the 35th Annual Conference - American Rock Art Research by pengxiang


									                           Welcome to the 35th Annual Conference
                                                    Mavis Greer, ARARA President

OUR RETURN TO FARMINGTON, the birthplace of ARARA,                       conference. In order to acquaint newer members with the
focuses on celebrating 35 years of American Rock Art Research            history of ARARA, photographs were gathered (mostly, but not
Association conferences. The first meeting brought together 82           entirely, courtesy of A.J. Bock) and prepared for presentation by
rock art enthusiasts to share their research, discuss the status         Garry Gillette to show people and places significant to the
of rock art study, and plan how they could be a part of directing        organization. Anne Stoll worked to bring together the history
the future of education, conservation, and protection of picto-          of the organization, and Ken Hedges and Breen Murray collabo-
graphs and petroglyphs. Shari Grove and Dr. Kay Toness col-              rated to reprint the first La Pintura for your reading pleasure.
laborated to plan the first conference at the new Salmon Ruins           Chris Gralapp and Carolynne Merrell designed the conference
Center. Kay has passed away. Shari is currently the Collection           logo, featuring a motif from Chaco Canyon, and Carolynne
Services Librarian at the Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr. Library at Boston       prepared the conference poster, which is on this cover of this
College, and although she cannot be with us for this 35th                program issue, using logos from past conferences on a Chaco
celebration, she has shared information on ARARA's origins.              ruin background. Instead of a single banquet speaker we asked
Frank and A.J. Bock were there at the beginning. A.J. began              our early members, including Polly Schaafsma, the speaker at
writing down her memories of the birthing, as she called it. In          the first banquet, to share memories and views of changes in
that narrative she tells that after the presentations, and after         rock art over the past 35 years, and we are looking forward to
most people had headed for bed, a few met in the motel room              their reminiscences.
of Dr. and Mrs. John Cawley to make plans for a national                     I have been privileged to be the tenth president of ARARA.
organization. The following evening there was a meeting of               I follow a long line of hardworking volunteers who have kept this
those interested in starting a formal rock art organization, and         organization operating. I appreciate the opportunity to serve in
a list of people who attended that organizational meeting to             this position and to have worked with a Board, committee
discuss the formation of what was to become ARARA is                     chairs, and other volunteers whose dedication to rock art has
reprinted in this program issue. A.J. took notes recording these         greatly benefitted the resource. We hope you have a great time
first events went on to spend the next 19 years as Secretary of          in Farmington!
ARARA. A.J. and Frank worked tirelessly to make sure the
organization succeeded. Without their dedication we would not
be gathering in Farmington this Memorial weekend to mark 35
years of conferences.
   Through the years many people have come and gone, but the
overall membership has continued to grow. Ken Hedges and
Daniel McCarthy have seen it all. They are the only members to
have attended every meeting. To help us commemorate these
years together, they agreed to act as Program Chairs for this
event. It turned out to be one of the most challenging years to
hold this position. We had a record number of abstracts submit-
ted, and Ken and Daniel worked hard to accommodate as many
presentations as time and room allowed. We appreciate the
work of Ken and Daniel and all of you who volunteered to share
in making this program a success. The variety and range of
abstracts is an indicator of the expansion rock art research has
experienced over the past 35 years and the general growth of our
rock art community.
   The Conference Planning Committee, under the capable
direction of Donna Gillette, has worked to make this conference
informative about the past while underscoring that we are not
at the finish line but only beginning the journey to fulfill the goals
envisioned by the founding members. Once again, many people
pulled together to assist in the production of this conference.
These people are listed with their main contribution on the
acknowledgement page in this program and on display at the
                            Conference Program                  May 2008

                             ARARA 2008 Conference Program
                     Best Western Inn & Suites, Farmington, New Mexico
                    All sessions and meetings will be held at the Best Western Inn & Suites
                                             Thursday, May 22, 2008
8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. Board Meeting — Board Room
4:00 – 7:00 p.m.      Conference Registration — Atrium
5:00 – 7:00 p.m.      Evening Social Gathering— Garden Cafe
                             No-host Bar and snacks. Friday Field Trip participants pick up their trip materials
                                Conference Registration will be open
7:00 p.m.               Public Lecture — Farmington Library, 2101 Farmington Ave.
                             “Protecting the Rock Art of Chaco Canyon” by Jane Kolber

                                               Friday, May 23, 2008
All day                 Field Trips — Meeting locations to be announced by Field Trip Coordinators
4:00 – 5:30 p.m.        Salmon Ruins GuidedTour
                                Conference Registration will be open at Salmon Ruin
5:30 – 7:30 p.m.        Reception — Salmon Ruins (located on Highweay 64, 8 miles east of Farmington)
                             Blackhorse Mitchell, a Diné Teacher, Artist, Writer, and Musician, will present a program of
                             singing and dancing
                                Conference Registration will be open at Salmon Ruin
8:00 – 10:00 p.m.       Vendor Room Setup
                                       Saturday Morning, May 24, 2008
6:30 – 8:00 a.m.        Vendor Room and Poster Set Up
                                Posters will be set up at the beginning of the meeting and left up until Sunday afternoon.
                                Authors will be at posters from 1:15 to 1:45 p.m. during lunch breaks (see Schedule)
7:00 – 8:00 a.m.      Publication Committee Meeting — Board Room
7:00 – 8:00 a.m.      Vendor Room Open (Vendor Room will be open during breaks and lunch)
7:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. Conference Registration (closed during sessions)
8:00 a.m.               Welcome & Announcements — Ballroom
                             Mavis Greer, ARARA President & Donna Gillette, Conference Committee Chair
8:30 a.m.               Presentation of the Oliver Award for Rock Art Photography
                        Craig Law: The Harvest Scene in the Maze District. Oliver Award Winner
                             Award Presentation by Bill Hyder
                        David Sucec: Alone In The Crowd, A Small Figure At The Harvest Panel, Canyonlands
                           National Park (Contributed Paper)
9:00 a.m.               Session 1. Southwest: New Mexico Rock Art
                                Ken Hedges, Moderator
                        E. C. Krupp: Rock Star (Contributed Paper)
 4                                   La Pintura        2007–2008

                    James D. Keyser: The Cora Dutton Petroglyphs: An ARPA Case on the Lincoln National
                       Forest, New Mexico (Contributed Paper)
                    LeRoy J. Unglaub: Apache Iconography at Alamo Mountain, New Mexico (Contributed
                    Rebecca Grace Stoneman-Washee: Faces on the Landscape: Rock Art Traditions of the
                        Salinas Interface (Report)
                    E. Gene Riggs: The Unique Rock Art of Canador Peak (Report)
10:15 a.m.          Break — Vendor Room Open
10:45 a.m.          Session 2. Southwest: Hohokam & Patayan
                           Jim Keyser, Moderator
                    Aaron M. Wright and Todd W. Bostwick: Technological Styles of Hohokam Rock Art
                        Production in the South Mountains (Contributed Paper)
                    Will G. Russell and Aaron M. Wright: Footprints to the South: Hopi Clan Symbols in
                        the Rock Art of the South Mountains (Contributed Paper)
                    William Nightwine: McDowell Mountain Rock Art Inventory (Contributed Paper)
                    Caitlin J. Guthrie: Menstruation in South Mountain Rock Art (Report)
                    Robert Mark, Evelyn Billo, and Donald Weaver, Jr.: Sears Point, Arizona: BLM
                        Recording Project Progress Report (Report)
                    Ken Hedges: Placing the Sears Point Style in Regional Context (Contributed Paper)
12:15 p.m.          Lunch — Vendor Room Open
12:15 – 1:15 p.m.   Education Committee Meeting — Board Room
1:15 – 1:45 p.m.    Poster Presentations
                    Terry Ballone, Hubert A. Allen, Jr., Teresa Bennett, Sandy Ashworth: Evidence of a
                        Cross-Quarter Sun Dagger in New Mexico: A Time-Lapse Comparison
                    Brooks Marshall and Michael C. Marshall: Exposing Archaeoastronomy Aspects of
                        Rock Art Motifs Using Efficient and Inexpensive Tools.
                    Joseph O’Connor, Alberto Tesucun, and Josué Martinex Ramirez: Ancient Mayan
                        Graffiti/Arte Rupestre
                    Reeda Peel and Mark Willis: Kite Aerial Photography and Photogrammetry of the Graef
                        Site (41RV50)
                    Tim Roberts: The “Art Mobileur” of Texas and Northern Mexico: The Transition from
                        the Representational Female Forms of Painted and Etched Pebbles and Cobbles to the
                        Naturalistic Forms of Ceramic Artifacts
                    Steven J. Waller: Sonic Cave Replicas: Why and How
                                Saturday Afternoon, May 24, 2008
1:45 p.m.           Special Presentation
                    David Casey: The Hadlock Collection: Pioneering Work in Rock Art Preservation in
                       Northwest New Mexico
                          Conference Program                  May 2008

2:05 p.m.             Session 3. Chaco Canyon Rock Art
                              Jane Kolber, Session Coordinator
                      Jane Kolber: An Overview of Ancient Chacoan Rock Art (Contributed Paper)
                      Donna Yoder: Overview of Chaco Navajo Rock Art (Contributed Paper)
                      G. B. Cornucopia: The Rock Stars of Chaco: Archaeoastronomical Interpretations of
                          Rock Art In Chaco. (Contributed Paper)
                      David M. Brugge: Warfare in Navajo Rock Art (Contributed Paper)
                      Ramona Begay: Chaco Canyon Rock Art from a Local Navajo Point of View
                          (Contributed Paper)
3:30 p.m.             Break — Vendor Room Open
4:00 p.m.             Session 3 continued: Chaco Canyon Rock Art
                      Pamela Baker: Painted Sites of the Ancestral Puebloans in Chaco Canyon Culture
                          National Historical Park, New Mexico (Contributed Paper)
                      Polly Schaafsma: The Jog-toed Sandal Enigma: On Chaco Sandstone and Other Rocks
                          (Contributed Paper)
                      Ann Phillips Inscriptions in Chaco Canyon (Contributed Paper)
                      Belinda C. Mollard: Chaco Rubbings: The Field Results (Contributed Paper)
5:15 – 6:15 p.m.      Conservation Committee Meeting — Board Room
5:15 p.m.             Happy Hour — No-Host Bar, Atrium
6:00 p.m.             AUCTION — Atrium
                           Silent Auction begins at 6:00 p.m. Live Auction begins at 7:00 p.m.
                              Dell Crandall, Auctioneer

                                      Sunday Morning, May 25, 2008
7:00 – 8:00 a.m.       Web Site Committee Meeting — Board Room
7:00 – 8:00 a.m.       Vendor Room Open
7:00 a.m. – 12:15 p.m. Conference Registration (closed during sessions)
8:00 – 8:55 a.m.       Business Meeting — Ballroom
9:00 a.m.             Session 4. Southwest
                              Evelyn Billo, Moderator
                      James M. Copeland: ‘Álííl: Ceremonial Clothing and Adornment in Dinétah Rock Art,
                          A.D. 1500–1754, Northwest New Mexico (Contributed Paper)
                      Lorna Gail LaDage and David Grenoble: Human Destruction of a Rock Art Site in
                          Waterflow, New Mexico (Contributed Paper)
                      Jennifer K.K. Huang: Social Organization on Perry Mesa: What the Rock Art Suggests
                          (Contributed Paper)
9:55 a.m.             Break — Vendor Room Open
 6                                  La Pintura        2007–2008

