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高中英语写作辅导讲座 NMET English Writing lecture (2) 主讲教师：沈伟刚 2005/3 Part Four: 英语写作步骤与技巧： 一.写作的四个步骤 • 1.构思阶段 • 2.语言加工、整合阶段 • 3.段落的组织 • 4.检查与修改 1.构思阶段 Give opinions or points of view on the library: The Library Plays a Very Important Part in a Student’s Life The Efficiency of the Library Needs Improving The Library Is a Nice Place to Study in How to Make Use of the Library My Superstitions • The Library Plays a Very Important Part in a Student’s Life • The Efficiency of the Library Needs Improving • The Library Is a Nice Place to Study in • How to Make Use of the Library Friday 13th breaking a mirror always wear pearl necklaces for tests sit on the left side of plane sit in the center of room for test wear lucky T-shirts for games don’t walk under ladders use lucky shoelaces in tennis shoes never start a trip on Friday… The Way to Achieve Success Honesty industry/ diligence enthusiasm creation co-operation modesty the best policy work well a great force 2.语言加工、整合阶段 Give opinions or points of view on the library: The library plays a very important part in a student’s life. Students can borrow books, magazines, periodicals and even newspapers there. But the efficiency of the library needs improving because sometimes it takes students much time to borrow a certain book. Anyhow, the library is a nice place to study in. Every student should learn how to make use of the library. My Superstitions 1. Superstitions about school a. Always wear pearl necklaces for tests b. Sit in the center of room for tests c. Switch watches to right wrist for tests 2. Superstitions about travel a. Sit on the left side of plane b. Never start a trip on Friday c. Wear green when I fly 3. Superstitions about game a. Wear lucky T-shirts for games b. Use lucky shoelaces in tennis shoes c. Eat scrambled eggs(炒鸡蛋)for breakfast on the day of a game The Way to Achieve Success Honesty, industry, enthusiasm and creation are keys to achieve success. Honesty is the best policy. Industry gives every man and woman , every boy and girl, proper work to do. To do nothing is bringing ruin to oneself. Enthusiasm is a great force. One’s soul will expand if one devotes oneself to a noble cause. It is only by this way that we can achieve success. 3.段落的组织 1). 主题句 a. 要有能说明段落中心思想的内容 分析: Learning how to write in a foreign language can be a frustrating experience for many students. Russian is a difficult language to learn. b. 要有能体现中心思想的关键词 分析: The clothes we wear often reflect a lot about our personality. Life without music would not be exciting. 2). 阐述句 在主题句的基础上，把它展开 形成一个段落。围绕着主题句起 着描述、说明段落中心思想作用 的句子叫做阐述句。 例如： (1) The effects of global warming on the environment could be disastrous. (2) For one thing, deserts will become hotter and drier and drier and continue to expand. (3) rising seas, caused in part by the melting of half the world’s mountain glaciers, will flood low-lying islands and coasts, threatening millions of people. (4) Global warming will change the climate regionally and globally, altering natural vegetation and affecting crop production. (5) Finally, higher temperature could also cause more extreme storms, allowing tropical diseases to invade temperate areas. 再如： (1) My apartment is in a terrible location. (2) First of all, it is too far away from the important stores and services. It is several miles away from a grocery store, and I have to take two buses to get there. There are no local banks, Laundromats, hardware stores, or pharmacies that I can walk to from my apartment. (3) My apartment is also in a high-crime area. Gangs of teenagers roam the streets, threatening the neighbors. (4) In addition, because my apartment is near an industrial area, the pollution is awful. There is so much smog from the chemical plant that it is often hard for me to breathe. (5) Finally, there is no convenient public transportation in my neighborhood. The one bus line near my apartment runs only one bus an hour and has a very limited route. 3)结束句： 概括或总结全段的一个或几个句子。 是对全文的总结，要重点突出，画龙 点睛。 例如： (1) Time is very precious. We should value time as much as our life. (2) Realizing the preciousness of time is the first step in saving it. (3) Next, we should make good plans in doing things. That will be a great help too. (4) Lastly, don’t idle away our time at any moment. (5) Be productive every day. 段落写作要注意如下几方面的问题： （1）段落的统一性。 一段文章的统一性是指段落思想的 统一。所有的句子都是围绕一个中心 展开的。在一个段落中不应该包括与 该段的中心观点无关的内容，这样才 是达到了文章的统一性。 例如： Boston was the first city in the United States to launch a special event to celebrate New year’s Eve. Called First Night, the Boston New Year’s celebration is now an annual event that attracts over 1.5 million people. Boston is the higher education capital of America. The two largest universities within the city itself are Boston University and Northeastern University. In nearby Cambridge and Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The evening begins with a grand costumed parade around the Boston Common and ends at midnight with fireworks over Boston Harbor. In between, there are more than 200 performances of international music, dance, and theatre, and many films to choose from. The purpose of the First Night is to create good will and promote anticipation of a happy new year. 再如： To most people, education means schools. But education has many other sources as well --- the home, the farm, museums, television, advertisements, newspapers and magazines, sports events and practical experience. When one thinks of education, it is important to consider all these sources. （2）段落的连贯性。 连贯性是指段落中的句子应是 结构有条理，层次分明，按逻辑的 顺序来排列。而且句与句之间过渡 自然。 例如： Climate that we live in affects our life. For instance, climate affects the kinds of clothes we wear and even the colors we choose to wear. Since it affects the kinds of crops we can grow successfully, it influences our eating habits. Architecture is also affected by climate. Engineers and architects must think about climate when they make decisions about the construction, materials, design, and style of buildings. Even our choices in transportation are determined. A climate that is too hot, too cold, or too dry makes farming, industry, and transportation difficult and slows down economic development. （3）过渡问题。 一个段落的连贯性如何，不仅要 看句子的意思是否表达清楚，更为重 要的是要看句与句之间的过渡是否恰 当、自然。常见的过渡词有： 按时间发展段落常用的过渡词： first，then， next，earlier， later eventually， before ，after， as ，while， meanwhile， since ，soon afterward ， from then on ，at last， by the time 按空间发展段落常用的过渡词: to the left ，beside， behind ，to the right， across ，at the center ，in (the) front of， above ，between ，at the back of ，below ，near ，next to 按实例与细节发展段落常用的过渡词： first of all，besides，finally，second， furthermore，last，the third reason， in addition，the most important，next， moreover，another reason，also 按类比和对照发展段落常用的过渡词: in the same way that，similarly，compared to， both，is similar to，is like，have in common， just as，likewise，however，nevertheless， unlike，even though，in spite of，while，but， on the contrary，is different from，in contrast， conversely，differs from 按因果发展段落常用的过渡词： as a result，since，because， due to， therefore，consequently，thus， then， as a consequence，for this reason，so， and that is why 4. 检查与修改。 学生应该注意以下几个方面： 文章的开头是否吸引读者。 中心句是否表达清楚。 每段是否都有明确的主题句。 每段的阐述句是否都有明确的主题句。 每段的阐述句是否都是围绕主题句展开的。 每句或每段所运用的过渡词是否正确。 每一段是否遵从了一致性和连贯性的原则。 单词拼写，句子结构，标点符号是否正确。 May you succeed in English writing!