高考英语写作辅导讲座

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高考英语写作辅导讲座 Powered By Docstoc
					高中英语写作辅导讲座
NMET English Writing lecture


            (2)

     主讲教师:沈伟刚
        2005/3
Part Four: 英语写作步骤与技巧:

一.写作的四个步骤
  •   1.构思阶段
  •   2.语言加工、整合阶段
  •   3.段落的组织
  •   4.检查与修改
1.构思阶段
Give opinions or points of view on
the library:
 The Library Plays a Very Important
  Part in a Student’s Life
 The Efficiency of the Library Needs
  Improving
 The Library Is a Nice Place to Study
  in
 How to Make Use of the Library
     My Superstitions

• The Library Plays a Very Important
  Part in a Student’s Life
• The Efficiency of the Library Needs
  Improving
• The Library Is a Nice Place to Study
  in
• How to Make Use of the Library
 Friday   13th breaking a mirror
 always wear pearl necklaces for
  tests
 sit on the left side of plane
 sit in the center of room for test
 wear lucky T-shirts for games
 don’t walk under ladders
 use lucky shoelaces in tennis
  shoes
 never start a trip on Friday…
The Way to Achieve Success
   Honesty
   industry/ diligence
   enthusiasm
   creation
   co-operation
   modesty
   the best policy
   work well
   a great force
2.语言加工、整合阶段
Give opinions or points of view on
the library:
The library plays a very important part in a
student’s life. Students can borrow books,
magazines, periodicals and even newspapers
there. But the efficiency of the library needs
improving because sometimes it takes
students much time to borrow a certain book.
Anyhow, the library is a nice place to study in.
Every student should learn how to make use
of the library.
  My Superstitions
1. Superstitions about school
   a. Always wear pearl necklaces for tests
   b. Sit in the center of room for tests
   c. Switch watches to right wrist for tests
2. Superstitions about travel
  a. Sit on the left side of plane
  b. Never start a trip on Friday
  c. Wear green when I fly
3. Superstitions about game
  a. Wear lucky T-shirts for games
  b. Use lucky shoelaces in tennis shoes
  c. Eat scrambled eggs(炒鸡蛋)for
     breakfast on the day of a game
The Way to Achieve Success
   Honesty, industry, enthusiasm
and creation are keys to achieve
success. Honesty is the best policy.
Industry gives every man and
woman , every boy and girl, proper
work to do. To do nothing is
bringing ruin to oneself.
Enthusiasm is a great force. One’s
soul will expand if one devotes
oneself to a noble cause. It is only
by this way that we can achieve
success.
 3.段落的组织
1). 主题句
    a. 要有能说明段落中心思想的内容
分析:
    Learning how to write in a foreign language
    can be a
    frustrating experience for many students.
    Russian is a difficult language to learn.
    b. 要有能体现中心思想的关键词
分析:
    The clothes we wear often reflect a lot about
    our personality.
    Life without music would not be exciting.
2). 阐述句
  在主题句的基础上,把它展开
 形成一个段落。围绕着主题句起
 着描述、说明段落中心思想作用
 的句子叫做阐述句。
例如:
(1) The effects of global warming on the
  environment could be disastrous.
(2) For one thing, deserts will become
  hotter and drier and drier and
  continue to expand.
(3) rising seas, caused in part by the
  melting of half the world’s mountain
  glaciers, will flood low-lying islands
  and coasts, threatening millions of
  people.
(4) Global warming will change the
climate regionally and globally,
altering natural vegetation and
affecting crop production.
(5) Finally, higher temperature
could also cause more extreme
storms, allowing tropical diseases
to invade temperate areas.
再如:
(1) My apartment is in a terrible location.
(2) First of all, it is too far away from the
  important stores and services. It is
  several miles away from a grocery store,
  and I have to take two buses to get there.
  There are no local banks, Laundromats,
  hardware stores, or pharmacies that I
  can walk to from my apartment.
(3) My apartment is also in a high-crime
  area. Gangs of teenagers roam the
  streets, threatening the neighbors.
(4) In addition, because my
apartment is near an industrial
area, the pollution is awful. There
is so much smog from the
chemical plant that it is often
hard for me to breathe.
(5) Finally, there is no convenient
public transportation in my
neighborhood. The one bus line
near my apartment runs only one
bus an hour and has a very
limited route.
3)结束句:
     概括或总结全段的一个或几个句子。
    是对全文的总结,要重点突出,画龙
    点睛。



