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									National Energy Policy Office
           (NEPO)




        HANDBOOK
Development and Construction




          Thailand
   Biomass-Based Power
      Generation and
    Cogeneration Within
Small Rural Industries




BLACK & VEATCH (THAILAND)

      November 2000
                                                         Table of Contents




1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 1


2.0 Definition of Biomass ................................................................................................................. 2


3.0 Feasibility Study .......................................................................................................................... 3


4.0 Regulations for the Purchase of Power from Small Power Producers (Biomass) ...................... 6

      4.1 Types of Power Producers ................................................................................................... 6

            4.1.1 Independent Power Producers .................................................................................. 6

            4.1.2 Small Power Producers............................................................................................... 6

      4.2 Application Procedures ........................................................................................................ 6

      4.3 Evaluation Criteria................................................................................................................ 7

      4.4 Conditions for Purchase ....................................................................................................... 8

      4.5 Power Purchase Rates.......................................................................................................... 8

            4.5.1 No Capacity Payment (or Non-Firm Contract) ........................................................... 9

            4.5.2 Capacity Payment (or Firm Contract) ......................................................................... 9


5.0 Financing...................................................................................................................................12

      5.1 Types of Financing..............................................................................................................12

            5.1.1 Corporate Financing .................................................................................................12

            5.1.2 Sovereign Guaranteed Financing .............................................................................12

            5.1.3 Project Financing or Limited Recourse Financing .................................................... 12

      5.2 Sources of Financing ..........................................................................................................13

            5.2.1 Commercial Institutions ........................................................................................... 13

            5.2.2 Bilateral Agencies .....................................................................................................13

            5.2.3 Multilateral Institutions............................................................................................ 13


6.0 Project Consultants .................................................................................................................. 14
7.0 Licensing and Permitting ..........................................................................................................15


8.0 List of Equipment Vendors and Consulting Firms ....................................................................18

     8.1 Equipment Vendors ...........................................................................................................18

           8.1.1 Steam Turbines .........................................................................................................18

           8.1.2 Boilers ....................................................................................................................... 22

     8.2 Consulting Firms.................................................................................................................27
                                    1.0 Introduction

     The National Energy Policy Office of Thailand (NEPO) has instituted a policy promoting
the use of biomass, such as wood waste, bagasse, rice husks, and oil palm residues, as fuel
for electricity and steam production in small power and cogeneration plants. The benefits of
this policy include reduction of petroleum imports, conservation of natural resources, and
strengthening of rural economies. Under the Small Power Producers (SPP) program,
electricity generated by such plants can be sold to the Electricity Generating Authority of
Thailand (EGAT). NEPO has commissioned Black & Veatch to perform a study of biomass
power and cogeneration projects and to prepare this Handbook to provide guidelines for the
development and construction of biomass projects by facility owners and other interested
investors.

     This handbook is organized into several sections as outlined here. Section 2.0 provides
a definition of biomass. Section 3.0 provides the general concept and elements of a
feasibility study, which evaluates the technical and financial viability of a project prior to its
implementation and before any level of investment is made. Section 4.0 provides
regulations, conditions, and criteria for the purchase of power by EGAT from small power
producers. Section 5.0 describes the various sources of project financing. Section 6.0
provides the requirements for consultancy services. Section 7.0 provides a summary of
licensing and permitting requirements and the various authorities concerned with project
implementation. The last section, Section 8.0 provides a list of major equipment suppliers
and consulting firms.




                                                 1
                           2.0 Definition of Biomass

     Biomass can be defined as agricultural and industrial wastes, which include, but are not
limited to, the following:

           Rice husks – residues from milling of paddy.

           Bagasse – fibrous residues from the processing of sugar cane.

           Wood wastes – residues from wood processing (mostly rubber and eucalyptus
            trees) and replanting efforts.

           Oil palm wastes – residues from the production of crude palm oil.

           Cassava wastes – residues from the production of starch.

           Corncobs – residues from the milling of corn.

           Coconut fibers and shells – residues from the production of coconut milk and oil.

           Distillery slop – waste from the production of alcohol.

    Biomass residues can be used either alone or in a mixture as fuel in power and steam
generating facilities.




                                              2
                               3.0 Feasibility Study

     Prior to implementation of a biomass project, it is necessary to perform a feasibility
study to determine whether the project is technically feasible, financially viable, and
environmentally sound. In order to perform this study, pertinent data and information from
the facility and its surroundings needs to be collected, compiled, and analyzed. In addition,
EGAT has established criteria used in evaluating projects for admittance into the SPP
program, as discussed in the next section (Section 4.0). Detailed data and information from
the project feasibility study will be used in the power sale proposal to EGAT.

    In general, the feasibility study of the project covers following aspects.

                                                                                                 Formatted


Technical: Including, for example, the following subjects:                                       Formatted




       Project Descriptions. Including project site selection. In general, the site should be   Formatted
        in proximity of biomass sources and the EGAT transmission system or substation but       Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

        should be distant from the community to avoid adverse impacts during construction
        and operations. Land area required for the project and a preliminary project plan
        laid out over the area.