10:20 a.m.         Session 5. World Rock Art
                          Breen Murray, Moderator
                   Martín Cuitzeo Domínguez Núñez: “Las Manitas” Rock Art Site in Cañada de Cisneros,
                        Tepotzotlán, México: An Analysis Using Semiotic Tools/El conjunto rupestre “Las
                        Manitas” en la Cañada de Cisneros, Tepotzotlán, México: Un análisis con
                        herramientas semióticas. (Contributed Paper)
                   Daniel Herrera Maldonado and Martin Cuitzeo Domínguez Nuñez: Analysis of the
                        Rock Art Feline Picture in Cueva de la Malinche, Hidalgo, Mexico/Análisis de la
                        imagen rupestre de un felino en la Cueva de la Malinche, Hidalgo, México.
                        (Contributed Paper)
                   Elena Hegly-Delfour: Bear Images and Symbols in Paleolithic Art (Contributed Paper)
                   Ilaz Thaqi: Kosovo Rock Art: Methodical Transliteration (Contributed Paper)
                   Elyssa Figari: Qurta: Lascaux along the Nile? (Contributed Paper)
                   Grant S. McCall and Marie R. Richards: San Initiation in Ethnography and Rock Art:
                        Making Sense of Images, Scales, and Landscapes (Contributed Paper)
12:15 p.m.         Lunch — Vendor Room Open
12:15 p.m.         Board Meeting with New Board Members — Board Room
12:15 p.m.         Presenters Meeting — Ballroom podium
1:15 – 1:45 p.m.   Poster Presentations
                   Hubert A. Allen, Jr. and Teresa Bennett: The Petroglyph Calendar: An
                        Archaeoastronomy Adventure
                   Jessica Joyce Christie: Rock Art—An Artistic Medium Favored by the Egyptian God Aten
                   Martín Cuitzeo Domínguez Núñez: “Las Manitas” Rock Art Site in Cañada de Cisneros,
                        Tepotzotlán, México: An Analysis Using Semiotic Tools
                   Robyn Johnson: Ibex Hollow and Trapper Cliffs: Two Valued but Compromised Rock
                        Art Sites in South-central Idaho
                   Paula L. McNeill and Arlevia (Art) Snyder: Remembering Dr. E. E. Snyder, Jr: "A Far Out
                        Hypothesis About an Unusual Petroglyph Design"
                                Sunday Afternoon, May 25, 2008
1:45 p.m.          Session 6. Approaches to Rock Art Research
                          Jenny Huang, Moderator
                   George Poetschat and James D. Keyser: The Rock Art of Atherton Canyon:
                       Relationships to the Bear Gulch Complex (Contributed Paper)
                   Alice M. Tratebas: Use of Abrasion in Central Plains Rock Art (Contributed Paper)
                   Ben H. Swadley: Suggested Approaches to Rock Art Site Management (Contributed Paper)
                   Jon Harman: Using DStretch to Reveal Patterns of Figure Placement at Two Great Mural
                       Sites in the Sierra de San Juan, Baja California (Contributed Paper)
                   Alexander K. Rogers: An Analtyical Tool for Assessing Potential Solar-Oriented
                       Archaeoastronomy Sites (Report)
                                   Conference Program                       May 2008
3:10 p.m.                    Break — Vendor Room Open (closed after this break)
3:40 p.m.                    Session 7. Great Basin and Beyond
                                       Caroline Maddock, Moderator
                             Don Christensen: Go With the Flow: Rock Art of the Cinder Cone Lava Beds, Eastern
                                 Mojave Desert, California (Contributed Paper)
                             Reeda Peel: Abstract Eyes and Owl Faces (Report)
                             Courtney Smith and Jeffrey F. LaFave: PBAs and PBZs: An Overview of Patterned Body
                                 Rock Art in the Western United States (Contributed Paper)
                             Carolynne Merrell: Research Results from Two Idaho Petroglyph Sites (Contributed
                             Ekkehart Malotki: The Western Archaic Rock Art Tradition: A "Geocentric" Expression.
                                 (Contributed Paper)
5:15 p.m.                     Happy Hour — No-Host Bar, Atrium
6:15 p.m.                     BANQUET — Atrium
                                   Presentation of Awards
                                   Founders’ Forum — Featuring those who were present at ARARA’s birth!

