Top IT Actions to Save States Money and
Executive Summary specifically, to consolidate services and manage IT
In a time of austerity, governors can act to improve the assets better; to use IT to better manage government
way state agencies use and buy information technol- revenue and resources; to update IT procurement pro-
ogy and in doing so can cut costs, increase produc- cedures; and to make government more accessible
tivity, and concentrate core services where they are through mobile and wireless services. The report also
most needed. Advances in technology have provided recommends actions that involve more upfront fund-
more options for governors to cut costs and improve ing and policy change. Those include sharing services
service delivery. For example, shared service deliv- for administrative functions, using IT to measure and
ery—often referred to as “the cloud” or “an enterprise improve government performance in key policy areas,
approach”—allows private and public sector organiza- and engaging citizens in service delivery using IT.
tions to purchase computer processing and other infor-
mation technology (IT) functions as a service, rather Background
than invest in technological infrastructure. States can Even though they are constrained by tight budgets,
start to make their information and service offerings many states are finding ways to realize the potential
easily accessible through mobile devices, both to offer of information technology to deliver services more ef-
citizens better access and to boost the productivity of fectively. That resources are constrained is clear: State
their workforce. States can also use technology to bet- general funds have been so depleted by the slow eco-
ter detect fraud and abuse. nomic recovery that both fiscal 2009 and fiscal 2010
saw nominal declines in state spending.1 Though state
The public sector is prone to adopt technologies slow- finances began to improve a bit in 2011, 29 states will
ly and in a piecemeal fashion. States may be unable to still have lower general fund spending in fiscal 2012
make IT improvements because of tight budgets for than in prerecession 2008.2 Even when there are clear
IT, because of the tendency of agencies to make iso- benefits and cost savings to be had down the road,
lated or uncoordinated decisions about acquiring IT states do not at present have the money to invest in up-
hardware and software, and because of restrictive pro- grading technological infrastructure. But it is equally
curement requirements. At the same time, tech-savvy clear that making better use of IT can improve the per-
citizens increasingly press for improved services. formance of state governments.
This report focuses on actions that states can take to Advances in technology continue to transform the way
improve their use of technology without making large the private sector operates, and at an increasingly rap-
investments in new information technology systems. id pace. The public sector, however, is prone to adopt
The recommendations include quick actions that can technologies slowly and in a piecemeal fashion. By em-
be implemented without significant policy changes, ulating the private sector and finding ways to improve
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the use of technology—through consolidation, shared purchasing of goods and services—consumes a signif-
services, and data visualization and storage—governors icant portion of government revenue. According to the
can cut costs and improve service delivery.3 To put those Pew Center on the States, states spend nearly $200 bil-
strategies in place, states must be willing to reexamine lion annually on procurement.6 State procurement re-
their existing IT systems and work creatively with in- quirements for IT, in particular, have not always kept
formation technology companies to reduce the cost of up with industry standards or the pace of technological
new technology. Some states are already implement- advancement.7
ing such improvements. Utah has consolidated its data
centers, reducing the number in use by state agencies Third, technology has been used to implement pro-
from 35 to two. The consolidation is expected to save grams but not to assess their value and effects. State
the state at least $4 million annually, partly through re- CIOs cite misalignment of IT and state strategic goals
duced energy consumption.4 Other states are using ad- as an obstacle to effective use of IT.8
vanced data analytics to know who their services are
reaching and how well the services are being used. Finally, states face rising demand from citizens for on-
line access to government services and information. In
Making IT investment decisions at the state level particular, more and more people are accessing informa-
rather than at the agency level, changing procure- tion and services pertinent to virtually every aspect of
ment requirements, and providing better web-based their lives through their mobile phones, and they want
and mobile services can create gains without large to reach their governments as easily as they can reach
investments in new technology. As the fiscal outlook an online retailer. In 2010, one in four Americans ac-
improves and more resources become available, and cessed the Internet primarily by using a mobile device.9
as investment in IT becomes a higher priority because Fifty-eight percent of state CIOs surveyed in 2011 char-
existing systems are becoming obsolete, spending for acterized mobile devices and apps as an essential or top
new IT systems and services can bring even greater priority for state strategic and operational plans.10
improvement and cost-effectiveness to the functioning
of state governments. The benefits to states of improving their use of infor-
mation technology thus go beyond cost savings. State
Challenges Facing States that improve their IT use can enable new models of
Governors and state policymakers face a number of service delivery and collaboration across agencies
challenges as they look for ways to improve their and jurisdictions—models that will enable faster and
states’ use of information technology. First, state more efficient decision making, decrease the overlap
agencies’ isolated and uncoordinated decisions about between agencies and jurisdictions, and ultimately im-
purchasing and using IT have often led to redundant prove the services delivered to citizens.