                                                                                                 Formatted


       Biomass Supply. As fuel supply is a very important parameter for steam and power         Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
        generation, it is therefore necessary to study in details its availability to ensure
        sufficiency during project operation. Including in the study are the biomass costs
        and transportation costs of biomass from various sources.



        Example: For generating 1 MW per year, estimated amount of fuel required are the         Formatted
        following:

                             Rice Husk              9,800 Tonnes/year

                             Oil Palm Residue       14,050 Tinnes/year

                             Bagasse                    14,100 Tonnes/year

                             Wood Waste             15,500 Tonnes/year



       Generation Technology. Involving studies of appropriate project generating               Formatted
        capacity, plant power and steam generation systems, use of modern and efficient          Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

        machines and equipment and their preliminary specifications for each type of
        biomass to be used as fuel till delivery of power to the EGAT system.

                                                3
       Water Supply Study. As water is required in the generation process, it needs to         Formatted
        study availability of water resources in the project area, for example, surface water   Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

        from river, steam, canal, or underground water. It will generally include collection
        and analysis of water quality data, a preliminary plan of raw water supply, and a
        treatment process of the raw water for these sources.



        Estimated water use per day is about 120 m3 for generating power of 1 MW.               Formatted
                                                                                                Formatted



       Waste Water Treatment. Involving appropriate treatment process of waste water           Formatted
        produced in the generation process and disposal of the treated water from the           Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

        project site.



       Solid Ash Disposal. Including method of ash removal, storage, and offsite disposal,     Formatted
        which will not cause adverse environmental impacts.                                     Formatted: Bullets and Numbering




        Rice husk ash weighs 16 percent by weight of rice husk.



       Air Emissions. According to Ministry of Industry, power plants are classified as        Formatted
        Factory Type 3. The emissions from the biomass plants mostly including                  Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

        particulates, and NOx must be controlled within the standards specified by Ministry     Formatted

        of Industry, and Ministry of Science, Technology, and Environment.                      Formatted




       Project Planning. Including estimates of preliminary total project costs, operating     Formatted
        and maintenance costs, and preliminary project plans: from upfront studies, project     Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

        financing, engineering design and specifications, procurement, of machines and
        equipment, construction schedule till commercial operation date.



Financial: Essentially to determine whether the financial return from project investment is     Formatted
viable, compared to other alternative investment opportunities. Including is the estimate of
revenue from the sale of power to EGAT and other customer, and other revenue generated
by the project, if any. With the estimate of project investment costs, operations and
maintenance costs, perform a pro-forma analysis. Sensitivity analysis of cost and revenue
are generally taken to determine whether there is significant change in the return. If the
rate of return of investment is attractive, sources of project financing should be addressed.

                                              4
Others: In addition, there will be other related studies and assessments, for example,      Formatted
preliminary environmental study, socioeconomic, government policies which may have
impacts on the amount of biomass produces and power revenue. Also in the case of the
project size from 10 MW and larger, and an environmental impact assessment is required to
be undertaken. Owners must perform this assessment according to the guidelines
established by the Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, Ministry of Science,
Technology and Environment.




                                            5
4.0 Regulations for the Purchase of Power from Small Power
                    Producers (Biomass)

     This section contains a summary of “Regulations for the Purchase of Power from Small
Power Producers for Electricity Generated from Non-Conventional Energy, Waste and
Residual Fuel, and Cogeneration” issued by EGAT in January 1998.



4.1 Types of Power Producers
     EGAT classifies two types of power producers depending on the conditions and amount
of power purchased from them. These are independent power producers (IPP) and small
power producers (SPP).


4.1.1 Independent Power Producers

     Total power purchased from an IPP shall be in accordance with EGAT’s Terms of
Reference for solicitation of proposals to be submitted by private power producers. These
plants are typically large gas or coal fired units.


4.1.2 Small Power Producers

    Total capacity purchased from an SPP shall not exceed 60 MW. The capacity and
energy payments are based on the type of fuel used:

           Natural Gas

           Fuel Oil or Non-Conventional Energy

           Coal

     From above, biomass power plants are included in the “Fuel Oil or Non-Conventional
Energy” category. The regulations for the purchase of power from biomass power producers
are given separately for convenience. However, the purchase rates of power are still based
on the SPP using fuel oil as fuel in the generating process.



4.2 Application Procedures
     Candidate SPPs must file applications for sale of power to EGAT. The application shall
include the following:

           Evidence of Certificate of Incorporation as a juristic entity and the Memorandum
            of Association of such juristic entity.


                                              6
            A layout drawing showing the location of the power plant.

            Installation site of the generator.

            Description of the electricity generation process.

            The proportional amount of thermal energy used in electricity production with
             respect to the total amount of energy used in the total thermal process.

            Details of the generator(s), Name Plate Ratings and their specifications.