                                                       Monday, May 26, 2008
All Day                      Field Trips

                                                 Abstracts of Papers
Hubert A. Allen, Jr., and Teresa Bennett (Hubert Allen and Associates)
The Petroglyph Calendar: An Archaeoastronomy Adventure (Poster)
Research on a triangular petroglyph carved on a horizontal plane of granite, at the base of the Sandia Mountains, New Mexico, suggests
that it was an ancient calendar. Evidence includes naked-eye observation of sunsets across the year and alignments created with the triangle;
observations showing significant correlation to solstices; measurement of prominent alignments through the petroglyph and correlation with
mathematically calculated solar azimuth positions; description of the possible calendrical scale and similarities to other calendrical examples
found across the Southwest.Use of a triangle in relation to ancestral and historic Southwestern Native American sun symbolism is explored.
Pamela Baker (URARA)
Painted Sites of the Ancestral Puebloans in Chaco Canyon Culture National Historical Park, New Mexico (Contributed Paper)
ABSTRACT: Chaco Canyon is northwestern New Mexico has long been the focus of intense archaeological research. Use of the area at
diverse times by Ancestral Puebloans and later Navajo peoples has resulted in a rich display of imagery on the canyon walls. The rock art
in the canyon, however, has not been as thoroughly reported as the monumental architecture and associated road segments. This paper will
examine the painted sites in the canyon executed by the Early Chacoans/Ancestral Puebloans.
Terry Ballone, Hubert A. Allen, Jr., Teresa Bennett, and Sandy Ashworth (Hubert Allen and Associates)
Evidence of a Cross-Quarter Sun Dagger in New Mexico: A Time-Lapse Comparison (Poster)
During a February 2007 field trip near San Ysidro, New Mexico, two of our team noticed sunlight interacting across a petroglyph panel about
midday. A long, thin beam of sunlight aligning with the center of the largest concentric circle petroglyph caught the team’s attention and guided
a series of research visits. Observation and time-lapse and still photography were used at 10 time periods over 14 months. A sun dagger
interaction appeared strongest at the November/February cross-quarters. Time-lapse films compare the light and shadow interactions across
the year, at significant astronomical points.
Ramona Begay (Chaco Culture National Historical Park)
Chaco Canyon Rock Art from a local Navajo Point of View (Contributed Paper)
Rock art in the form of petroglyphs and pictographs from the prehistoric and historic periods is very common throughout the southwest.
As a tribal member of the Navajo Nation, I live and work in the Chaco Canyon area where it is believed that the prehistoric Indian civilization
  8                                                 La Pintura              2007–2008
is known to have had a very popular history in the prehistoric period according to today’s western archaeologists, anthropologists, and
astronomers. The area has a mass of rock art in the canyon. My presentation will give me the opportunity to share some photographs of
the rock art found in Chaco Canyon and to also provide my perspective of the art based on my traditional values and knowledge.
David M. Brugge (Retired)
Warfare in Navajo Rock Art (Contributed Paper)
Perhaps some insights can come of studies of war and peace, so we must not ignore this aspect of humanity's history. Navajo rock art depicts
scenes with warriors, soldiers, and battles long ago when war was common on a smaller scale. Indications of dress, weapons, and even tactics
appear in these panels, in some cases connecting to Navajo oral tradition, in others showing events also present in recorded history and some
known only from the images. Contrasts in the treatment of war by Navajo artists with those by Plains Indians, New Mexican Hispanics,
and Anglo Americans reveal cultural differences that are of interest.
David Casey (San Juan County Archaeological Research Center and Library—Salmon Ruins Museum)
The Hadlock Collection: Pioneering Work in Rock Art Preservation in Northwest New Mexico (Contributed Paper)
Harry and Sally Hadlock dedicated more than two decades to the recording of rock art throughout the vast Middle San Juan Drainage, an
area of more than two-thousand square miles. From 1959 to 1978, they recorded, described, and registered more than two-hundred rock
art sites: ninety-four Ancestral Puebloan and one hundred-four Navajo (Diné). The Hadlock Collection is composed of twenty-two notebooks
containing over two thousand photographs, site registration forms, and special identification notes. A vertical file and more than fifty rare
or out-of-print publications address the origins and purpose of more than five-hundred rock art panels. The purpose of this paper is to provide
a brief overview of the collection with particular emphasis on the highly productive Gobernador Phase of Diné history (A.D.1700 –1775).
Links between the origins and purpose of Diné ceremonialism, sand painting, and rock art will be highlighted and will complement scheduled
tours to the Dinétah for viewing of rock art panels.
Don Christensen (Archaeoimagery)
Go With the Flow: Rock Art of the Cinder Cone Lava Beds, Eastern Mojave Desert, California (Contributed Paper)
The Eastern Mojave Desert contains abundant rock art dispersed throughout the region with some significant concentrations. One of these
is the Cinder Cone Lava Beds, a small subregion with over 6,000 recorded engravings and paintings. Throughout the Desert West proximity
to water and travel corridors seem to be major associations with rock art sites. The lava beds present restricted access and limited food and
water. The area does occupy a location central to several major regional resources. However, the amount of rock art present suggests that
major ritual/ceremonial importance was attached to some locales within the lava beds as a construct of the cultural landscape. This study
examines the context and distribution of rock art sites in the region and attempts to ascertain the rationale for site location and function.
Jessica Joyce Christie (School of Art and Design, Jenkins Fine Arts Center, East Carolina University)
Rock Art—An Artistic Medium Favored by the Egyptian God Aten (Poster)
I discuss how Pharaoh Akhenaten (Eighteenth Dynasty, ca. 1345 B.C.) used rock art to construct political space in his capital city Amarna.
Akhenaten began his reign as Amenophis IV in the New Kingdom capital of Thebes, but soon he revolutionized the Egyptian political and
religious system by raising the sun disc Aten to the status of sole supreme deity, naming himself Aten's only messenger and servant. He founded
a new capital at Amarna and defined its urban area by means of 14 huge rock stelae carved into the surrounding cliffs. Placement, iconography,
and text of these stelae visualize the state ideology of Akhenaten centered on Aten.
James M. Copeland (Bureau of Land Management, Farmington, New Mexico)
 'Álííl: Ceremonial Clothing and Adornment in Dinétah Rock Art, A.D. 1500–1754, Northwest New Mexico (Contributed Paper)
Over 90 years of observation concerning the ceremonial rock art and archaeological specimens of Dinétah and over 100 years of ethnographic
documentation of Diné ceremonies and associated paraphernalia shows a strong continuity between ceremonial rock art images from the
16th–18th centuries and ongoing traditional ceremonies first documented in print in the late 1800s. Some of the strongest and most robust
evidence is found in pictographs where ornamentation, clothing, and other paraphernalia details are most evident. Although continuity is
evident, change was also at work as the Diné began formalizing certain ceremonial depictions.
G. B. Cornucopia (Chaco Culture National Historical Park)
The Rock Stars of Chaco: Archaeoastronomical Interpretations of Rock Art In Chaco (Contributed Paper)
As a long-term interpreter in Chaco, especially interested in astronomy and archaeoastronomy, the author sees sandtraps inherent in certain
archaeoastronomical interpretations of rock art. The traps only get more treacherous when the public's perceptions become part of the story.
The challenges and possible antidotes are discussed.
Martín Cuitzeo Domínguez Núñez (Archaeologist)
“Las Manitas” Rock Art Site in Cañada de Cisneros, Tepotzotlán, México: An Analysis Using Semiotic Tools/El conjunto rupestre “Las
Manitas” en la Cañada de Cisneros, Tepotzotlán, México: Un análisis con herramientas semióticas (Contributed Paper and Poster)
We are going to analyze the rock art site “Las Manitas” located in Cañada de Cisneros, Tepotzotlán, Estado de México, México. The goal
it is going to try to understand, tentatively, the topics of the representation using some semiotic tools. Semiotic tools are to us the concepts
                                    Conference Program                         May 2008
of sign, relation, reference, and corpus, but also we are going to use other concepts. The first step it is going to be the identification of the main
elements in the pictorial representation, then we are going to set up the relations between the elements. Finally we are going to make a general
corpus to interpret the rock art site.
Se realizará el análisis del panel con manifestaciones gráfico rupestres. “Las manitas” ubicado en Cañada de Cisneros, Tepotzotlán, Estado
de México, México. El objetivo será acercarnos, tentativamente, al contenido del conjunto rupestre empleando herramientas semióticas. Por
herramientas semióticas entendemos los conceptos de signo, relación, referente y corpus entre otros. El primer paso será identificar los elementos
que componen al panel, para después establecer relaciones y patrones entre dichos elementos. Posteriormente, con base en los resultados.
Elyssa Figari (Belgian Archaeological Mission to Qurta)
Qurta: Lascaux along the Nile? (Contributed Paper)
An international team of archaeologists recently completed two seasons of fieldwork at Qurta, a newly discovered petroglyph site in southern
Egypt, believed to contain the oldest rock art in Egypt. This presentation will discuss the findings of this ground-breaking excavation and
the archaeological evidence supporting the hypothesis that the petroglyphs are 15,000 years old. The Qurta site contains three concentrations
of petrolgyphs running several kilometers along vast sandstone cliffs overlooking the Nile River. Over 100 pecked and incised images are
present, consisting primarily of bulls and a variety of hippopotami, birds, fish, and gazelles.
Caitlin J. Guthrie (Arizona State University)
Menstruation in South Mountain Rock Art (Report)
Menstruation is a biological certainty for most women, and myths, practices, and art relating to it are prevalent throughout the world. The
perception that menstruation symbolizes purity vs. pollution is pervasive in Euro-American worldviews. In some cases, this etic perspective
has been unwarrantedly attributed to non-western cultures. This paper focuses on a Hohokam petroglyph of a menstruating woman in the
South Mountains of Phoenix, Arizona. By examining this image in its local context as well as ethnographic accounts, including mythological
descriptions of menstruation, from potential Hohokam descendent communities, this paper sheds light on how the Hohokam may have
perceived menstruation.
Jon Harman (
Using DStretch to Reveal Patterns of Figure Placement at Two Great Mural Sites, Sierra de San Juan, Baja California (Contributed Paper)
At two Great Mural sites in the Sierra de San Juan I use the image enhancement program DStretch to reveal patterns in the placement of
figures. The form of Great Mural figures has been well studied. In this paper I will argue that the placement of figures with respect to each
other can be intentional in Great Mural art. I will present examples from Cueva Santa Gertrudis Norte and Cueva El Muerto of Mono
(human) figures that were intentionally arranged in pairs with limbs overlapping.
Ken Hedges (San Diego Museum of Man)
Placing the Sears Point Style in Regional Context (Contributed Paper)
The Sears Point Style describes a distinctive body of rock art confined to a restricted area along the lower Gila River in southwestern Arizona.
This paper provides an overview of style characteristics that distinguish the Sears Point Style from Gila Petroglyph Style rock art characteristic
of Hohokam regions to the east and from other Patayan styles to the west, and places the rock art in a broader regional context of Patayan
rock art styles in western Arizona, southern Nevada, eastern and southern California, and northern Baja California.
Elena Hegly-Delfour (Museum National d'Histoire naturelle - Département de Préhistoire)
Bear Images and Symbols in Paleolithic Art (Contributed Paper)
Through a naturalistic approach to cave and portable art, which is the main symbolic behavior of the Upper Paleolithic, this study presents
the first results of my Ph.D. thesis being done at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, France. I have chosen Bears because,
during prehistoric times, they are not insignificant animals. Not often hunted, they are still Man's main rivals, fighting for territories, both
for living and hunting. They also share human stature by the standing position. I have considered it essential to observe how this ambiguous
animal may be represented in art, one of the only testimonies of the mental structures of our ancestors, Homo sapiens sapiens.
Daniel Herrera Maldonado and Martin Cuitzeo Domínguez Nuñez (ENAH)
Analysis of the Rock Art Feline Picture in Cueva de la Malinche, Hidalgo, Mexico/Análisis de la imagen rupestre de un felino en la Cueva
de la Malinche, Hidalgo, México (Contributed Paper)
In this work we are going to analyze a rock art picture that possibly represents a feline. The pictograph forms part of the biggest rock shelter
system, called “Cueva de la Malinche,” in the town of Hierbabuena, Estado de Hidalgo, Mexico. We are going to adapt iconographic methods
develop by Irwin Panowfski, and use the approach of Carlo Ginzburg, in trying to identify the subject, chronology, and the possible cultural
affiliation of the feline. This analysis allows us a first approach in the interpretation of the picture.
El presente trabajo realizará el análisis de una imagen rupestre que evoca la posible representación de un felino. La pictografía forma parte
de uno de los varios conjuntos de motivos rupestres en el abrigo rocoso “Cueva de la Malinche”, localizado en el poblado de la Hierbabuena,
Estado de Hidalgo, México. Con base en la adaptación del método iconográfico propuesto por Irwin Panowfski y del empleo del paradigma
indiciario formulado por Carlo Ginzburg intentaremos identificar la temática, ubicación temporal y posible filiación cultural del felino. El
análisis anterior permitirá un primer acercamiento a la interpretación del significado de la imagen.
 10                                                   La Pintura               2007–2008
Jennifer K.K. Huang (US Bureau of Reclamation)
Social Organization on Perry Mesa: What the Rock Art Suggests (Contributed Paper)
Perry Mesa, in the Agua Fria National Monument of central Arizona, is the site of an interesting conundrum.At least seven large pueblo
groups, all dating to the Pueblo III-Pueblo IV time periods (A.D. 1250–1425), are situated fairly evenly around the mesa's perimeter, yet
the people who lived there remain essentially—archaeologically—misunderstood. This paper presents an in-depth content/context
relationship study of the petroglyphs at one of those pueblos, and incorporates rock art data from several other pueblos on the mesa to develop
a hypothesis about the origins and social configuration of the people known only as the Perry Mesa Tradition.
Robyn Johnson (Colorado State University; Center for Public History and Archaeology)
Ibex Hollow and Trapper Cliff: Two Valued but Compromised Rock Art Sites in South-central Idaho (Poster)
Ibex Hollow and Trapper Cliffs, two petroglyph sites near Oakley, Idaho, contain numerous images associated with female fertility
represented as vulva forms and birthing scenes. A unique landscape feature may offer clues as to why such images were placed at these
locations. Unfortunately, the integrity of the sites has been seriously diminished by carvings including historic names from the 1800s–1900s,
graffiti, and attempts to mimic some of the aboriginal motifs. The context of the land form and its possible relationship to the rock art will
be shown through several well narrated images. An attempt will also be made to identify the original petroglyphs from the probable imitations.
James D. Keyser (Oregon Archaeological Society)
The Cora Dutton Petroglyphs: An ARPA Case on the Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico (Contributed Paper)
Sometime between late 2001 and December 2004 petroglyph boulders were stolen from the Cora Dutton site in Lincoln County, New Mexico,
on the Smokey Bear Ranger District, Lincoln National Forest. In December 2004, Scott Daniel reported the boulders missing and the following
month National Forest law enforcement officers discovered them at a house in Capitan, New Mexico. In March 2005 archaeologists from
the Lincoln National Forest and the USDA–HeritageDesign conducted an Archaeological Resources Protection Act damage assessment and
recorded the stolen boulders. Analysis shows that the petroglyphs are Jornada Mogollon style rock art, dating between A.D. 1050 and 1400.
Jane Kolber
An Overview of Ancient Chacoan Rock Art (Contributed Paper)
Chaco Canyon rock art is as vast and diverse as its other cultural remains. It varies in location, care of execution, style, time period and
form. The most striking difference is in its visibility as Chacoan rock art often tends to be nearly invisible. Lack of patina and difficult placement
distracts us. However, close examination of the walls and boulders of Chaco within and beyond the Park boundaries reveals all the common
figures of Puebloan and Navajo rock art imagery in addition to unique and unusual examples.
Dr. E. C. Krupp (Griffith Observatory)
Rock Star (Contributed Paper)
Star/crescent combinations in prehistoric Southwest rock art are broadly accepted as representations of the A.D. 1054 Crab supernova. The
number of reported star–crescent combinations has increased significantly since the first report of two northern Arizona panels in 1955,
and each new example has been promoted as another depiction of the singular Crab event, despite critical review of this interpretation on
cultural and chronological grounds. The supernova interpretation relies on a restricted read of the star/crescent iconography, but a
reexamination of one star/crescent pair demonstrates the iconography does not illustrate the Crab supernova, a circumstance that inspires
skepticism of the others.
Lorna Gail LaDage (retired educator) and David Grenoble (retired physician)
Human Destruction of a Rock Art Site in Waterflow, New Mexico (Contributed Paper)
The Pictured Cliffs of Waterflow, N.M., consist of over 1200 petroglyphs which date from Basketmaker through Pueblo III. The glyphs are
on a sandstone cliff facing a four-lane highway and the San Juan River beyond. The Navajo Reservation borders the river to the south. The
site has received extensive human damage, including numerous bullet holes, graffiti, and destruction by chiseling. In addition, likely public
entities have painted over large rock art panels in order to cover obscenities. Despite two rock art surveys completed in 1967 and 1972, protection
of the site has not been accomplished. The authors will discuss the challenges of conserving and protecting this site. The importance of the
site and its unusual design motifs will be presented using a multi-media format.
Ekkehart Malotki (Northern Arizona University)
The Western Archaic Rock Art Tradition: A "Geocentric" Expression (Contributed Paper)
On a global scale, all earliest making traditions consist of abstract-geometric motifs and non-figurative patterns, regardless of whether they
occur on portable objects or on rock surfaces. This is also true for the American West which houses a wealth of non-representational images,
both painted and engraved. To shed light on this most enigmatic yet fascinating imagery, which to many rock art researchers is of little interest
since it seems to offer no insights into the minds of its creators, I resort to human universals and cutting-edge ideas gleaned from neuroscience
and evolutionary psychology. In addition to presenting novel ideas, my PowerPoint presentation hopes to heighten awe and respect for the
area's rock art legacy through striking photographs.
                                  Conference Program                        May 2008
Robert Mark, Evelyn Billo (Rupestrian CyberServices), and Donald Weaver, Jr. (Plateau Mountain Desert Research)
Sears Point, Arizona: BLM Recording Project Progress Report (Report)