or overlapping resources that impede interoperabil-
ity and data sharing between agencies. Two-thirds of This report focuses on improvements that require little
state chief information officers (CIOs) surveyed by the or no investment in new information technology sys-
National Association of State Chief Information Of- tems. A group of private sector IT experts pinpointed
ficers (NASCIO) in 2011 identified agency resistance ways that states can use IT to save money and boost
to changing those practices as a barrier to improving efficiency. Their recommendations include quick ac-
the use of IT.5 tions that require little upfront funding and can be im-
plemented without unwieldy policy changes, as well
Second, many states have outdated or restrictive re- as actions that will entail spending and policy changes
quirements for IT procurement. Procurement—the but will lead to lasting reform and improvement.
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Solution Set 1—Quick Actions In California, the office of the state CIO reduced the
Four actions that can be implemented without great amount of space devoted to data centers by 75,000
cost or significant policy changes are: square feet, and it found that the IT of five large agen-
cies could co-locate in 5,000 square feet of an existing
1. Consolidate services and better manage IT as- data center. That change took less than twelve months
sets; to accomplish and is saving the state more than $40
2. Use IT to better manage government revenue million.13 Illinois reduced the amount of data center
and resources; space by 22,800 square feet in 2005 by decommission-
3. Update IT procurement procedures and require- ing 22 substandard data center and computer rooms
ments; and and physically moving two mainframes and 1,364
4. Go mobile and go wireless. servers to two primary data centers. The state also vir-
tualized and decommissioned 854 aging servers and
Those actions are interconnected, and many states have installed 190 new virtual servers, for a total of 1,044
already made progress in implementing them. They are virtual servers managed today, achieving an increase
listed in order of expected impact, in both cost savings in server processor use of more than 700 percent. The
and improved efficiency, from greatest to least. project has produced a 260 percent return on invest-
ment (ROI), totaling more than $10.7 million in net
#1: Consolidate Services and Manage savings, between July 2006 and May 2010.14
IT Assets Strategically
States can decrease duplication among agencies in Michigan has fully consolidated the IT assets used
two ways—by consolidating services across agen- to provide all of the state’s essential functions. The
cies and by improving the management of IT assets. consolidation reduced the number of state workers in
In some cases, consolidations can also occur across IT by 15 percent and the number of contractors by 64
governments, for example, between state and local percent and placed 40 disparate data centers in three
entities. secured hosting centers.15 In 2011, Michigan began the
process of building local partnerships for shared ser-
Consolidate Services vices, including local and state network integration,
A report submitted to the federal government by a cloud storage on MiCloud, e-mail server consolida-
number of private sector companies, One Trillion tion, and an online shared service community modeled
Reasons, estimates that 20 percent to 30 percent of as a “Craigslist for government.”16
federal IT spending could be eliminated by reducing
IT overhead, consolidating data centers, eliminating States are also trying to cut costs and improve effi-
redundant networks, and standardizing applications.11 ciency by coordinating services across jurisdictions.