            The Single Line Diagram and the Metering and Relaying Diagram for
             interconnection to the Power Utility (PU) system.

            The electrical capacity and energy to be supplied to the PU system at the
             connection point.

            The contracted period during which the SPP shall generate and supply electricity
             to the PU system.

            The quantity of backup power required by the SPP from the PU.

            The number of staff involved with operation of the generating system together
             with details on their qualifications and their professional engineering licenses.

            The fuel consumption per year and the average lower heating value of the fuel
             used in electricity production and cogeneration.



4.3 Evaluation Criteria
     The evaluation criteria used by EGAT to evaluate applications shall include, but are not
limited to, the following:

            Appropriateness of the project with respect to technical and engineering
             aspects.

            Experience of the SPP (the Bidder), partners, and parent companies.





    PU = Power Utility means:



      Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) or

      Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA) or

      Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA)


                                                   7
          Financial status and availability of income sources of the project, including
           electricity customers and steam customers.

          Reliability of fuel procurement.

          Suitability of fuel reservation and fuel transportation.

          Appropriateness of the project site location as regards the security of the power
           system and the interconnection to the PU system.

          Environmental impact and the local public consent, including identifiable
           benefits resulting from the project.

          Date to commence purchasing electricity, which will be based on precedence in
           time.

          Modifications of the model Electricity Purchase/Sales Contract.



4.4 Conditions for Purchase
    The conditions on the purchase of power from an SPP include the following:

          EGAT will be the sole purchaser of electricity.

          The SPP must obtain authorization, or a letter certifying that permission has
           been granted for the construction and operation of the generating facility, from
           the proper authorities. All documents must be submitted to the PU within 18
           months after the execution of the contract, and before the commencement of
           electricity supply.

          The PU reserves the right to determine the date to commence purchasing
           electricity from any SPP.

          A performance bond is required on the contract signing date, equal to 5 percent
           of the present value of the total receivable capacity payments, evaluated using a
           discount rate equivalent to the interest rate on a 12-month fixed deposit at
           Krung Thai Bank.



4.5 Power Purchase Rates
     Depending on the contract, there are two different power purchase rates as described
in the following two sections.




                                              8
4.5.1 No Capacity Payment (or Non-Firm Contract)

     Under a non-firm contract, payments to an SPP will be only for energy supplied (kWh);
no capacity payment will be given. In addition, the contract period shall be less than 5 years.



Formula for determining energy payments:



    Energy payment in month “t”      = 0.87 + 8,600 * (Pt - 2.7681) / 39,400 Baht/kW-hr

                Where Pt = average price of fuel oil bought in month “t”



    Example: A biomass SPP sold 2,000,000 kW-hr of electricity to EGAT, and the average
              price of fuel oil was 5 Baht/liter in month “t”.



    Energy payment                   = 0.87 + 8,600 * (5 - 2.7681) / 39,400 Baht/kW-hr

                                     = 1.36 Baht/kW-hr



    Payment to the SPP               = 2,000,000 kW-hr * 1.36 Baht/kW-hr

                                     = 2,720,000 Baht




4.5.2 Capacity Payment (or Firm Contract)

    Under a firm contract payments to an SPP includes capacity and energy payments. The
contract term must be longer than 5 years.



Formula for determining capacity payment:



    Capacity payment in month “t” = CP * [0.70 * (FXt / 27) + 0.30]

                Where CP = standard capacity payment based on contract terms (see table
                             below)

                         FXt = Baht/US$ exchange rate



                                              9
                                                   Capacity Payment
                   Contract Term
                                                   (Baht/kW/month)
                      5 to 10 years                       203
                      10 to 15 years                      253
                      15 to 20 years                      281
                      20 to 25 years                      374


Energy payment in month “t”     = 0.71 + 8,600 * (Pt - 2.9242) / 39,400 Baht/kW-hr

           Where Pt = average price of fuel oil bought in month “t”



Example:   An SPP had a contract with EGAT with a term of 21 years, a capacity of 3,000
           kW or 3 MW, and energy sold to EGAT in month “t” of 2,000,000 kWh. The
           assumed exchange rate is 40 Baht/US$ and average price of fuel oil is 5
           Baht/litre.



Energy payment rate             = 0.71 + 8,600 * (5 - 2.9242) / 39,400

                                = 1.16 Baht/kW-hr



Energy payment                  = 2,000,000 kW-hr * 1.16 Baht/kW-hr

                                = 2,320,000 Baht



Capacity payment rate           = 374 [0.70 * (40 / 27) + 0.30]

                                = 500 Baht/kW/month



Capacity payment                = 3,000 kW * 500 Baht/kW/month

                                = 1,500,000 Baht



Total payment                   = 2,320,000 Baht + 1,500,000 Baht

                                = 3,820,000 Baht


                                         10
In addition, power generation from SPPs must satisfy the following conditions:

       SPPs must generate and supply electricity to the PU during the peak months of
        March, April, May, and June, and the total generating time must be at least
        4,672 hours annually.