During four weeks of fieldwork in 2008, we mapped and documented almost 700 petroglyph panels with volunteer help. In addition, we map
and document other archaeological features including rock alignments and prehistoric trails. Innovations include creating overnight “just
in time” printed panel forms using sub-meter GPS coordinates and color digital panel photographs, and mug boards created to use magnetic
letters. ArcView GIS is used for cartography and Portfolio is the image database. Panel forms are generated from FileMaker Pro and printed
on a color laser printer. Experienced volunteers with good knees are needed to continue the project next winter.
Brooks Marshall (Four Corners Computer, retired) and Michael C. Marshall (University of Georgia)
Exposing Archaeoastronomy Aspects of Rock Art Motifs Using Efficient and Inexpensive Tools (Poster)
Assessment of new Astronomy Sites has been hindered by high equipment costs and extensive time commitment. Alternate light-on-rock
relationships are revealed using altitude-azimuth alignment tools and multiple cameras at multiple angles. Eleven rock art motifs were recorded
over an 8-hour period at Crow Canyon, New Mexico, by one person. Database coordination at field sites and optimizing new technologies
may facilitate the cataloging and protection of Rock Art Sites.
Grant S. McCall (Tulane University) and Marie R. Richards (University of Iowa)
San Initiation in Ethnography and Rock Art: Making Sense of Images, Scales, and Landscapes (Contributed Paper)
Anthropology has long been the social science that has recognized most clearly the active processes involved in the constitution of social roles
along the lines of age and gender. Foremost among these processes is the initiation of adolescents into adults with defined gender roles. This
paper explores variation within ethnographic accounts of initiation among modern San groups, and seeks further information from the
archaeology of rock art in Southern Africa. The paper discusses Ndedema Gorge as a case study, and suggests that initiation accounts for
a great deal of spatial patterning and rock art content.
Paula L. McNeill (Valdosta State University) with Arlevia (Art) Snyder (Retired Science Educator, Phoenix Country Day School)
Remembering Dr. E. E. Snyder, Jr: "A Far Out Hypothesis About an Unusual Petroglyph Design" (Poster)
In preparing the late Dr. E. E. Snyder, Jr.'s papers for future deposition at Arizona State University Archives, Pueblo Grande Museum archives,
or some other institution, Paula McNeill and Art Snyder discovered an unpublished manuscript, “A Far Out Hypothesis About an Unusual
Petroglyph Design,” he intended to report during the 1980 Symposium of ARARA. Dr. Snyder was one of the founding members of ARARA.
His study included petroglyph designs and variations thereof that have been recorded at 20 or more widely scattered sites in south central
Arizona in the heart of the Hohokam cultural area. In this presentation McNeill and Snyder will present Dr. Snyder's hypothesis in his own
words accompanied by petroglyph images he photographed circa 1980.
Carolynne Merrell (Archaeographics)
Research Results from Two Idaho Petroglyph Sites (Contributed Paper)
Indian Writing Waterhole and Tom's Spring are two petroglyph sites at the northern edge of the Great Basin rock art tradition. They appear
representative of many similar petroglyph sites located at water sources in an area of exposed basalt lava flows in the Bennett Hills of Idaho.
Although dominated by ancient curvilinear and geometric abstract designs, there are also petroglyphs of more recent origin. Documentation
of these two sites includes Cation-ratio dates and varnish microlamination (VML) ages of several patinated elements as well as the discovery
of quartz crystals imbedded in a scratched pattern overlying one ancient pecked motif.
Belinda C. Mollard (New Mexico State University)
Chaco Rubbings: The Field Results (Report)
The goals of this project were to make a record of 105 muslin cloth rubbings of petroglyphs located in Chaco Culture National Historical
Park, to locate the rock art in the park, and place all the information into a database. The rubbings were donated to the NMSU museum
by Elinore Herriman in 2002. A field study to learn the location and a basic field damage assessment were completed to help assess any damage
the rubbing process may have caused and what conservation measures may be useful. Finally, all the information obtained was included
in a user-friendly database.
William Nightwine
McDowell Mountain Rock Art Inventory (Contributed Paper)
Now, just as in the past, the McDowell Mountains of central Arizona serve as home to a population expanding North from the Phoenix
Basin. Golf courses and luxury homesites replace earlier run-off control structures and pithouse habitations on the mountain's slope. Analysis
of rock art left by the earlier residents supports the contention that they were people from the Hohokam irrigated communities along the Salt
River who occupied the mountains about the middle of the 11th century.
Joseph O’Connor, Alberto Tesucun, and Josué Martinex Ramirez
Ancient Mayan Graffiti/Arte Rupestre (Poster)
Mayan graffiti, dating from as old as the entrada of Teotihuacanos in A.D. 378, were discovered on the walls of Tikal buildings and other
Mayan ruins at Nakum and Yaxchilan. These graffiti are similar to arte rupestre from caves and other ancient graffiti reported from the
 12                                                 La Pintura              2007–2008
walls of different Tikal buildings, but many represent probable war-related or ceremonial activities, such as the bearing of palanquins. Some
glyphs identified as artist signatures on well-known monuments seem to have been added after the carving of the monument and could be
considered graffiti/arte rupestre.
Reeda Peel (Rock Art Research, Center for Big Bend Studies, Sul Ross State University)
Abstract Eyes and Owl Faces (Contributed Paper)
The Graef Petroglyph Site is a horizontal bedrock site located in the central Trans Pecos region of Texas. Kite Aerial Photography furnished
an aerial view of the 357 square meters of rock art spread over approximately 3 acres. The overall aspect of the art conforms to the Chihuahuan
Desert Abstract Style of the Western Archaic Tradition, but the site is punctuated with abstract eyes, owl faces, a therianthrope with a
ceremonial headdress, 374 cupules, and mortar holes. Five similar rock art sites identified in the region offer hope of establishing the first
rock art style unique to the Trans Pecos.
Reeda Peel (Rock Art Research, Center for Big Bend Studies, Sul Ross State University) and Mark Willis (Blanton & Associates)
Kite Aerial Photography and Photogrammetry of the Graef Site (41RV50) (Poster)
Kite Aerial Photography provided a bird’s eye view of the Graef Site, a horizontal petroglyph site in Reeves County, Texas. The poster explains
the methodology of kite aerial photography and photogrammetry as they were utilized by Mark Willis of Blanton & Associates for this Center
for Big Bend Studies rock art documentation project. The program, set up on a laptop, plus a three dimensional model of the therianthrope
petroglyph produced from dimensions gathered by the photography, offer an interesting hands-on experience for conference attendees
interested in this unique process.
Ann Phillips (University of Colorado, Museum of Natural History, Research Associate)
Inscriptions in Chaco Canyon (Contributed Paper)
In the keynote address at the ARARA Conference in 2006, Fred Blackburn challenged us to consider inscriptions on stone, not as graffiti
but rather as an aspect of the historic record. Navajo, Hispanic and Anglo signatures were inscribed on the walls of Chaco Canyon as early
as 1858. Other than the identities of those individuals that left their names, what can be determined from their signatures about the use
of the Chaco Canyon environment and the changing socio-political climate of the Southwest from the mid-Nineteenth Century?
George Poetschat (Oregon Archaeological Society) and James D. Keyser (US Forest Service, retired)
The Rock Art of Atherton Canyon: Relationships to the Bear Gulch Complex (Contributed Paper)
Atherton Canyon (24FR3) has long been known to be related to the Bear Gulch Site. Recent research by the Oregon Archaeological Society
details the numerous similarities between the two site—especially with the Shield-Bearing Warriors—but also illustrates some key differences
between them. Newly recorded information indicates that Atherton Canyon was used earlier and later than Bear Gulch and the art there
shows a wider range of probable functions.
E. Gene Riggs (Cochise College and AAS)
The Unique Rock Art of Canador Peak (Report)
Canador Peak is a trincheras site with numerous walled terraces. Located in southwest New Mexico, it overlooks the Gila River, which flows
westward into nearby Arizona. Above the terraces, huge geometric petroglyph panels occur on cliff faces and boulders. A variety of unusual
anthropomorphic figures are also present, some five feet or more in height. In this southern “four corners” area, the Canador Peak rock art
has no counterpart. In terms of panel size and concentration, none are equal. Stylistically, the rock art does not appear to be related to that
of any published rock art sites in the Southwest.
Tim Roberts (Texas Parks and Wildlife Department)
The “Art Mobileur” of Texas and Northern Mexico: The Transition from the Representational Female Forms of Painted and Engraved
Pebbles and Cobbles to the Naturalistic Forms of Ceramic Artifacts (Poster)
The painted and engraved pebbles/cobbles of Texas and northern Mexico, with their linear and geometric designs, are thought by some
researchers to be representative of female figures. Water, the source from which the raw materials for the decorated pebbles and cobbles are
found, is linked to female processes in the worldview of Native Americans, and is the home of ancestral spirits, game animals, and female
deities. As a result, these pebbles/cobbles may have been considered to have certain inherent powers, powers which were accentuated and
their effectiveness increased with the addition of symbolic designs or other modifications to the original stone, and their frequent placement
within rockshelters. Nonetheless, these decorated stones, with their postulated powers, gradually gave way to more naturalistic represen-
tations of females in portable ceramic figurines. The present poster shows this transition, and suggests possible reasons for the transition.
Alexander K. Rogers (Maturango Museum)
An Analtyical Tool for Assessing Potential Solar-OrientedArchaeoastronomy Sites (Report)
Rock art scholars often need to evaluate potential equinox and solstice markers at rock art sites. Unfortunately, the mathematics can be
daunting, especially if the marker involves an elevated sight-line. This paper presents an easy-to-use analytical tool based on Microsoft Excel,
which computes solar azimuth and elevation as a function of time on any specified day of the year. The mathematics are fully described
for both morning and afternoon solar position, and the exact formulas to enter into Excel are provided. The Plot Wizard in Excel can be
used to create plots of the data to carry into the field.
                                    Conference Program                        May 2008
Will G. Russell (Arizona State University) and Aaron M. Wright (Archaeological Research Institute)
Footprints to the South: Hopi Clan Symbols in the Rock Art of the South Mountains (Contributed Paper)
Hopi emergence and migration stories list certain clans as having come from /Palatkwapi/, a desert oasis arguably synonymous with the
Hohokam core area (i.e., Phoenix Basin). In conjunction with the South Mountain Rock Art Project, we have identified a compelling number
of “Hohokam” petroglyphs which could be interpreted as proto-Hopi clan symbols. In seeming accordance with Hopi oral tradition, the clans
potentially represented are, by and large, those affiliated with /Palatkwapi/. Our research lends credence to longstanding Hopi claims of
Hohokam descendancy and validates Indigenous contributions to the fields of rock art research and archaeology.
Polly Schaafsma (Museum of Indian Arts and Culture/Laboratory of Anthropology)
The Jog-toed Sandal Enigma: On Chaco Sandstone and Other Rocks (Contributed Paper)
 Jog-toed sandal images occur on rare occasions in Ancestral Pueblo II and III petroglyph sites from Chaco Canyon to the Colorado River.
This brief study describes these depictions and evaluates their significance at Chaco and beyond. Since this sandal shape is repeated as an
icon in other media, it is likely that it held some symbolic significance. It was hoped that rock art, iconographic contexts, and locational features
might illuminate its meaning. Unfortunately no consistent associations were found. Six-toed Chaco kings wearing custom-made shoes as
symbols of hierarchy is not a viable hypothesis!
Courtney Smith and Jeffrey F. LaFave (Independent Researchers)
PBAs and PBZs: An Overview of Patterned Body Rock Art in the Western United States (Contributed Paper)
Patterned body anthropomorphs (PBAs) and patterned body zoomorphs (PBZs) are an important part of the rock art corpus of the western
U.S. Indeed, PBAs and PBZs are often used to create classification frameworks and are some of the most recognizable elements of the resulting
rock art styles. They are present from the archaic onwards and occur in paintings and petroglyphs. Possible explanations of why some rock
art has patterning include that the patterns represent visual images and symbols, phosphenes, cultural heroes, and items of material and
decorative culture such as body paint, garments, textiles, jewelry, shields, and ceremonial objects.
Rebecca Grace Stoneman-Washee (Curator, Edge of the Cedars State Park Museum)
Faces on the Landscape: Rock Art Traditions of the Salinas Interface (Report)
The Flaming Crown pictographic image, as first described in 1580 by Spanish historian and scribe Lujan, can be found in concentration along
the middle Rio Grande. It is most predominant in the rock art images of the region known as the Salinas Province, the locus of multicultural
interface during the Pueblo IV period. This paper presents some imagery that may represent Lujan's "flaming crown" figure and explores
the possible significance of and associations for this notable pictographic icon.
Ben H. Swadley (Arkansas State Parks)
Suggested Approaches to Rock Art Site Management (Contributed Paper)
This paper covers site management techniques using Rock House Cave at Petit Jean State Park in Arkansas and other sites as examples of
successful site management techniques. Although each site has its unique threats and problems that change over time, there are general
concepts of visitor management and site protection methods that may be adapted from many sources and combined to form a plan for managing
a particular site and abating vandalism. The most important guiding principal in managing rock art sites is to evaluate and address problems
by becoming proactive instead of reactive to existing and anticipated threats.
David Sucec (BCS Project)
Alone In The Crowd, A Small Figure At The Harvest Panel Canyonlands National Park (Contributed Paper)
The Archaic Barrier Canyon style is best known for a score of large, billboard-size galleries, such as the Great Gallery and the Harvest Panel
in Canyonlands National Park. Unlike the Great Gallery, The Harvest Panel contains several form types or variants, including, the stylized
and extremely elongated, Maze Variant. One small figure stands out by its difference in scale, color and form. In fact, this figure appears
quite similar to a painted figure found north of the junction of the Green and Colorado rivers. This paper will discuss the images found at
the Harvest Panel and particularly the small figure that stands alone in the crowd.
Ilaz Thaqi (Kosova Rock Art Research Association [KRARA])
Kosovo Rock Art: Methodical Transliteration (Contributed Paper)
The Zatriqi inscription is engraved on an open air surface in horizontal position. Just in zone A we have 272 signs and symbols in 72 association
groups. They are very interesting compositions of symbols linked with a script letter system, expressing thinking about social life, beliefs, and
prayers. I have done some transliterations of these compositions and, based on analogy with conventional ancient scripts, they express very
significant themes. The composition and style of writing is schematic, like ideograms in Chinese script. Topographic, sexual, origin, and energy
symbols may help us to know much more about Neolithic society and mind. In this place it is very interesting to say some words about rite
de Passage. In the same place is a stone with a passageway underneath, suggesting an ancient ritual practice about youth and symbolic
transformation into a new role in society, in which adolescents make a passage through the tube from bottom to top, attended by a respected
leader of the community. I try to present this inscription system in a gradual decoding and transliteration so that we may understand some
of the messages in a local language.
 14                                                  La Pintura              2007–2008
Alice M. Tratebas (BLM)
Use of Abrasion in Central Plains Rock Art (Contributed Paper)
Using abrasion to create images or prepare a surface for painting or engraving is widespread across the Central Plains. Although diverse styles
employed abrasion, it usually co-occurs with incising, especially deeply incised images, and rarely with pecking. In addition to forming entire
images, it is also used for components of images, such as bodies, heads, feet, and vulvas, while the remainder of the image is incised. Abrasion
is integral to one of the oldest rock art traditions, but also occurred as a component in several other traditions. Aside from use to improve
the aesthetics of images, abrasion tends to be used to convey a limited range of themes.
LeRoy J. Unglaub (RARA, URARA, SNRAA)
Apache Iconography at Alamo Mountain, New Mexico (Contributed Paper)
Alamo Mountain is a major rock art site in Southern New Mexico comparable to Three Rivers and Petroglyph National Monument in terms
of quantity of images. Its predominant rock art style is Jornada-Mogollon but it also has significant amounts of archaic and Apache rock
art. In fact it is probably the major Apache rock art site in Southern New Mexico and far West Texas. This paper will discuss the characteristics
of Apache rock art and illustrate them with a wide variety and seldom seen iconography such as shield figures that are found at this site.
Steven J. Waller (Rock Art Acoustics)
Sonic Cave Replicas: Why and How (Poster)
Cave replicas of Lascaux, Niaux, etc., reproduce the caves’ shapes to the millimeter and the paintings to the brushstroke, yet lack the profound
echo effects that can be heard in the real caves. Ancient myths explained echoes as emanating from spirits dwelling in rock, revealing the
cultural significance of such sound reflections. Archaeoacoustic data showing a correspondence of echoes and art placement suggests sound
played a role in motivating rock art. A sound system with convolution reverberator software can replicate a space’s acoustical characteristics,
enabling interactive immersive sonic cave replicas—a step toward documenting/conserving rock art soundscapes.
Aaron M. Wright (Center for Desert Archaeology) and Todd W. Bostwick (Pueblo Grande Museum)
Technological Styles of Hohokam Rock Art Production in the South Mountains (Contributed Paper)
Archaeologists employ two conceptual frameworks to address “styles” observable in material culture; one regards the visual attributes of
artifacts while the other concerns the methods and techniques employed in their production. Stylistic analyses of rock art tend to focus on
the images’ visual qualities. It has long been suggested, however, that production techniques, or technological style, can also aid in elucidating
relationships between rock art, identity, and ritual practice. This paper reviews the various technological styles of Hohokam rock art in
Arizona’s South Mountains and hypothesizes several social implications of consistency and diversity in rock art production techniques.
Donna Yoder
Overview of Chaco Navajo Rock Art (Contributed Paper)
Rock art was an early permanent visual representation of the Navajos. Navajo oral tradition places Navajo occupation of Chaco Canyon
contemporaneously with the Ancient Chacoans. The earliest tree ring dates, however, place Navajos in the Canyon in the early to mid 1700s.
A variety of rock art subjects and techniques are represented. Placement in the landscape revealed some grouping by subject and age. A
comparison of Chaco Navajo rock art with that in the Dinétah and Canyon de Chelly reveals differences in the numbers of subjects as well
as the various techniques used to create the rock art.