As states have faced budget constraints, some amount Michigan completed a multiyear, cross-jurisdiction
of consolidation is already a given. Almost every state collaboration project focused on providing a standard-
has done something on consolidation.12 The key to ized, interoperable communication system for disas-
success is to find ways to consolidate physical infra- ter response and day-to-day support of activities for
structure and technological applications, to cut costs public safety and governmental entities. More than
but also as the first stage in a longer-term journey to 1,200 agencies improved operational efficiencies and
transform IT use. upgraded their policies and procedures. The state re-
duced the funding needed to operate the new system
States can save money by consolidating physical in- by 33 percent from 2001 to 2009, saving taxpayers an
frastructure, such as data centers and e-mail servers. estimated $87 million.17
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One area of particular focus for cross-jurisdictional approach allows the state to report on the state of the
collaboration has been the consolidation of electronic state’s IT assets at any point and to track IT assets and
applications, such as e-mail systems and back-office determine the total cost of ownership throughout the
services. New York’s counties and state agencies have asset’s life cycle. The state can leverage its purchasing
partnered to streamline access to applications by using power because IT hardware and software purchases
OneNetNYS, which provides faster, more secure, and can be made on a government-wide basis. The ap-
more robust connectivity to state data centers and oth- proach also allows the state to plan for a shared, gov-
er state agency applications. NYSeMail already serves ernment-wide information technology infrastructure.23
as the centralized e-mail and calendaring system for
more than 25 New York state agencies. The three- #2: Use IT to Improve Revenue Collec-
phase change began 2010, with the migration of 10 tion and Resource Use
agencies and more than 26,000 e-mail accounts to the States can use IT to improve revenue collection, pre-
centralized system in one year.18 Centralizing and con- vent fraud, and improve resource use so that govern-
solidating Indiana’s IT infrastructure brought annual ment becomes more efficient. At the federal level, the
savings of $13.9 million.19 States such as California Office of Management and Budget estimates that $125
and Michigan are moving to a single e-mail system, billion was lost to improper payments in 2010 and an-
from more than 100 different systems.20 other $116 billion was lost in 2011.24 Applying new
analytical techniques can increase the identification of
Manage IT Assets Strategically fraud and error to reduce and recapture improper pay-
States can improve the management of their IT assets ments. In response to President Obama’s directive to
by considering the total cost of owning technology recapture more improper payments, federal agencies
rather than only the acquisition costs. A total-cost-of- recovered approximately $687 million in 2010 and
ownership analysis looks not just at the cost of acquir- achieved a decline in the overall error rate from 5.3
ing technology, but also at the maintenance and ser- percent to 4.7 percent.25
vice costs of its use and upkeep.
States are moving to better manage their resources
In 2008, Oregon introduced an asset management and revenues using IT. South Dakota implemented
system that specifically targeted the state’s informa- an integrated tax system, the Capitalizing on Efficien-
tion technology assets, both hardware and software. cies and Data Accelerating Revenue (CEDAR) sys-
The state’s IT Asset Management (ITAM) policy es- tem, in January 2009. A nine-month comparison of
tablishes standard methods and schedules that agen- data from the previous systems to the new CEDAR
cies will use to manage, collect, and report their system showed a 21 percent increase in total audits
information technology asset information. State agen- completed and a 20 percent increase in total audit as-
cies have established IT asset management programs sessments, resulting in an increase of approximately
and procedures to track the acquisition, deployment, $2.4 million in revenue and an increase in total audit
management, and disposition of all IT assets under collections of $57,000.26 Arizona’s Fines/Fees and
their control. Agencies collect and report information Restitution Enforcement (RARE) program collected a
about their IT assets and planned IT investments to total of $117.3 million in backlog collections between
the department of administrative services Enterprise 2009 and 2011.27
Information Strategy and Policy Division.21 The state
publishes an annual statewide IT asset inventory re- States can also use technology to better detect and
port. The ITAM policy also requires that all agencies manage fraud and abuse. In Kansas the departments
submit an IT asset life cycle replacement plan.22 That of revenue and labor worked together to implement a
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multiagency website for reporting misclassification of #3: Update IT Procurement Procedures
workers, which occurs when an employer incorrectly and Requirements
classifies workers as independent contractors rather Procurement consumes a significant portion of gov-
than employees, thereby avoiding paying taxes and ernment revenue. According to the Pew Center on
health care contributions for them. The joint electron- the States, states spend nearly $200 billion annually
ic system allows more collaboration between the two on procurement.34 A strategic, rather than tactical,
agencies in investigating intentional misclassification, approach to reducing procurement costs starts with
and that should dramatically improve enforcement.28 identifying weaknesses in existing supply chains,
determining the right selection factors, and screen-
The California Employment Development Depart- ing suppliers against those criteria. Research by the
ment (EDD) unemployment insurance program has consulting and accounting firm Accenture concluded
been a target of tax evasion schemes, called “SUTA that strategic sourcing by public agencies can yield as
dumping,” in which shell companies are formed and much as 20 percent in total cost savings and that orga-
manipulated to obtain low unemployment insurance nizations can accomplish strategic sourcing at scale in
tax rates. EDD worked with a vendor to develop a as little as 12 months.35
centralized operation to help manage fraud, waste, and
abuse across multiple programs. Since August 2004, One way states can improve their procurement pro-
EDD has assessed more than $100 million and col- cesses is by increasing group procurement and inte-
lected an additional $32 million.29 Also in California, grating procurement decisions across state agencies.