       SPPs shall supply electricity at a monthly capacity factor of at least 0.51 but no
        more than 1.0, unless requested by the PU otherwise.

       SPPs shall be able to generate and supply power as requested by the PU (but not
        exceeding the contracted amount). In case of need, the PU will notify the SPPs
        at least 30 minutes in advance. The power factor must be supplied between
        0.85 leading and 0.85 lagging, in accordance with the PU requirement.

       The quality of electricity generated shall be in accordance with the “Regulations
        for Synchronization of Generators to the System” of the PU.




                                          11
                                      5.0 Financing

     In the event a feasibility study concludes that the project is technically and financially
viable, the facility owner may pursue investment and development of the project alone or in
joint venture with other interested partners.

     If the owner of the biomass facility chooses to invest and develop the project alone,
they should have a stable business base and a strong financial standing. An advantage of
this option is that they will become the sole owner of the new business.

      In general, investment for this kind of project is made in a joint venture with at least
two partners. The share of the facility ownership will then be determined in proportion to
the amount of investment put in by the different partners. Thus the owner of biomass
facility must search for equity partner(s) who have proven track records of investing and/or
developing similar type of facilities. It will be advantageous for the facility owner to have
the partner(s) who have significant experience in developing power plants.

     When there is a shortage of biomass residues generated at a facility, the facility may
group with other plant(s) to accumulate sufficient biomass for a viable power plant. This
practice also reduces the risk associated with uncertainties in fuel supply.



5.1 Types of Financing
      Whether or not the project will be developed alone or in a joint venture, it is necessary
to find outside sources of financing for the project. There are three types of financing as
discussed in the following sections.


5.1.1 Corporate Financing

     This type of financing is suitable for an investment made by the biomass facility itself.
The project could be financed on the basis of the existing credit of the facility. If its current
business is stable, the facility may obtain a loan with a relatively low interest rate.


5.1.2 Sovereign Guaranteed Financing

      In general, this type of financing involves projects of state enterprises or government
controlled organizations such as EGAT. The debt obligations are ultimately backed by the
full faith and credit of the government. Therefore, lending can be secured for the project at
low interest rates.


5.1.3 Project Financing or Limited Recourse Financing

    With this type of financing, lenders and investors look solely at the project cash flow for
repayment of the principal, interest, and return on investment. They consider the project

                                                12
assets (contracts and capital equipment) as collateral in the event of a loan default. If the
project cannot produce sufficient cash flow to service the debt, then the lenders’ only
recourse is to use the project assets for repayment of the loans.



5.2 Sources of Financing
     Includes are 3 main sources namely:


5.2.1 Commercial Institutions

     Commercial institutions include commercial banks, private investment institutions such
as the International Finance Corporation of Thailand (IFCT), the AIG Asian Infrastructure
Fund L.P., and Consolidated Electric Power Asia. Some major equipment suppliers also have
their own financing sources and are able to make arrangements for loans.


5.2.2 Bilateral Agencies

     Bilateral agencies include a wide range of government affiliated organizations such as
the US Eximbank, Japan Eximbank, Export-Import Bank of Thailand, and various export credit
agencies of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member
countries.


5.2.3 Multilateral Institutions

    Multilateral institutions are formed on the basis of an international treaty among
multiple nations. Institutions such as the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank
generally provide funding to member countries, while the International Finance Corporation,
which is part of the World Bank Group, offers financing to the private sector.



     In addition, there are other sources of financing, which are not a realistic alternative for
small scale projects such as sale of additional shares to raise the capitals and loans from
private investment funds.




                                               13
                            6.0 Project Consultants

     The development and construction of a thermal power plant requires a very high level
of technical knowledge, experience, and capital investment. There are detailed procedures
or stages involved in project implementation. In particular, the project owner must provide
a detailed description of the project to lenders when applying for a loan. Although the
owner may have knowledge of power plants, they may not be in a position to provide the
necessary details required in the various stages of project implementation. Thus, the owner
should locate consultants who have expertise in this area. Two types of consultants are:

          Financial advisors who provide consultation on project financing.

          Consulting engineers who provide consultation on the technical aspects of the
           project. Depending on the scope of services required by the owner, consulting
           engineers may perform technical studies, project feasibility studies (as described
           in Section 3.0), data compilation, presentation of study results to lenders, and
           calculation of power sales to EGAT. Consulting engineers may also participate in
           detailed engineering, procurement, and construction, in addition to project
           management activities.




                                            14
                              7.0 Licensing and Permitting

    The table below lists the licenses and permits required for the construction of biomass
power generation facilities in Thailand, as well as the agencies responsible for review and
approval.