                                        ARARA Charter Members
                                                                July 1976
AFTER THE FOUNDING of the Rock Art Sym-           Elizabeth Ayer, El Paso, TX                       Hilda S. Burlingham, El Paso, TX
posium in 1974, the fledgling organization        George Ayer, El Paso, TX                          Dr. G. Kenneth Burlingham, El Paso, TX
adopted the name ARARA at the El Paso             Gaye Barbre, Tucumcari, NM                        John B. Carlson
meeting in September, 1975. The new asso-         Eunice Barkes, Midland, TX                        Kenneth Castleton, M. D.
ciation held the Charter Membership roles         Jim Barkes, Midland, TX                           Dr. John Cawley, Bakersfield, CA
open for one year and published the follow-       F. A. Barnes, Moab, UT                            Lou Cawley, Bakersfield, CA
ing list of Charter Members in 1976, “dedi-       Bertye Barnhart, El Paso, TX                      John J. Cawley III, Watsonville, CA
cated to those people whose pioneering ef-        Jack Beckman, Rimrock, AZ                         Von Del Chamberlain, Herndon, VA
forts launched our organization.”                 Michael J. Bilbo, El Paso, TX                     George Christopher, El Paso, TX
                                                  Bazil Bilder                                      Geneva Christopher, El Paso, TX
Kenneth R. Alexander, Denver City, TX             Harriet Bilder                                    Larry W. Coburn, Albion, WA
Jannette Alexander, Denver City, TX               Georgia Ann & Sharon Blake, El Paso, TX           Carl B. Compton, Denton, TX
Alex Apostolides, El Paso, TX                     Helen Blumenschein, El Prado, NM                  Harry W. Crosby, LaJolla, CA
Victoria Atkins, Austin, TX                       Frank Bock, Whittier, CA                          John V. Davis, El Paso, TX
Camille Avery, Las Cruces, NM                     A. J. Bock, Whittier, CA                          Marguerite L. Davis, El Paso, TX
                               Conference Program                  May 2008
Edmundo de Anda, El Paso, TX               Owen Severance, Moab, UT                      Mary Stewart, Seal Beach, CA
John G. Douglas, Phoenix, AZ               Dr. Sidney M. Shepperd, El Paso, TX           Emory Strong, Stevenson, WA
Thelma V. Dunlap, Long Beach, CA           Jack R. Skiles, Langtry, TX                   Dr. Kay Sutherland, El Paso, TX
Donald Englishman, Boulder, CO             Dr. Gerald A. Smith, Redlands, CA             Dr. James L. Swauger, Pittsburgh, PA
Kenneth J. Ewing, Los Alamos, NM           Howard N. Smith, Jr., Yuba City, CA           Maria Teresa Uriarte de Lang, Mexico City
Alan Ferg, Tucson, AZ                      Karen L. Smith El Paso, TX                    Frederick A. Usher, Santa Barbara, CA
Gerald X. Fitzgerald, El Paso, TX          Dr. Ernest E. Snyder, Tempe, AZ               Delcie H. Vuncannon, Yucca Valley, CA
Mildred Fitzgerald, El Paso, TX            Frances F. Sommer, El Paso, TX                Dr. Klaus Wellmann, Brooklyn, NY
Ludwig Fornfischer, Munich, Germany        Paul P. Steed, Jr. , Dallas, TX               Charlotte Willits, Riverside, CA
Dr. Joseph Gaiser, LaGrande, OR            Dr. Jack Steinbring, Winnipeg, Manitoba       Wesley A. Wilson, El Paso, TX
Campbell Grant, Carpinteria, CA            Jack Stewart, Seal Beach, CA                  Albert W. Wood, Dayton, OH
Charles Grant
Charlotta Grant
John W. Green, El Paso, TX
Harry Hadlock, Fruitland, NM
Mrs. Harry Hadlock, Fruitland, NM
Terry Halligan, Oakland, CA.
Ruth Hawk, Aztec, NM
Ken Hedges, San Diego, CA
Sue Holden, Phoenix, AZ
Wesley Holden, Phoenix, AZ
Robert P. Howell, South Pasadena, CA
Anne Johnson, Bishop, CA
KC Publications, Las Vegas, Nevada
Kenneth E. Kidd, Peterborough, Ontario
Dudley W. King, Albuquerque, NM
Charlotte Kney, Silver City, NM
Phyllis Lancefield, Sandy, OR
Georgia Lee, Santa Barbara, CA
John Leeder, Irvine, CA
Cindy Leeder, Irvine, CA
J. Malcolm Loring, Portland, OR
Miriam A. Lowrance, Box 208, Alpine, TX
Donald E. Martin, Santa Rosa, CA
Dorothy Mayer, Berkeley, CA
Roberto Reyes Mazzoni, Honduras
Helen Michaelis, Los Angeles, CA
J. Timothy Moore, Callahan, CA
Lois M. Morey, Mesa, AZ
Dr. Werner Muller, West Germany
Fred J . Myers, Denver, CO
Daniel McCarthy, Twenty-nine Palms, CA
Harold H. Naylor, El Paso, TX
Dr. George I, Ogura, Denver, CO
Albert A. Ortiz, El Paso, TX
Harald Pager, Johannesburg, South Africa
Marilyn O. Peterson, Boring, OR
Linda Ann Popelish, Tucson, AZ
Charles Pulner, El Paso, TX
John Rafter, Pico Rivera, CA
Ron Ralph, Austin, TX
Carol Rector, Riverside, CA
Nancy Robertson, Raton, NM
                                                  Forty-four people signed the attendance sheet at the first Organizational
Edward Roewer
                                                  Meeting, May 11, 1974
Polly Schaafsma, Arroyo Hondo, NM
16                                          La Pintura          2007–2008

