Used                                       Description of Strategies                            Target Audience                           Key Findings                                             Recommendations & Best Practice Suggestions

Other substance abuse initiatives         Needle and syringe program involves distribution of clean syringes.      Local Community       Needle and syringe program: distribution has increased   The community must be involved at all stages of any health promotion project. The communities
(initiatives not aimed at smoking         Liquor restrictions in the Norseman community: used the strategy of      Members               from 6.5% to 26% in 2008. Demonstrates the power of a    have skills that can be built on and developed. This has to be done in a positive, respectful,
perse but that contribute to              "search conference" where the community members made the                                       service that is more culturally appropriate and less     proactive and inclusive way. The community needs to own the program, instead of external
community change attitude and             decision they wanted these restrictions, and they are the ones who                             confrontational. The liquor restrictions are accepted    agencies.
approach)                                 have to live with the consequences of it. This initiative started with                         amongst the local community members.
                                          "yarning in the park" with the ones drinking. All that was needed was
                                          liaison with community police and council, and the community
                                          members decided which liquor was to be restricted and the hours to
                                          be restricted. Posters were also made by the local community
                                          advertising the restrictions.



The key intervention agent is the
treating General Practitioner. The
follow-up intervention agents are the                                                                                               Prevalence validated by urine cotinine has been achieved.
GP, the antenatal clinic midwives                                                                                                   Outcome measures regarding quit rates will not be
and Aboriginal health workers who                                                                                                   assessable until the end of the trial. Process outcomes
have all received training in the brief                                                                                             include the feasibility of running RCTs in behavioural
intervention according to a training                                                                                                interventions in ACCHS. The study has also shown the
manual developed specifically for                                                                                                   large proportion of Indigenous women who want to quit
Indigenous women attending                                                                                                          smoking during pregnancy and the large proportion that
ACCHS for their antenatal care.                                                                                                     attempt to quit, indicating that pregnancy is a 'teachable Strong partnerships with Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services are important for
Additional strategies include NRT                                                                                  Pregnant         moment' when people are most likely to quit and therefore undertaking high quality and ethical research projects. Local clinic or research staff who are
and partner support.                                                                                               Indigenous Women should be targeted for reducing smoking rates.             invested in the project are important for championing research studies within a clinic environment.




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