the Los Angeles County Department of Social Ser- The Georgia Department of Administrative Services
vices is using social network analysis and predictive streamlined procurement through Spend Management
analytics to detect both opportunistic and organized Analytics, created in partnership with the Pew Center
fraud in the child care program, leading to savings of on the States and Microsoft. The department’s strate-
nearly $30 million annually.30 Alameda County, Cali- gic sourcing project created a refreshable view of state
fornia saved $11 million that would have been lost spending data, across 86 state agencies and 35 aca-
to waste and fraud by implementing a new social ser- demic institutions, that allows continual monitoring of
vices integrated reporting system for its 2,200 social spending as it occurs. There is evidence of initial sav-
services employees.31 ings. Statewide contracts for police pursuit vehicles
allowed the procurement of squad cars at 16.6 percent
Similarly, the Washington Department of Labor and below dealer invoice and administrative vehicles at an
Industries used improved information technology to average of 22.4 percent below invoice. During a time
detect unregistered employers’ not paying workers when petroleum and chemical prices were driving up
compensation taxes for their employees. The depart- the cost of paint, Georgia negotiated discounts of 50
ment is recovering about $26 million of the premium percent to 60 percent for paints, thinners, and varnish-
revenue lost annually and realizing a return on invest- es used to maintain state buildings.36 Pennsylvania
ment of about eight to one.32 achieved an annual savings of $140 million through
its strategic sourcing initiative.37
Finally, states are using improved information technol-
ogy to monitor energy and water use in their buildings. Some states, such as Florida and North Carolina,
Missouri integrated individual systems and buildings have improved their strategic sourcing through e-pro-
at a common user interface level to detect inefficient curement initiatives. E-procurement systems connect
operating conditions. The state put that information to state agencies directly with suppliers, manage the inter-
good use and saved over $35 million per year.33 actions between them, and provide a way to aggregate
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government purchases to obtain better prices. They also of threatening disasters, such as tornados. Although
provide suppliers greater access to statewide procure- the new technology does not replace the siren warn-
ment information and increased access that market. In ing system, it provides an additional means to notify
North Carolina, NC E-Procurement has achieved a fast- citizens who are too far away to hear the alarm. The
er and more efficient method for quoting (eQuote) and Colorado Division of Emergency Management has a
has increased order accuracy through electronic order- Twitter account that keeps residents informed about
ing with a consistent purchase order format.38 dangerous weather conditions. The city of Denver
is also exploring establishing a warning system that
In addition to using IT to improve government pro- would send electronic messages. Using digital tools
curement generally, there are specific ways that states allows residents to be instructed, for example, where
can improve the procurement process for particular IT to go for help after a tornado hits or what to do in the
services. For example, states can simplify and mod- aftermath of a storm.43
ernize contract terms and conditions (T&Cs). Oregon
worked with the vendor community to mitigate prob- States can use IT to create online processes for every-
lems with T&Cs that discouraged vendors and stifled thing from vehicle registration to business license re-
competition. In 2009, the state reached out to indus- newal. Utah has launched online services in a number
try and asked how it could change its approach to IT of areas. Its “On the Spot” vehicle registration, imple-
acquisition to improve competition and services and mented in 2008 by the state tax commission, had more
lower costs. After engaging industry, so as to under- than 375,000 users in 2009. Ninety percent of profes-
stand the companies’ perspective, Oregon produced sional license renewals, 89 percent of all annual busi-
six new template forms for IT contracts that move the ness renewals, and 71 percent of real estate license re-
state closer to commercial norms, and it developed a newals are now done online. In addition to creating an
“shared-risk” approach with appropriate liability.39 online license renewal process, Utah created a mobile
version of its service that allows citizens to check the
#4: Go Mobile and Go Wireless license status of any of Utah’s more than 400 profes-
More and more people are accessing information and sional license holders, including doctors, engineers,
services through their mobile phones. In 2010, one in architects, and contractors.44 The Professional License
four Americans accessed the Internet primarily by us- Lookup application enables users to check the profes-
ing a mobile device.40 Mobile web access—via laptops sional license status of individuals in state-regulated
and smart mobile devices—is expected to overtake occupations, displays the basic license information,
desktop web use by 2015.41 Fifty-eight percent of state and color-codes the results based on active, inactive,
CIOs surveyed in 2011 characterized mobile devices suspended, or expired status.