A note from the Conference Coordinator, Donna Gillette: I could not have done this meeting without the unbelievable hours
and support from our ARARA President, Mavis Greer. In a very real sense she and I served as co-chairs for this year’s
Conference. She needs to be included in our thanks!

                                                                    Special Feature
                                           A Reproduction of the First Issue of

                                                             La Pintura
                                                        Volume 1, Number 1
                                                                                      ROCK ART SYMPOSIUM NEWSLETTER
                                                                                      Volume I, Number 1   July, 1974

   Last May 10, 11, 12, nearly one hun-     and Mrs. Shari Grove.                           decided to combine interests, and the
dred kindred souls met for a three day          Without knowledge and independent           first Rock Art Symposium was held in
conference on rock art in Farmington,       of each other, these two highly motiva-         Farmington under the aegis of the San
New Mexico. The results of this initial     ted individuals had previously made             Juan County Archeological Society, and
meeting were, first, an awareness of a      plans to hold rock art symposia; Dr.            directed by Mrs. Grove.
great amount of interest in petroglyphs     Toness in El Paso, Texas, and Mrs.                  The three days were filled with the
and second, the establishment of the        Grove in Farmington. After sending out          readings of professional papers, slide
Rock Art Symposium. The conference          preliminary notices, they became aware          presentations, field trips, and many in-
was spearheaded by Dr. Kay S. Toness        of their duplicated efforts. It was             formal gatherings. Participants came
                                                                                            from Arizona, California, Mexico, New

A Statement                       f r o m t h e Chairman                                    Mexico, New York, Texas and Utah.
                                                                                            The enthusiasm engendered carried into
                                                          Klaus F. Wellmann, M.D. *         the establishment of the Rock Art
     The formation of an interim organi-    should be self-evident. During the past         Symposium. The first slate of elected
zation for rock art research was un-        six years, five long rock art trips to                                        .
                                                                                            officers includes: Dr. Klaus F Wellmann,
doubtedly the potentially most impor-       various parts of the North American             Chairman; Dr. Kay S. Toness, Vice-
tant and far-reaching event of the suc-     continent have left me with the vivid           chairwoman; Alice J. Bock, Secretary-
cessful 1974 Farmington rock art            impression that, all too often, valuable        Treasurer; and Shari T. Grove,
symposium. While it is true that the        investigations are being conducted by           Archivist-Bibliographer. The partici-
final name, the ultimate scope, and the     highly motivated persons who are                pants at the Farmington conference
legal status of the fledgling society are   hardly aware of similar studies pursued         accepted the offer from El Paso Com-
still to be determined, most likely by      by their peers in neighboring states. This      munity College to host the 1975 sympo-
those who will attend the El Paso           lack of communication is not the fault          sium and Dr. Toness, an instructor in
meeting in 1975, a means of communi-        of those dedicated individuals but is an        anthropology at the college, was chosen
cation has now been established by          almost unavoidable consequence of geo-          vice-chairperson in charge of organizing
which ideas can be exchanged and            graphic isolation and of the relative in-       the meeting. Dates and ideas for the
hitherto isolated efforts can be coordi-    accessibility of much of the published          Second Annual Rock Symposium are
nated. For those who were not present       (and unpublished) rock art literature.          being formulated and more specific in-
in Farmington, here are the names and       Yet, the problems of recording, preserv-        formation will be printed in the next
addresses of the first slate of elected     ing, interpreting, dating, and utilizing        newsletter. Tentative plans are to offer
officers: Chairman, Klaus F. Wellmann,      rock art are basically the same any-            individual papers and sessions devoted
580 East 21st Street, Brooklyn, New         where. There is much to be gained,              to special topics, such as a uniform
York 11226; Vice-Chairwoman, Kay S.         then, for all concerned, from coordi-           nomenclature, inventory methods, and
Toness, 169 S. Awbrey, El Paso, Texas       nating efforts and from pooling all avail-      experiments with pigmentation. Sugges-
79905; Secretary-Treasurer, A.J. Bock,      able resources. The remarkable success          tions or questions, and particularly any-
P.O. Box 4219, Whittier, California         story of the six-year-old Canadian Rock         one interested in giving papers at the
90607; and Archivist-Bibliographer,         Art Research Associates, a society with         Second Annual Rock Art Symposium in
Shari T. Grove, 618 W. Animas, Farm-        aims largely identical with ours, should        El Paso, contact Dr. Kay S. Toness, El
ington, New Mexico 87401.                   go a long way in convincing skeptics of         Paso Community College, 6601 Dyer, El
     The need for close and continued       the potential benefits of the organiza-         Paso, Texas 79902.
communication and cooperation be-           tional approach for many of the prob-
tween all individuals engaged in any of     lems we face.
the various aspects of rock art research            (Please turn to Page 2, Col. 1)

REPORT FROM FARMINGTON                                                                                                          A.J. Bock *
Excitement filled the lobby of the San             duced, and pen-pals attached faces to          The day's activities were concluded
Juan County Archaeological Research                familiar names.                             with a bar-b-q dinner at the Bloomfield
Center and Library near Farmington,                   For the very first symposium held in     High School where the renowned Polly
New Mexico, as eighty-two eager partici-           the Southwest on rock art a surprisingly    Schaafsma of Arroyo Hondo, New
pants registered on Friday evening, May            large number of interested persons from     Mexico gave a lecture on Functional In-
10, 1974, for the Symposium on Amer-               the four corners of the United States       terpretations of Pueblo Rock Art.
ican Indian Rock Art. Animated greet-              had gathered in this beautiful, fertile        Sunday morning for those who did
ings dotted with laughter were heard               valley just east of the Navajo Indian       not have to leave, breakfast was held at
bouncing from the adorned walls of the             Reservation.                                the Salmon Ruins Camp Area and from
brand new facility as old friends be-                 Through the combined efforts of          there field trips to Crow Canyon,
came reacquainted, new friends intro -             Shari T. Grove of Farmington and Kay        Encierro Canyon and Largo Canyon
                                                   S. Toness of El Paso, Texas, as many        were taken. Sunday afternoon brought
CHAIRMAN WELLMANN’S REPORT                         individuals as they could find addresses    to a close this highly successful and out-
(Continued from First Page)                        for had been notified, and the gathering    standing symposium.
   As of now, four means of formal                 of professional, semi-professional, and        Following is a list of the activities
communication have already been estab-             amateur, all sincerely dedicated to rock    and papers presented, starting Friday
lished, or are about to be created. First,         art, was in process.                        evening, and continuing through Sun-
there is the Newsletter, edited by Frank              With a great deal of dexterity and       day.
and A.J. Bock, Whittier, California, for           patience, the petite Mrs. Grove ushered     Friday Evening:
the rapid dissemination of information             everyone into the round exhibit room           1. Petroglyphs of Star Canyon–Dan
between all members. Second, there is              that contained stimulating exhibits, and           Leverett & Janet Christensen
the prospect of future rock art                    marvelous pictures of the petroglyphs          2. An Introduction to Rock Art in
symposia, to be held annually or per-              and pictographs of the surrounding                 New Mexico–Harry L. Hadlock,
haps at greater intervals. At the invita-          areas near Farmington. A special greet-            Farmington, New Mexico
tion of Kay S. Toness, the next sympo-             ing and a very warm welcome was ex-            3. Rock Art in the Four Corners
sium will take place in El Paso, Texas,            tended by Mrs. Grove and the sympo-                Area–John Cawley , M.D., Bakers-
although the exact date (in the Spring             sium was under way.                                field, California
or Fall of 1975) has not been deter-                  After four presentations of papers          4. Petroglyphs in New Mexico (with
mined as yet. Third, proceedings are to            and color slides, the meetings were                emphasis on six-toed
be published of each symposium to be               adjourned for the evening, and most of             prints)–Helen G. Blumenschein,
held. Those of the first symposium are             the travel weary participants headed for           El Prado, New Mexico
being edited by Shari T. Grove who so              their bed-rolls. However, a few dauntless   Saturday Morning:
ably organized and conducted the Farm-             (or just plain foolhardy) met in the        Registration
ington conference. And lastly, a central           motel room of Dr. & Mrs. John Cawley,          Presentation of Papers
archive for the deposit of published and           for a preliminary discussion of forming        1. Petroglyphs of the Little Colorado
unpublished rock art works and of other            a national organization. Many exciting             River Valley, Arizona–Peter J.
pertinent materials is about to be estab-          and intriguing ideas were exchanged be-            Piles, Jr., Flagstaff, Arizona
lished, under the tutelage of Shari T.             fore sheer exhaustion set in and every-        2. Rock Art of the Big Bend,
Grove, at the San Juan County Archeo-              one called it a night.                             Texas–Miriam A. Lowrance, Al-
logical Research Center and Library in                Saturday was a full day with the                pine Texas
Farmington, New Mexico, for the                    reading of many excellent papers               3. Materials of Ancient Southwest-
mutual benefit of all members.                     accompanied by slides, and a tour of the           e r n A r t – E d i t h a Wa t s o n ,
   Let me conclude this statement by               Salmon Ruins just south of the research            Mentmore, N.M.
cordially inviting all persons concerned           Center was taken by many at lunch              4. A Cultural Classification of Rock
in one way or another with the impres-             time. The remaining papers, again of a             Art Motifs at Hueco Tanks State
sive rock art heritage of the United               very high caliber, were presented in the           Park, El Paso–Kay Toness, Ph.D.,
States to lend their skills and talents to         afternoon and at 3:15 p.m. a meeting of            El Paso, Texas
the new organization by joining its                those interested in starting a rock art        5. A Prehistoric Water Control
ranks, by participating in its activities,         association was held. There was much               System at Hueco Tanks State
by subscribing and contributing to the             discussion both pro and con, and after             Park, El Paso–John V. Davis, El
newsletter, by submitting rock art                 some warm debates, the Rock Art                    Paso, Texas
records to the central archive, and, if            Symposium was formally formed on an            6. X-ray Motifs in North American
possible, by attending future symposia.            informal basis. Then everyone stretched            Indian Rock Art–Klaus F. Well-
United, we can accomplish much.                    their cramped legs and headed for the              mann, M.D., Brooklyn, New York
* Klaus Wellmann is a Pathologist, practicing in   Salmon Ruins Camp Area for a no-host-          7. The Fort Hancock Rock Art
Brooklyn, New York                                 cocktail-if-you-like get together.                 Site–Paul P. Steed, Jr., Dallas,
                                                                                                      Texas (Please turn to Page 5, Col. 3)