                                                                                                  Estimated
    License and Permit                 Contact Agency                  Form – Annex no.         Approval Period
                                                                    Electricity Sale            2 Months
Export to EGAT                - EGAT
                                                                    Requisition - 1
                              - Provincial Office                   Power Concession            2 Months
                      1       - Public Works Department,            Requisition - 2
Power Concession
                              Mechanical and Electricity
                              Department.
Factory Operation             - Ministry of Industry, Dept. of      Factory Operation           2 Months
License                       Industrial Works                      License Requisition - 3
                              - Tumbol Administration               Building Construction       2 Months
Building Construction
                              Organization (TAO)                    Requisition - 4
Permit
                              - Provincial Public Works Office
                          2                                         Fuel Oil Storage            2 Months
Fuel Oil Storage Permit       - Provincial Public Works
                                                                    Requisition - 5
                              - Ministry of Science, Dept. of       Controlled Energy           2 Months
Controlled Energy
            3                 Energy Development and                Generation Permit
Generation.
                              Promotion                             Requisition - 6
                              - Ministry of Science, Office of      Environment Impact          6-12 Months
Environmental Impact
                 4            Environmental Policy and              Assessment Report
Assessment (EIA)
                              Planning (OEPP)
                              - Ministry of Interior, Immigration   Application for Extension   2 Months
Work Permit
              5               Bureau.                               of Temporary Stay in the
                                                                    Kingdom - 7

                              - Ministry of Labor and Social        Application for Work        2 Weeks
                              Welfare, Dept. of Employment          Permit - 8
                          6   - Ministry of Industry, Dept. of      Machine Registration        2 Months
Machinery Registration
                              Industrial Works                      Requisition - 9
Boiler Installation and       - Ministry of Industry,               Boiler safety Warranty      -------
Testing Report                Bureau of Technology Safety           Document - 10
                  7
Taxes Privilege               - Board of Investment (BOI)           Application for             2 Months

1
    Required for export to grid or other consumers
2
    Required for fuel oil storage (as reserved fuel).
3
    If the total generator capacity is equal or more than 200 kVA.
4
    If the generation capacity is equal or larger than 10 MW.
5
    Required for expatriates working on the project construction or operation.
6
    Required for using machine as asset guarantee for loan
7
    Required for tax privilege such as import taxes, and business taxes.
                                                 15
                                                         Promotion - 11



    The use of public water for a biomass facility must first gain the permission of the local
authorities such as the Royal Irrigation Department. In addition, if water pipelines are to be
constructed along public land, permits from authorities, such as the Department of Highway and the
Royal Irrigation Department, must be secured prior to construction.



                                 Flow Chart of the Procedure
                                                 for
                                   Licensing and Permitting




                                            16
                    Biomass Power Plant


                         EIA Report


BOI     Factory Operation          Controlled Energy    EGAT or other
             License                    Permit           Sale contract


      Building Construction                            Power Concession
             Permit


        Fuel Oil Storage
             Permit


        Boiler Installation
         and Operation


          Work Permit


      Machine Registeration




                              17
     8.0 List of Equipment Vendors and Consulting Firms

8.1 Equipment Vendors


8.1.1 Steam Turbines

      1. Allen Steam Turbines

         Allen Steam Turbines                    Rolls-Royce International Ltd.

         Queens Engineering Works                11/F, Tonson Tower

         UK-Bedford MK40 4JB,                    900 Ploenchit Road

         Bedfordshire, United Kingdom            Bangkok 10330

         Tel: +44 1234 242000                    Tel: 662 2630500

         Fax: +44 1234 357729                    Fax: 662 2630505

         Contact: Mr. Bob Bain                   Contact: Mr. Peter Clogger



      2. Asea Brown Boveri

         ABB Turbinen Nürnberg GmbH              ABB Power Limited

         Frankenstrasse, 70-80                   322 Moo 4, Bangpoo Industrial Estate
                                                 Soi 6, Sukhumvit Road, Tambon
         D-90481 Nürnberg, Germany               Praeksa Amphur Muang Samutprakarn
                                                 10280
         Tel: +49 911 4130 720
                                                 Tel: 662 3240505; 7093377
         Fax: +49 911 4130 753
                                                 Fax: 662 7093387
         Contact: Mr. Hartwig Sellschopp
                                                 Contact: Marc Dehertogh



      3. China Machine-Building International Corp (CMIC)

         China Machine-Building International Corp.

         No.2 Building, XiYuan Hotel, Erligou,

         Bejing, China 100044

         Tel: 0086 10 68310123/68313388-5248

         Fax: 0086 10 68310020/68310030

         Contact: Zhao Shine


                                           18
4. China National Electrical Equipment Corp (CNEEC)

   China National Electrical Equipment Corp.