and apps as essential for state strategic and operation-
al plans.42 States can start to make their information To improve its efficiency, the California Department
and service offerings easily accessible through mobile of Motor Vehicles (DMV) has created a new iPhone
devices, both to provide better access to citizens and application that allows citizens to learn the wait times
to boost the productivity of their workforce. Boosting for service at local DMV offices. Users can also sample
workforce productivity, in particular, has the potential written driving tests online, access the DMV library of
to reduce costs. driver education videos, and receive GPS directions to
the office with the shortest wait time. Later this year,
States can launch mobile portals to services. Colo- the agency also plans to launch an online portal that
rado is going mobile by using digital devices such as will enable citizens to create a personal profile, with
cell phones, e-mail, and Twitter to warn communities information such as a basic version of their driving
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record, vehicle registration payments, and points on recruitment/training; legal contracts; real estate man-
their license.45 agement; vehicle fleet management; purchasing and
keeping accounting and budgeting tools; custodial and
groundskeeping functions; printing; and information-
Solution Set 2—Deeper Reform technology.47
States can reap even larger gains from improving their Government agencies that have moved to shared ser-
use of information technology if they are willing to vices have generally achieved between 25 percent
make modest additional investments and more signifi- and 50 percent savings associated with information
cant changes in the way they do business. This sec- technology operations.48 In 2011, 29 states measured
tion focuses on what states can do in the mid-to-longer cost savings after consolidating services, and only 7
term not just to cut costs but to create new capabilities. percent reported realizing savings that were less than
To produce longer-term benefits, states can: expected.49 Four government case studies from the
United Kingdom suggest that 20 percent to 30 percent
1. Share services for administrative and back-of- savings are achievable by moving to a shared services
fice functions; platform.50 Accenture estimates that shared services
2. Use IT to measure and improve government per- can improve performance and decrease administra-
formance in key policy areas; and tive costs by up to 25 percent.51 For example, in Ohio,
3. Engage citizens in service delivery using IT. 103 state agencies launched Ohio Shared Services to
consolidate back-office transactions such as accounts
payable, travel expense reimbursements, vendor 1099
#1: Share Services for Administrative forms, vendor invoice statuses, and vendor payment
and Back Office Functions inquiries. The addition of more back-office functions
Shared service delivery—often referred to as “shared is planned. Ohio Shared Services is expected to save
services,” “the cloud,” or “an enterprise approach”— $30 million per year.52
allows organizations to purchase computer process-
ing and other IT functions as a service, rather than Washington conducted an efficiency review and
invest in technological infrastructure. According to determined that it could save between $6.6 million
the 2011 State CIO Survey conducted by NASCIO, and $9.7 million in IT infrastructure spending at the
the majority of service sharing and consolidation is five agencies that participated in the review.53 Subse-
occurring in seven services: telecom, e-mail, data quently, the governor signed a bill requiring the office
centers, security, backup and disaster recovery, serv- of financial management, with the assistance of the
ers, and storage. In each more than 90 percent of state department of information services, to identify $15
respondents had completed consolidation or were in million in savings and to perform a statewide review
the process of doing so.46 of information technology best practices and gover-
nance. The bill, Creating Efficiencies in the Use of
Washington has combined all or some back-office Technologies in State Government, became effective
functions of five formerly separate agencies into a in June 2010.54 Similarly, the Virginia Governor’s
single Department of Enterprise Services agency. Commission on Government Reform and Restruc-
The consolidations could save $18 million over two turing agreed to consolidate accounting and payroll
years and create a more responsive and efficient way systems in September 2010.55
to deliver common services to other agencies. The
services include state payroll; human resources and For states, the move to shared services is based on an
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understanding that IT can be an enabler in all policy ar- lars in government, and overall quality of life. Those areas
eas. States can identify IT functions that are common to align with the organization of the executive branch, and
several policy areas—for example, data systems—and Governor Snyder plans to present a summary of the dash-
implement shared services for those horizontal func- board in each of his state of the state addresses.