Notes            on t h e          Canadian                Rock Art                  Re s e a r c h         Associates
                                                                                                                Selwyn Dewdney *
   CRARA , Canadian Rock Art Re-           Corner, a government apiarist who had          al TV firm in Toronto, and interviews
search Associates, was organized by a      been working quietly away for more             on a number of local radio and TV
meeting of interested persons at Lake-     than a decade in the Cordilleran interior      shows across the country. Associates
head University, Thunder Bay, Ontario,     and had just published Pictographs in          also have been productive in writing
in December of 1969, on the initiative     the Interior of British Columbia, and it       papers and articles, such as the book-
of K.C.A. Dawson, Director of Northern     was only during the first conference           length publication on rock art in Canada
Studies in that institution, and myself.   that we learned of Gilles Tassé, just          by Dewdney, Corner, R. & J. Vastokas
In 1967, searching museums for exam-       appointed to the University of Quebec          (Sacred Art of the Algonkians), and by
ples of Ojibway birchbark pictography,     and completing his doctorate on pre-           Beth Hill (Petroglyphs of the West
I had discovered unpublished records of    historic rock art under Leroi-Gourhan in       Coast). At least three others are
a large petroglyph site at Nett Lake in    Paris. Since that first session, six rock      pending.
northern Minnesota deposited by four       art researchers have turned up in British         Our three biennial conferences were
separate individuals in as many            Columbia.                                      hosted by the anthropology depart-
museums. Following Reagan's report to         At our business meeting following           ments of Lakehead University (1969),
the National Museum of Canada, in          the conference the concensus was in            the University of Saskatchewan
1912, each subsequent record had been      favor of a loose, informal organization        (Saskatoon, 1971), and Trent University
made without any awareness of work         with three stated aims:                        (Peterborough, Ontario, 1973); and
that had been done previously. This in-       “To protect and preserve rock art           CRARA has been invited by the Univer-
cluded my own work at Nett lake for        sites in Canada.                               sity of Winnipeg for the next confer-
the Royal Ontario Museum in 1958 and          To promote Canadian rock art re-            ence. Lest this has created an impression
1959.                                      search.                                        of academic domination I should point
   Another motivation for calling a con-      To inform the Canadian public of its        out that currently the Associates in-
ference was an awareness of the sudden     aboriginal art heritage.”                      clude a wide spectrum of backgrounds:
upswing of interest among anthropolo-         A senior Associate was elected to act       a young Ojibway (who headed an
gists in rock art research: Pohorecky      as CRARA's voice in any case where a           Ojibway team to record rock art in
and Jones in Saskatchewan, Steinbring      site was being disfigured or threatened                                 .R.
                                                                                          Ontario in 1973), a P official from
in Manitoba and the Vastokases in          with destruction. Responsibility for in-       the National Gallery of Canada, an
Eastern Ontario. We were all aware of      forming the public was left to Associ-         amateur regional historian, two lab assis-
the tremendous number of sites west of     ates in each region. So far this has re-       tants, a research chemist, a Fine Arts
the Rockies, but it was only at the last   sulted in films by CFPL-TV in south-           graduate, a professionally trained artist,
minute we became aware of John             western Ontario, by a private education-       a museum curator, and others.
                                                                                             The membership pattern that seems
                                                                                          to be developing is that of two sorts of
T H E H U M P- B A C K C O N T R OV E R SY                                                “Associates” (a word we deliberately
                                                                                          preferred to avoid creation of a pecking
John Cawley, M.D. *                        The Hump-back                                  order): Those with a demonstrated con-
                                                               This is a character de-    tinuing interest and activity in picto-
   Throughout the rock art of the                              picted with a hump-        graphic research (including aboriginal
Southwest there frequently is depicted a                       back and without           bark, wood and hide pictography as well
character with a dorsal lumbar kyphosis,                       flute or phallus. He is    as rock art), and peripherally-interested
a true dorsal kyphosis, or a lumbar                            found       scattered      people of any background who would
kyphosis, and is displayed in many atti-                       throughout the South-      be subscribers to the newsletter (@
tudes. He is portrayed with and without                        western pictograph         $5.00 per annum, currently). No doubt
a flute, with and without a phallus, and                       and p e t r o g l y p h    many of them would also wish to sub-
in some instances with a flute and a       panels. This character was depicted be-        scribe to your newsletter and vice versa.
phallus, and has been identified by        cause he was a leader. His hump was               Finally, I should mention the tent-
many names, one of the most common         very likely a dorsal kyphosis caused by a      ative bibliography on rock art in Canada
being Kokopelli. The literature tends to   juvenile epiphysitis, secondary to hard        compiled by Tim (E.H.) Jones, copies of
be somewhat confusing on the identity      work in his early years. His father            which should be available by writing
of this symbol and I therefore feel that   taught him to work hard in the fields          him
some attempt should be made to ex-         and in carrying heavy loads, thus                 % Dr. Zenon Pohorecky
plain these characters depicted as a       destroying the growth pattern of his                 Department of Anthropology
hump-back throughout Southwestern          vertebrae and producing a kyphosis as                & Archaeology
rock art. For the purpose of attempting    seen. This did not in any way inhibit his            University of Saskatchewan
such an explanation, I have divided the    physical activity, but because of the fact           Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
characters into four general categories,   that he was taught to work at an early               Canada
as follows:                                                                               * Selwyn Dewdney is Senior Associate of the
                                           (Please turn to Page 4, Col. 1)                Canadian Rock Art Association
      TH E                    HUMP-B ACK                               C ONTROV ERSY
                                                                                                         (Continued from Third Page)

age he became a good farmer, a good            people who became known as the               though small in stature and deformed as
hunter, a good provider, and because of        "Flute Player Clan" and an essential         to legs and arms, was not at all deform-
his diligence in work he was able to           part of the Hopi Indians. (Brimhall felt     ed so far as his genitals were concerned
accumulate more wealth than the aver-          that the flute man is not truly a hunch-     and could perform equally as well in
age member of his group. Thus, because         back but an itinerate flute player who       this category as any of his athletic con-
of his wealth, his ability to work and his     carried a small pack. He is found in         temporaries. As the strong men would
diligence he became a leader. This then        many panels along the Green and Colo-        be gone from the village, sometimes for
would provide a reason for his being           rado Rivers, but in that area was rarely     days, it became not a matter of the
portrayed in rock art of his generation.       depicted with a phallus symbol).             hump-back seducing the young maidens,
Hump-back Flute Player                         Hump-back with Phallus                       but rather the young maidens seducing
                  This diligent and hard       This character I feel is                     the hump-back. When their warrior boy-
                  working hump-back            very likely a local                          friends and husbands came home from
                  mastered the flute-he        character who could                          the hunt and found them pregnant some
                  may have even invent-        well have been an                             type of story had to be concocted. This
                  ed the flute. Because        achondroplastic                              story usually consisted of blaming the
                  of his abilities to play     dwarf, and because of                        achondroplastic dwarf and at the same
                  the flute he taught          his affliction was un-                       time endowing him with certain super-
                  others also to play the      able to participate in                       natural powers. Thus it was through
flute, and the flute became a very             the hunts, the wars, the working of the      these supernatural powers that the girls
important part in the lives of his con-        crops and gathering and foraging for         were seduced and became pregnant.
temporaries. The flute was used as             food. Thus he was left alone in the vil-     This is emphasized by the story as told
entertainment in the evenings and as an        lage while the active males went out to      by Mischa Titiev and there are many in-
essential part of all ceremonies. It subse-    perform their various functions. This left   stances of this character in the legends
quently became a specialty of groups of        an adult male character who, al-             of the Southwest. Because of his super-
                                                                                            natural powers he was not destroyed by
                                                                                            the hunters but was rather depicted on
                                                                                            their murals as the hump-back with the
                                               Mexico City                                  phallus.
                                                                                            The Hump-back Flute Player with the
                                               Conference                                   This is Kokopelli, not
                         Shari T. Grove *                                                   a human but a legend,
   The goals of the Archivist/Biblio-              Plan your vacation this year for the     and is the Kachina as
grapher of the Rock Art Symposium are          first week in September, and hie thee to     outlined by Florence
to compile a comprehensive biblio-             Mexico City to attend the XLI Congreso       Hawley and others.
graphy of published and unpublished            Internacional de Americanistas. The          He is the legendary
materials on rock art; to start a col-         conference will be held from September       figure of the Hopi and
lection of published and unpublished           2 to September 7, 1974, in the National      is the true Kachina and true Kokopelli.
materials to be stored in the San Juan         Museum of Anthropology. The sessions         He existed for many years with the flute
County Archeological Research Center           will include papers and discussions rang-    and the phallus; later the flute was drop-
and Library in Farmington, New                 ing from archaeology to social anthro-       ped so far as the Kachina dolls were
Mexico, (this collection will be the pro-      pology, and including petroglyphology.       concerned. Later a Kokopelli mana was
perty of Rock Art Symposium); to act           In addition to the meetings, the             added to the legend and to the ceremo-
as a resource-reference person to rock         National Institute of Anthropology and       nies of the Hopi.
art researchers. The success of these          History has arranged a program of ex-        I feel that it is indeed a great mistake
goals will depend upon you, rock art           tended tours to Yucatan, Oaxaca,             to classify all hump-backs and all flute
researcher. I wish to thank those who          Guanajuato, Chiapas, Tepotzotlan, and        players as Kokopelli.
have already returned the completed            Teotihuacan. More information may be
questionnaire. If you haven't done so,         obtained by writing to:                          * John Cawley is an Orthopaedic Surgeon,
please return the rock art questionnaire                                                        whose practice is in Bakersfield, California
today. The compiled information will           Dr. Enrique Florescano
answer other researcher's questions and        El Secretarío General del Congreso
to inform rock art researchers about           I.N.A.H. Departamento de Investigaciones
new publications via the newsletter.                Históricas
                                               Anexo al Castillo de Chapultepec
* Shari Grove is the Archivist-Bibliographer   Apartado Postal 5-1 19
 of the Rock Art Symposium                     México 5, D.F.