   1 Lianhuahe Hutong,

   Beijing, China 100055

   Tel: 63478187

   Fax: 63261083

   Contact: Ghang Yanfei



5. Demag Delaval

   Demag Delaval Turbomachinery            Demag Delaval Turbomachinery

   840 Nottingham Way                      16 International Business Park

   Trenton, NJ 08650-0788 USA              #03-01 Mannesmann Centre

   Tel: +1 609 890 5000                    Jurong, Singapore 60 99 29

   Fax: + 1 609 890 9180                   Tel: +65 899 7133

   Contact: Mr. Dave Kiser                 Fax: +65 899 7130

                                           Contact: Mr. Ray Ristuccia



6. Dresser Rand

   Dresser Rand                            Dresser-Rand (SEA) PTE, Ltd

   10875 Benson Drive                      75 Bukit Timah Rd.

   Suite 120                               No. 05-13/16 Boon Siew Bldg

   Overland Park, KS 66201 USA             Singapore 229833

   Tel: +1 913 451 2227                    Tel: +65 336 0900

   Fax: + 1 913 451 7721

   Contact: Mr. John Raysik




                                   19
7. Elliott

   Elliott Company                        Elliott Company

   5001 E. 68th St. Suite 400             No. 8 Aljunied Ave 3, Oakwell Building

   Tulsa, OK 74136 USA                    Singapore 1438

   Tel: +1 918 494 3938                   Tel: +65 742 8000

   Fax: + 1 918 494 3891                  Fax: +65 742 3000

   Contact: Mr. William D. Bradfford



8. GEC Alstom

   GEC Alstom Power Generation            Alstom Power Generation

   Rue Rateau, 141                        Tisco Tower, 20/F

   La Courneuve Cedex, France             48 North Sathorn Road, Bangrak,

   Tel: +33 01 49924291                   Bangkok 10500

   Fax: +33 01 49924416                   Tel: 662 6380414-6

   Contact: Mr. Jean-Francois Leandri     Fax: 662 6380418

                                          Contact: Thomas Desrues



9. Shin Nippon

   Shin Nippon Machinery Co., Ltd.        Shin Nippon Machinery Co., Ltd.

   2509 Canada Blvd.                      Seio Bldg., 1-28, Shiba 2-chome,

   Glendale, CA 91208 USA                 Minato-ku,

   Tel: +1 818 500 8165                   Tokyo, 105-0014

   Fax: +1 818 247 5267                   Japan

   Contact: Jean Bouvet




                                     20
10. Siemens

   Siemens AG                             Siemens Ltd-Power Generation,
                                          Industrial Turbines
   Industiral Turbines and Power Plants
                                          Charn Issara Tower II, 31st Floor,
   Freyeslebenstrasse, 1                  2922/283 New Petchburi Road,
                                          Bangkapi, Huaykwang, Bangkok10320
   D-91058 Erlangen, Germany
                                          Tel: 662 7164889
   Tel: +49 9131 187268
                                          Fax: 662 7164891
   Fax: + 49 9131 187432
                                          Contact: Paul Sweeny
   Contact: Mr. Frank Schirmer



11. Skoda

   SKODA TURBINY s.r.o.                   SKODA a.s

   Tylova 57                              Hanoi, Vietnam

   316 00 Plzen, Czech Republic           Tel: +84 4 837 1789

   Tel: +420 19 773 54 41                 Fax:+84 4 837 0250

   FAX: +420 19 773 68 33                 Contact: Mr. Vu Huy Hoang




                                   21
     12. Tuthill Nadrowski

        Tuthill Nadrowski Turbinen GmbH       Alpha Group CO.,Ltd

        Auf dem Esch, 28                      139 M.11 Soi Chatkeaw,

        D-33619 Bielefeld Germany             Nuanchan Road, Klongkum Buengkum,
                                              Bangkok 10230
        Tel: +49 521 1085-0
                                              Tel: (662) 946-1997-8
        Fax: +49 521 1085-199
                                              Fax: (662) 946-1755-6
        Contact: Mr. Detlef U. Bieber
                                              Contact: Mr. Werasak Aimdate


8.1.2 Boilers

     1. Aalborg Industries

        Aalborg Boilers A/S                   PT Aalborg Sunrod Indonesia.

        P.O. Box 845, Gasvaerksvej, 24        Jl. Rawa Sumur II, Blok III

        DK-9100 Aalborg, Denmark              Kav CC 6-7, Kawasan Industri
                                              Pulogadung, Jakarta 13470
        Tel: +45 99 304500
                                              Indonesia
        Fax: +45 98 101330
                                              Tel: 6221 4610569
        Contact: Mr. Ivar Salomonsen
                                              Fax: 6221 4610568

                                              Contact: Holger Kirketerp



     2. Austrian Energy & Environment

        Austrian Energy and Environment       UE-Waagner-Biro Pte. Ltd

        Siemensstrasse, 89                    257 Jalan Ahmad Ibrahim

        A-1210 Wien (Vienna), Austria         Singapore 629147

        Tel: +43 1 25045 4592                 Tel: +65 2662388

        Fax: +43 1 25045 134                  Fax: +65 2613696

        Contact: Mr. Helmut Palzer            Contact: Mr. H. Griessnig




                                         22
3. Ansoldo Vølund

   Ansoldo Vølund                        Ansaldo Energia, Representative Office

   Falkevej                              Muang Thai-Phatra Office Tower II
                                         26/F, 252/124 Rachadaphisek Road
   2 Esbjerg, Denmark
                                         Huaykwang, Bangkok 10320
   Tel: 45 75 142844
                                         Tel: 662 6932938
   Fax: 45 75 141402
                                         Fax: 662 6932936
   Contact: Mr. Jens Wang Jensen
                                         Contact: Umberto Danelutti