tions. Implementing shared services goes beyond con-
solidation by moving services to a virtual environment. Virginia uses a detailed, web-based system for monitor-
That can raise concerns about information security, but ing the effectiveness of its state agencies.58 The system,
when states move to “the cloud,” for the most part they called “Virginia Performs,” provides a range of infor-
are moving to a “private cloud” that includes strict se- mation about an agency’s mission, most recent strategic
curity measures. plan, budget, and performance against a set of evalua-
tion measures. The aim is to align specific state agency
As we have said, many states have already implement- outcomes with larger statewide goals. The goals were
ed some shared services for state agencies and the ex- set in 2004 through consensus between both branches
ecutive branch. But they can continue to make prog- of state government in an effort led by the Council on
ress by sharing services not just within the executive Virginia’s Future, which brings together the executive,
branch but also with public universities and colleges state legislators, and citizen and business leaders. The
and city and local governments. Minnesota’s Unified business community, in particular, wanted government
Communications and Collaboration service delivery and policy to focus on longer-term state goals.59
agreement encompasses all executive branch agencies
(which include over 30,000 employees), but other cus- Washington Governor Chris Gregoire created the
tomers of the office of enterprise technology, including Government Management and Accountability Program
local governments, cities, counties, and education enti- (GMAP), an amalgam of measures looking at how state
ties, can choose to join in the agreement as well. Min- agencies are performing, as well as how the state is do-
nesota further improved its UCC service by announcing ing overall. GMAP was set up as a way for the governor
a partnership with Microsoft in September 2010, mak- and her cabinet agencies to track spending and tie it to
ing Minnesota the first state to move all employees to a performance.
cloud-based environment.56 Illinois implemented a pri-
vate cloud e-mail service capable of supporting all state States’ efforts have been under way for several years
e-mail users. The net cost benefit or savings to the state and span several key policy areas. According to the 2011
between fiscal years 2005 and 2010 has been more than State CIO Survey conducted by NASCIO, 84 percent of
$13 million, with a total ROI of more than 86 percent.57 CIOs are now partnering with state program agencies
such as health, education, and transportation.60 IT solu-
#2: Use IT to Measure and Improve tions can help states measure performance across policy
Government Performance in Key Policy areas, including transportation, health care, education,
Areas economic development, public safety and emergency
States can make better decisions across policy areas management, and human services.
by systematically collecting data, drawing intelligence
from it, and using it to be more accountable. #3: Engage Citizens in Service Delivery
Michigan Governor Rick Snyder unveiled a new website, States can engage citizens in service delivery by en-
Michigan Dashboard, which allows the public to track couraging public development of mobile applications.
Michigan’s progress in five key areas: economic growth, Many states are doing so with social media and smart-
education, public health and safety, value for taxpayer dol- phone applications. For example, states such as Ar-
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kansas, Florida, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, New for mobile devices that can be built around the data. 64
York, North Carolina, and Utah have launched state
social media strategies. In New York, the initiative, As citizens seek to use technology to engage with
called Empire 2.0, is designed to promote participation government, states can move beyond simply provid-
in government, increase collaboration, and expand the ing online and mobile access and start to leverage
state’s ability to share information through the use of networks of citizens to discover and deploy IT so-
Web 2.0, new media, and social-collaborative tools lutions. At the city level, Code for America (CFA)
such as Facebook, Twitter, and wiki pages.61 Members is a network that can provide an example to states
of the public can share their ideas about the state’s of engaging tech-savvy citizens in improving service
new social networking strategy or any other policy or delivery. Created in 2010 and modeled on Teach for
project through a new portal called New York State America, Code for America places technology ex-
Tech Talk. The portal allows people to submit their perts with city governments to deploy IT solutions
own ideas and vote up or down on ideas that others in particular policy areas.65 The program works with
have submitted.62 city managers to identify projects that can benefit
from web-based solutions. Code for America then
Arkansas Governor Mike Beebe and Kentucky Gov- recruits both the development teams and participat-
ernor Steve Beshear are also using social network- ing cities through a competitive application process.