    This initial publication of the Rock     “Contributions of the University of             done an American rock art. It contains
Art Symposium Newsletter heralds a           California Archaeological Research              twenty-three chapters (822 pages) of
long sought after goal of many people        Facility.”                                      “Picture - writings of the American
dedicated to the serious study of petro-     No. 20, May, 1974                               Indians,” by Garrick Mallery. The hun-
glyphic art. We now have a means to          Contents: “Four Great Basin Petroglyph          dreds of illustrations–drawings and pho-
exchange information, disseminate            Studies.”                                       tographs–depict petroglyphs all over
news, and in general establish a line of        This publication contains four               the United States, and in many parts of
communication between ourselves. The         articles, all of professional mien, two of      the world. And of course the survey was
formation of a Rock Art Symposium is         them co-authored by no less an author-          conducted before the turn of the cen-
paramount to the continuing efforts of       ity than Robert Heizer. Of particular in-       tury. In many instances this report is
preserving and studying these enigmatic      terest is the third essay,“ The Manufac-        the only remaining evidence left of
designs that are etched or painted           ture of a Petroglyph: A Replicative             some American rock art. - F.B.

                                                                                             Fa r m i n g t o n
around the world. This newsletter be-        Experiment,” by James C. Bard and
comes the tool whereby 'this important       Colin I. Busby. They systematically set
work can find outlet. We solicit from        up an experiment on possible tools and                          (Continued from Second Page)
you, our readers, news items and articles    methods of pecking and pecking/                   8. Rock Art in Southern Califor-
of all types dealing with rock art. We       grinding petroglyphs on patinized                    nia–Ken Hedges, San Diego, Cali-
hope to establish a forum for expression     basalt. Although not done under field                fornia
of ideas as well as a medium for dissemi-    conditions, the experiment is neverthe-         Tour of the Salmon Ruins
nating information. Currently we can         less an important step forward in re-           Lunch
reproduce pen and ink drawings as well       search. This volume is published by the         Presentation of Papers
as written articles. Perhaps in the not      University of California, Department of           9. Pictographs and Petroglyphs of
too distant future we will be able also to   Anthropology, Berkeley, Calif.                       Apache County, Navaho Reserva-
reproduce black and white photographs.          Speaking of Heizer, if you haven't                tion, Arizona–Jane Kolber and
                                             availed yourself of Heizer and Clewlow's             Donna Yoder, Ganado and Many
   Our present mailing list is small. If     two volume pubiication, Prehistoric                  Farms, Arizona
you like the idea of receiving LA            Rock Art of California, you are missing           10. Petroglyphs of the Raton Section
PINTURA, would you please let us             a definitive source book for your                    of the Great Plains Province–
know? And let others know so we can          library. Although in many ways repiti-               Nancy and Jean Robertson, Colo-
add them to the list. The funding for        tious of Heizer and Baumhoff's earlier               rado Springs, Colorado, & Raton,
the first publication and mailing came       Prehistoric Rock Art of Nevada and                   N.M.
from those who attended the Rock Art         Eastern California, including many of             11. Petroglyphs of the South Moun-
Symposium in Farmington, New                 the same illustrations and text, and an              tains of Arizona–Ernest E. Sny-
Mexico, last May. If we are to send out      inadequate listing of California sites, this         der, Tempe, Arizona
subsequent mailings, we must ask for         new publication is expanded and a valu-           12. New Mexico Rock Art Field
additional funds. Four dollars will          able asset.                                          School: Organization and Pur-
assure you delivery of three more news-         By the way, keep your eyeballs open               pose–Col. James Bain, Albuquer-
letters this coming year.                    when visiting your favorite used book-               que, New Mexico
                                             store. We accidently stumbled across the        Tour of the Salmon Ruins
   Subsequent publications will include:     Tenth Annual Report of the Bureau of            Meeting of those interested in starting a
continuing news about the Symposium;         Ethnology–1888-’89. (Washington Gov-            rock art Association.
information concerning the 1975 Rock         ernment Printing Office, 1893). This is           * A. J. Bock is the Secretary-Treasurer of the
Art Symposium to be held in El Paso;         one half of the initial work of real scope                                  Rock Art Symposium
book reviews, articles, and announce-
ments of rock art field trips, field
schools and other meetings; and infor-
mation on current rock art research,                                           ROCK ART SYMPOSIUM
plus when available information from
                                                Chairman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Klaus F. Wellmann, M.D.
rock art symposia held throughout the
                                                Vice Chairwoman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kay S. Toness, Ph.D.
world. Make LA PINTURA your publi-
                                                Secretary-Treasurer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Alice J. Bock
cation. Send subscriptions, articles and
                                                Archivist-Bibliographer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Shari T. Grove
any correspondence to:
                                                Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Frank G. Bock, Ph.D.

     Frank Bock, Editor                         "La Pintura" is published by the Rock Art Symposium. Editorial address is P.O. Box
     La Pintura                                 4219, Whittier, California 90607. The opinions expressed in all signed articles are
     Box 4219                                   those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Rock Art
     Whittier, California 90607                 Symposium.
22                                              La Pintura       2007–2008

               Call for Papers                                            ARARA Addresses
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 International Newsletter on Rock Art                                 Glendale, AZ 85308-2038
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                                     Conference Program                          May 2008

                             The American Rock Art Research Asso-
                             ciation is a non-profit organization dedi-                   ARARA Code of Ethics
                             cated to encourage and to advance research        The American Rock Art Research Association subscribes to the
                             in the field of rock art. Association members     following Code of Ethics and enjoins its members, as a condition of
                             work for the protection and preservation of       membership, to abide by the standards of conduct stated herein.
                             rock art sites through cooperative action           1. All local, state, and national antiquities laws will be strictly adhered
                             with private landowners and appropriate           to by the membership of ARARA. Rock art research shall be subject
                             state and federal agencies.                       to appropriate regulations and property access requirements.
                                The Association strives to promote non-          2. All rock art recording shall be non-destructive with regard to the
                             destructive utilization of rock art for scien-    rock art itself and the associated archaeological remains which may be
                             tific, educational, and artistic purposes. This   present. No artifacts shall be collected unless the work is done as part
                             is accomplished through a wide-ranging pro-       of a legally constituted program of archaeological survey or excavation.
                             gram to inform and educate the members as           3. No excavation shall be conducted unless the work is done as part
                             well as the general public regarding the rock     of a legally constituted excavation project. Removal of soil shall not be
                             art heritage of the United States as well as      undertaken for the sole purpose of exposing sub-surface rock art.
worldwide. These goals are comunicated through the quarterly news-               4. Potentially destructive recording and research procedures shall be
letter, La Pintura. Annual three-day conferences give both members             undertaken only after careful consideration of any potential damage to
and others interested in rock art the opportunity to share professional        the rock art site.
papers, slide presentations, and informal discussions.                           5. Using the name of the American Rock Art Research Associa-
  Membership in the American Rock Art Research Association is                  tion, the initials of ARARA, and/or the logos adopted by the
open to all with an active interest in research, non-destructive use, and      Association and the identification of an individual as a member of
preservation of rock art, regardless of their nationality or country of        ARARA are allowed only in conjunction with rock art projects
residence. Membership fees are:                                                undertaken in full accordance with accepted professional archeological
             Donor                                      $120.00                standards. The name ARARA may not be used for commercial
             Family                                      $50.00                purposes. While members may use their affiliation with ARARA for
             Individual                                  $45.00                identification purposes, research projects may not be represented as
             Society/Institution                         $60.00                having the sponsorship of ARARA without express approval of the
             Student*                                    $35.00                Executive Committee.
             *Student rate requires photocopy of current                         The ARARA Code of Ethics, points 1 through 5, was adopted at the
             student ID. Foreign members please add $5.00 for                  annual business meeting on May 24, 1987. The Code of Ethics was
             Canada/Mexico, $10 for other countries.                           amended with the addition of the opening paragraph at the annual
  Membership runs from July 1 through June 30 of each year. The                business meeting, May 28, 1988.
Association is concerned primarily with American rock art, but
membership is international in scope. Benefits include La Pintura, one
                                                                                       ARARA Officers & Board
copy of American Indian Rock Art for the year, reduced conference fees,                 President                            Mavis Greer
and current news in the field of rock art. More importantly, member-                    Vice-President                        Evelyn Billo
ship means a shared concern for the ongoing conservation and preser-                    Secretary                      Caroline Maddock
vation of one of the most significant elements of our heritage. Send                    Treasurer                           Garry Gillette
memberships to:                                                                         Conference Planner                Donna Gillette
            ARARA Membership                                                            Board Members        Chris Gralapp, Terry Moody,
            3711 W. Deer Valley Rd.                                                               William Breen Murray, Peggy Whitehead
            Glendale, AZ 85308-2038                                                     Education Committee Chair             Amy Leska
                                                                                        Conservation Committee Chair         Jack Sprague
             e-mail:                                               Publications Committee Chair Peggy Whitehead
La Pintura is published by the American Rock Art Research Association. All Editorial material for La Pintura should be sent via e-mail
to the Editor, William Breen Murray, at Opinions expressed in signed articles are those of the authors and
do not necessarily represent the views of the American Rock Art Research Association. La Pintura solicits articles, news, letters to the
editor, and other items of interest to its readers. Please observe the following criteria for all manuscripts submitted. Letter to the Editor:
No special format necessary. News Items: Please indicate all pertinent information such as the event, time, place, cost (if any), group
or person in charge, who to contact, addresses, and deadlines. Articles: Manuscripts of original research are always welcome. They should
embrace sound principles of investigation and present data in a clear and concise manner. Consult American Antiquity for body copy,
notes, literature citations, and the proper format for References Cited. Articles are subject to editing for length. If possible, please submit
all materials intended for publication via e-mail ( Please include author’s name, title or profession, affiliation,
city, state, and return e-mail address. Send illustrations as e-mail attachments. Submit line drawings as 600 dpi bitmap .tif files and
black-and-white photographs as grayscale 300 dpi high-quality-level .jpeg images. Materials that cannot be e-mailed may be sent to the
mailing address: ARARA, Attn: Jennifer Huang, 3711 W. Deer Valley Rd., Glendale, AZ 85308-2038.
            La Pintura is the Official Newsletter of the American Rock Art Research Association
   Address all editorial materials via e-mail to William Breen Murray, Editor, at
   Our mailing address is: ARARA, Attn: La Pintura, 3711 W. Deer Valley Rd., Glendale, AZ 85308-2038

                                                ARARA 2008

                                              A reproduction of the
                                                    first La Pintura

                       Volume 34, Number 4

            La Pintura
American Rock Art Research Association
8153 Cinderella Place
Lemon Grove, CA 91945-3000

First Class Mail                                                                            Dated Material
Address Service Requested

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