4. Asea Brown Boveri (ABB)

   See address above



5. Babcock Enterprise

   Babcock Enterprise

   Rue Emile-Zola, 80 BP 95

   F-93123 La Courneuve Cedex, France

   Tel: +33 1 44 311100

   Fax: +33 1 44 311130

   Contact: Mr. Jean-Yves Caradec



6. BWE

   Burmeister & Wain Energi A/S

   Teknikeryen, 23

   DK-2830 Virum, Denmark

   Tel: +45 4585 7100

   Fax: +45 4585 7933

   Contact: Mr. Gabriel S. Pinto




                                    23
7. China Machine-Building International Corp (CMIC)

   See address above



8. China National Electrical Equipment Corp (CNEEC)

   See address above



9. DB Riley

   DB Riley

   P.O. Box 15040

   Worcester, Massachusetts 01615-0040, USA

   Tel: +1 508 854 3948

   Fax: +1 508 852 7548

   Contact: Kevin Toupin



10. Energy Products of Idaho

   Energy Products of Idaho                 Energy Products of Idaho(EPI) Asia

   4006 Industrial Avenue                   GPO Box 2108

   Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 83814               24 Bovelles Street

   Tel. +1 208 765 1611                     Camp Hill, Brisbane,

   Fax: +1 208 765 0503                     Queensland, Australia 4001

   Contact: David Brands                    Tel: 617 339 85809

                                            Fax: 617 384 36567




                                  24
11. Foster Wheeler

   Foster Wheeler Energia OY               Foster Wheeler International Corp.

   P.O. Box 5                              217 Moo 12, Sukhapiban 8 Road
                                           Tungsukhla, Sriracha
   Helsinki, Finland
                                           Cholburi 20230
   Tel: 358 9 5039 6102
                                           Tel: 6638 352022/6
   Fax: 358 9 5039 6160
                                           Fax: 6638 768394
   Contact: Mr. Timo Kauranen
                                           Contact: Mr. Tommi Ijas



12. GEC Alstom

   See address above



13. Kvaernar

   Kvaernar Pulping Power Division        Sofresid (Thailand) Co., Ltd

   Kelloportinkatu 1D                     98 Athakravi Bldg., 5/F

   P.O. Box 109                           Sukhumvit Road, Soi 26, Klongtoey,
                                          Bangkok 10110
   FIN-33101 Tampere, Finland
                                          Tel: 662 6612433 6
   Tel: 358 3 2413111
                                          Fax: 662 6612437
   Fax: 358 3 2413275
                                          Contact: Mr. Daniel Kersimon
   Contact: Mr. Antero Saija



14. Rolls-Royce

   Rolls-Royce International Limited      Rolls-Royce International Ltd.

   65 Buckingham Gate                     11/F, Tonson Tower

   SW1E 6AT London, United Kingdom        900 Ploenchit Road

   Tel: +01 71 222 9020                   Bangkok 10330, Thailand

   Fax: +01 71 227 9178                   Tel: 662 2630500

                                          Fax: 662 2630505

                                          Contact: Mr. Peter Clogger



                                     25
15. Standardkessel

    Standardkessel GmbH & Co.               Standardkessel (Thailand) Co., Ltd.

    Baldusstarasse, 13                      168 Sukhumvit Road, Soi 8,

    13 Duisburg, Germany                    Bangkok 10110, Thailand

    Tel: +49 203 4520                       Tel: 662 2511234; 2549264/7

    Fax: +49 203 452211                     Fax: 662 2534414

    Contact: Dr. Heinrich                   Contact: Visid Chirakulavivadhana

16. Stork Ketels

    Stork Ketels B.V.                       Stork Ketels Indonesia

    Postbus 20                              Wisma GKBI Suite 3506

    NL-7550 GB Hengelo (Ov.)                Jl. Jeneral Sudirman 28

    The Netherlands                         Jakarta 10210 Indonesia

    Tel: +31 74 2401000/1555                Tel: +62 21 5740533-5

    Fax: +31 74 2428188                     Fax: +62 21 5740539

    Contact: Mr. Michiels M. van der        Contact: Mr. R.E. Michels
    Maat




17. Takuma

    Takuma Co., Ltd.                        Takuma Co., Ltd.

    EITARO Building                         945/173 Charn Issara Tower 26th F

    1-2-5 Nihonbashi                        Rama 4 Road, Suravongse

    Chuo-ku, Tokyo                          Bangkok 10500

    Japan 660                               Tel: (02)267-2427-8

    Tel: (03)3276-7266                      Fax: (02)267-2429

    Fax: (03)3272-1057




                                       26
     18. Yoshimine

         Yoshimine Co., Ltd.