ing tools to keep citizens more informed. Governor Once identified and funded, each city project is con-
Beebe’s office has Twitter and Facebook accounts nected with a web development team that can fur-
that alert citizens to media announcements and pro- ther analyze the project, create an action plan, and
vide updates during emergencies.63 Governor Beshear deliver an appropriate solution over an 11-month de-
also has a Twitter account and a YouTube channel with velopment cycle. Throughout the development cycle,
over 200 captioned videos and recently launched an CFA mentors, trains, and coordinates the teams and
official blog that will be a means to elaborate on policy facilitates their relationships with their city manage-
positions. ment clients. In Boston, Code for America is working
with the city to build an education services platform
Illinois Governor Pat Quinn has launched Twitter and for developers to build applications that engage high
Flickr webpages to provide Illinois residents another school students in educational and cultural activities
way to communicate with state government. The so- in class, after school, and during the summer. Their
cial media websites will have regular updates of the goal is to develop, from concept to delivery, a prod-
latest state news, videos, and tweets from the gover- uct that can be used daily by 1.5 million people, and
nor. Social media are part of Governor Quinn’s efforts to do so in nine months.66
to use technology as a way to make Illinois govern-
ment more transparent and accountable and to obtain California is experimenting with using a network of
feedback and ideas from citizens throughout the state. citizens to monitor water quality. The California Wa-
In 2009, Sunshine.Illinois.gov was created to display ter Resources Control Board has teamed with IBM to
public employee salaries, state contracts, inspection create a new iPhone app that allows citizens to report
results, campaign finance disclosures, and other im- on water quality concerns. The information from the
portant information. Early in 2012 data.illinois.gov app goes directly to the control board’s clean water
was established as a searchable database for state team, which uploads it to a database. The applica-
agencies to inform citizens about the operation of state tion was developed by IBM Research and is available
government and encourage the creative use of state in- free at Apple’s App Store. The data reaches a central
formation, including the development of applications database in real time and is accessible by authorities
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responsible for monitoring local water supplies. The Governors can take actions that spur coordination and
data will be used by the Water Quality Board as part boost the chances of success for their state’s IT initia-
of its overall water monitoring program. Many local tives. They can develop and implement an IT strategy
water boards do not have the capacity to monitor all that uses quick, short-term wins to cut costs and gain
the many creeks and streams in their jurisdiction.67 momentum, while working toward the longer-term re-
forms that create new and better ways to deliver gov-
Conclusion: The Fundamental ernment services. They can continue to see technology
Role of IT Governance not only as a means for cutting costs, but also as an en-
Coordination across policy areas and between agen- abler of new models of service delivery and new ways
cies is essential to success in each of the IT action to collaborate across agencies and jurisdictions. Those
areas discussed above. It is critical to consolidation new ways of doing things will make possible faster and
and procurement, and perhaps especially, to shared more efficient decision making, will decrease the over-
services. lap between agencies and jurisdictions, and ultimately
will improve the delivery of services to citizens.
This report was developed by the National Governors Association (NGA) with input from NGA Corporate Fellows. The Corporate Fellows Program,
established in 1988, promotes the exchange of knowledge and expertise between the private sector and governors on public policy issues affecting
business and states. Special thanks to the following Corporate Fellow companies for their input: Accenture; ACS, A Xerox Company; Cisco; Dell;
Deloitte; ESRI; HP; IBM; Intel; MAXIMUS; Microsoft; Northrop Grumman; Oracle; SAS; and Verizon.
National Governors Association
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31. IBM, Alameda County Social Services Agency Brings Business Values to Social Services, 2010, http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/global/files/
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National Governors Association
34. Pew Center on the States, States Buying Smarter..
35. Accenture, “The First 100 Days—and Beyond: A Two Part Plan for Governing in the ‘New Normal’,” http://www.accenture.com/us-en/Pages/
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43. See http://www.denverpost.com/ci_12566278.
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February 1, 2012).
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51. Accenture, “The First 100 Days—and Beyond.”
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54. Washington HB 3178, http://apps.leg.wa.gov/billinfo/summary.aspx?bill=3178&year=2009#history.
55. Anita Kumar, “Virginia Considers Four-Day Workweek to Save Money,” Washingtonpost.com, September 14, 2010, http://www.washington-
56. “State of Minnesota Signs Historic Cloud Computing Agreement with Microsoft,” Press Release, State of Minnesota Office of Enterprise Tech-
nology, September 27, 2010, http://www.state.mn.us/mn/externalDocs/OET/State_of_Minnesota_Signs_Historic_Cloud_Computing_Agree-
57. “2010 Digital States Survey,” Government Technology.
58. Virginia Performs webpage, http://vaperforms.virginia.gov/.
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America Progress, February 2010, http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/02/pdf/dwwgoldengoals.pdf.
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November 4, 2010,