   例如:
(1) Time is very precious. We should
  value time as much as our life.
(2) Realizing the preciousness of
  time is the first step in saving it.
(3) Next, we should make good plans
  in doing things. That will be a great
  help too.
(4) Lastly, don’t idle away our time at
  any moment.
(5) Be productive every day.
段落写作要注意如下几方面的问题:
(1)段落的统一性。
   一段文章的统一性是指段落思想的
 统一。所有的句子都是围绕一个中心
 展开的。在一个段落中不应该包括与
 该段的中心观点无关的内容,这样才
 是达到了文章的统一性。

   例如:
         Boston was the first city in the
United States to launch a special event
to celebrate New year’s Eve. Called
First Night, the Boston New Year’s
celebration is now an annual event that
attracts over 1.5 million people. Boston
is the higher education capital of
America. The two largest universities
within the city itself are Boston
University and Northeastern University.
In nearby Cambridge and Harvard
University and Massachusetts Institute
of Technology.
The evening begins with a grand
costumed parade around the Boston
Common and ends at midnight with
fireworks over Boston Harbor. In
between, there are more than 200
performances of international music,
dance, and theatre, and many films
to choose from. The purpose of the
First Night is to create good will and
promote anticipation of a happy new
year.
   再如:
       To most people, education means
    schools. But education has many
    other sources as well --- the home,
    the farm, museums, television,
    advertisements, newspapers and
    magazines, sports events and
    practical experience. When one
    thinks of education, it is important to
    consider all these sources.
(2)段落的连贯性。
      连贯性是指段落中的句子应是
    结构有条理,层次分明,按逻辑的
    顺序来排列。而且句与句之间过渡
    自然。

   例如:
    Climate that we live in affects our life.
For instance, climate affects the kinds of
clothes we wear and even the colors we
choose to wear. Since it affects the kinds
of crops we can grow successfully, it
influences our eating habits. Architecture
is also affected by climate. Engineers and
architects must think about climate when
they     make     decisions     about    the
construction, materials, design, and style
of buildings. Even our choices in
transportation are determined. A climate
that is too hot, too cold, or too dry makes
farming, industry, and transportation
difficult and slows down economic
development.
(3)过渡问题。
 一个段落的连贯性如何,不仅要
看句子的意思是否表达清楚,更为重
要的是要看句与句之间的过渡是否恰
当、自然。常见的过渡词有:
 按时间发展段落常用的过渡词:
  first,then, next,earlier, later
  eventually, before ,after, as ,while,
  meanwhile, since ,soon afterward ,
  from then on ,at last, by the time
 按空间发展段落常用的过渡词:
  to the left ,beside, behind ,to the
  right, across ,at the center ,in (the)
  front of, above ,between ,at the
  back of ,below ,near ,next to
   按实例与细节发展段落常用的过渡词:
  first of all,besides,finally,second,
   furthermore,last,the third reason,
  in addition,the most important,next,
   moreover,another reason,also
 按类比和对照发展段落常用的过渡词:
  in the same way that,similarly,compared to,
   both,is similar to,is like,have in common,
   just as,likewise,however,nevertheless,
   unlike,even though,in spite of,while,but,
   on the contrary,is different from,in contrast,
   conversely,differs from
 按因果发展段落常用的过渡词:
as a result,since,because,
due to,
therefore,consequently,thus,
then,
as a consequence,for this
reason,so,
and that is why
4. 检查与修改。
    学生应该注意以下几个方面:
   文章的开头是否吸引读者。
   中心句是否表达清楚。
   每段是否都有明确的主题句。
   每段的阐述句是否都有明确的主题句。
   每段的阐述句是否都是围绕主题句展开的。
   每句或每段所运用的过渡词是否正确。
   每一段是否遵从了一致性和连贯性的原则。
   单词拼写,句子结构,标点符号是否正确。
May you succeed
 in English writing!

				
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