         Meisei Bldg., No. 8-5

         1-chrome, Kyomachibori

         Nishi-ku, Osaka, Japan

         Tel: (06) 447-7521

         Fax: (06)447-7530-1

         Contact: Mr. I. Okauchi

         Deputy Manager, Export Section



     19. Bangkok Industrial Boilers Co., Ltd.

         368 Sukhumvit Road

         Samrong Samutprakarn

         Tel: (662) 398-0143

         Fax: (662) 749-1969

         Contact: Mr. Isan Ratanamalai

         Managing Director


8.2 Consulting Firms
     1. Aalborg Boiler

         See address above



     2. Ansoldo Vølund

         See address above



     3. Asea Brown Boveri (ABB)

         See address above




                                          27
4. Bechtel

   Bechtel                                    Bechtel

   50 Beale Street                            18th Floor, SCB Park Plaza

   San Francisco, CA 94105 USA                East Tower III

   Tel: +1 415 768 1234                       19 Ratchadaphisek Road

   Fax: +1 415 768 9038                       Ladayao, Chatuchak

                                              Bangkok, 10900

                                              Tel: 662 545 7100

                                              Fax: 662 545 7777



5. Black & Veatch

   Black & Veatch                             Black & Veatch Power (Thailand)

   Kansas City, Missouri                      555 Rasa Tower 15th Floor

   64114-0405 USA                             Phaholyothin Road, Ladyao

   Tel: 1-913-458-2000                        Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900

   Fax: 1-913-458-2222                        Tel: (02)937-0113

                                              Fax: (02)937-0112



6. BWE

   See address above



7. China National Machinery & Equipment Import & Export Corp (CMEC)

   China National Machinery & Equipment Import & Export Corp

   16, Fuxing Men Wai Street, Beijing,China

   Tel: +8610 63268905

   Fax: +8610 63268905

   Contact: Fang Yanshui




                                   28
8. EKE-Berlin

   EKE Berlin GmbH                        PT Basuki Pratama Engineering

   Landsberger Allee, 61                  Jl. Pulo Lentut Nº2

   D-10249 Berlin, Germany                Jakarta Industrial Pulogadung

   Tel: +49 30 42107800                   Jakarta 13260, Indonesia

   Fax: +49 30 42107810                   Tel: +62 21 4603212

   Contact: Mr. Alois Schwarz             Fax: +62 21 4603751

                                          Contact: Mr. S. Dadhe



9. Foster Wheeler

   See address above



10. Itochu

   Itochu (Thailand) Ltd.

   54 Harinthorn Tower

   North Sathorn Road, Bangrak

   Bangkok 10500

   Tel: (02)266-3086

   Fax: (02)266-3125



11. IVO International

   IVO International, Ltd                  IVO Group Representative Office

   Rajatorpantie, 8 Vantaa                 II Pacific Place

   SF-01019 IVO                            142 Sukhumvit Road

   Finland                                 Bangkok 10110

   Tel: +358 0 85612457                    Tel: 662 6532174-6

   Fax: +358 0 5630432                     Fax: 662 6532177

   Contact: Mr. Helja Lahteenmaki-         Contact: Mr. Eric Chanfreau
   kettunen



                                     29
12. Siemens

   See address above



13. Stone & Webster

    Stone & Webster Engineering Corp.   Stone & Webster Engineering
                                        Thailand
    250 W 34th St.
                                        Suite 904, Diethelm Tower A
    New York, NY 10119-2998 USA
                                        93/1 Wireless Road
    Tel: +1 617 589 7444
                                        Lumpini, Pathumwan
    Fax: +1 617 589 1078
                                        Bangkok 10330
    Contact: William F. Griffith
                                        Tel: 2-256-6324

                                        Fax: 2-256-6328

                                        Contact: Walter S. Potter



14. Stork Comprimo

    Stork Comprimo B.V.                 Stork Comprimo Pte. Ltd.

    Radarweg, 60                        4, Loyang Lane #03-01/02

    NL-1043 NT Amsterdam                Singapore 5428030

    The Netherlands                     Tel: +65 5428020

    Tel: +31 20 5807111                 Fax: +65 5428030

    Fax: +31 20 5807050                 Contact: Mr. F.E. Chia

    Contact: Mr. J. De Ruiter



15. Stork Ketels

   See address above




                                   30
16. Tractabel

   Tractebel Engineering International    Electricity and Gas International
   (TEI)                                  (E.G.I.)

   Avenue Ariane, 7                       11th Floor Olympia Thai Tower

   B-1200 Brussels, Belgium               Ratchadapisek Road

   Tel: +32 2 7738638                     Huay Kwang, Bangkok 10310,

   Fax: +32 2 7739910                     Tel: 662 2551274

   Contact: Mr. G. de Jacquier de Rosée   Fax: 622 2551275

                                          Contact: Ms. T. Saesataesanont




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