40 Romantic Era lecture

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					Romantic Period
Principles of the Romantic Era

• Form rules relaxed (not eliminated)
• Emotion rather than reason
• Nationalism
• Stories depicted
• Nature viewed mystically (Rousseau)
• Exotic (foreign culture)
• Love of the past versus the future
            The Romantic
• Personal feelings of
  the artist became
  critically important
• The artist needed to
  suffer to be fully
• The starving artist
  became idealized
  – And then satirized
  Characteristics of Music
• Departure from Classical era
  – Message in the music
    • Give a word description for each piece
    • Haydn vs. Beethoven
  – Beethoven’s 5th in minor/major key
    • Loss of power in the major
  – Beethoven’s 5th in style of Haydn
    • Loss of power
• Romantic music is felt not reasoned
  Characteristics of Music
• Underlying themes carried
  throughout the symphony
  – Complete symphony viewed as a unit
  – Folk songs incorporated for nationalism
• Longer symphonies
• Orchestra grew in size
• Use of strong dynamics
• Virtuosos
• Is it important for a composer to
  communicate with the audience? Why?
  – Example of communication: baseball
            Romantic Music
• How does a composer communicate?
  – Form
    • Strength of the Classical Period
    • Romanic Period strayed from strict form
  – Story
    • Beethoven’s 5th (symbolic story)
    • Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique (story notes)
    • Tchaikowsky’s Romeo and Juliet (well-known story)
  – Uncomplicated (short length)
    • Chopin’s works
• Bridged Classical and
  Romantic periods
  – Form used contextually
  – Perfection was the goal
    (compare number of
    symphonies compared with
  – Motifs
    • Short semi-melodies or
      rhythms carried out in
      modified form throughout work
Musical Domain      Chemical Domain
• Note              • Atom
• Motif             • Molecule
• Melody            • Bulk Polymer
• Manifested Romantic ideal
  – Nature depicted (symbolic story)
  – Pastoral, Symphony No. 6
           Franz Schubert
• Wrote lieder—songs with
  emotional theme
• Told stories in the music
  – Erlkönig
    • Note the horse rhythm
    • Note the ominous feeling
    • Note the voice differences
      (narrator, father and son)
    • Note the sad conclusion
          Frederic Chopin
• Born in Poland,lived in Paris
• Short pieces in small rooms
  to allow communication
  – Minute Waltz
• Virtuosity
  – Etude Opus 10
• Nationalistic (Polish) music
  shown in his mazurkas,
  preludes and polonaises
  – Polonaise in A flat major
           Franz Liszt
• Hungarian child prodigy
• Greatest showman
• Hungarian Rhapsody 2
Franz Liszt
            Richard Wagner
•   German nationalism
•   Not a prodigy
•   Immoral life
•   Ludwig II
•   Opera
    – Leitmotif
• Depicted myths and heroes
    – Die Walküre (Ride of the Valkyries)
    – Tristan and Isolde (Unresolved – Liebestod)
     Russian Composers
• Moussorgsky,Balakirev, Borodin, Cui,
  Rimsky-Korsakov (Then "Handful")
• Used Russian themes
  – Russian Easter Overture
• Flight of the Bumble Bee
• Night on Bald Mountain

                              Almaty, Kazakhstan
   Peter Ilych Tchaikovsky
• Russian
• Used French style
• Ballets are most famous
  – Nutcracker, Sleeping Beauty
  – Romeo and Juliet
     • Love theme
     • Fight theme
     • End theme
• Deep emotion for his sad life
  – Symphony No. 6 – Pathètique
• The hand-full of Russian composers
  criticized Tchaikovsky because he didn’t
  use Russian melodies. Should music be
     Giuseppe Verdi
• Greatest Italian style opera
• Excellent librettos
• Orchestra an important component
  – Aida
  – La Traviata
  – Rigoletto
    • La Donna e Mobile
• Why has Romantic music remained so
        Principles of Art
• Abandoned strict rules of neoclassical
• Conveyed personal feeling of artist
• Used nationalism
• Depicted the exotic
• Landscapes became important
"If you want to do art
you must first study the
rules, second study the
great masters, third
forget the rules,
because genius begins
where trite rules end
but you can't get there
until you've obeyed the
rules first."
   – Sir Joshua Reynolds
Francisco Goya -
Classical Period
Franciso Goya – Romantic Period
         3rd of May 1808
   Eugene Delacroix
Liberty Leading the People
The Death of Sardanapalus
Joseph Mallord William Turner
   The Fighting "Temeraire"
Joseph Mallord William Turner
       The Slave Ship
John Constable
  Hay Wain

Romantic Period
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

• Raised the level of
  German literature
• The Sorrows of Young
• Dr. Faustus
• Why did Goethe’s writings have such a
  profound effect on the population?
         Sir Walter Scott
• Historical novels
  – Ivanhoe
  – Lady of the Lake
            Leo Tolstoy
• Russian
• War and Peace
• Anna Karenina
• Born to nobility but lived
  on simple farm
• Freed the serfs
           Victor Hugo
• Son of Napoleonic general
• Involved in French politics
• Hunchback of Notre Dame
• Les Miserables
Les Miserables
       Alexandre Dumas
• Imitated style of Scott
• Novels supported
  extravagant life
  – Employed several people
• Count of Monte Cristo
• The Three Musketeers
• The Man in the Iron Mask
• What was the principal message of Scott,
  Tolstoy, Hugo, and Dumas?
      William Wordsworth
     Samuel Taylor Coleridge
• English
• Lyrical ballads
  Five years have past; five summers, with the length
  Of five long winters! and again I hear
  These waters, rolling from their mountain-springs
  With a soft inland murmur. Once again
  Do I behold these steep and lofty cliffs,
  That on a wild secluded scene impress
  Thoughts of more deep seclusion; and connect
  The landscape with the quiet of the sky.
     William Wordsworth
    Samuel Taylor Coleridge
• English
• Lyrical ballads
  – Suspension of disbelief
  – Rime of the Ancient Mariner

          Water, water, every where,
          And all the boards did shrink ;
          Water, water, every where,
          Nor any drop to drink.
           Lord Byron
• Art was an inner expression
• Childe Harold
• The Flying Dutchman
• The Wandering Jew
     Percy Bysshe Shelley
• English
• Strongly liberal
• Friends with Lord Byron
• Married Mary Wollstonecraft
  – Frankenstein
• Which is more difficult, creativity within the
  form or ignoring the form?
 Thank You

Creativity in emotion

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