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					Papers Related to Public
Value - Media Category -
Most Cited All Time and
in the Last 10 Years

                                Authors Year      Title

                                Shapiro,          What moves public-
                                R.Y.;             opinion
                                y, G.R.

                                                  The mass-media and
                                Tyler,            judgments of risk-
                                T.R.;             distinguishing impact
most cited articles all time    Cook,             on personal and
                                F.L.              societal level

                                F.L.;             Media and agenda
                                Tyler,            setting - effects on the
                                T.R.;      1983   public, interest group
                                Goetz,            leaders, policy
                                E.G.; et          makers, and policy

                                                  Social value of public
                                S.; Shin, 2002

most cited articles in recent
10 years
                                Stromber          Radio's impact on
                                g, D.             public spending
most cited articles in recent
10 years

                                                  Effectiveness of mass
                                                  media campaigns for
                                                  reducing drinking and
                                R.A.;      2004
                                                  driving and alcohol-
                                                  involved crashes - A
                                D.A.; et
                                                  systematic review
Journal, issue, volume, page#

American Political Science
Review, 81(1), pp. 23-43

Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 47(4), pp. 693-708

Public Opinion Quarterly, 47(1),
pp. 16-35

American Economic Review,
96(1), pp. 448-452
Quarterly Journal of Economics,
119(1), pp. 189-221

Task Force Community
Preventive, 27(1), pp. 57-65

Recent research findings about whether mass media reports influence risk-related judgments have not
been consistent. One reconciliation of the differing findings is the impersonal impact hypothesis, which
suggests that media impact occurs with societal level judgments about general problem importance or
frequency but not with judgments about personal risks. Three studies, with 465 undergraduates were
conducted to test this hypothesis. Results support the impersonal impact hypothesis by suggesting
that personal and societal level judgments are distinct and that media reports exert their primary
influence on societal rather than personal judgments. Although media reports influenced judgments
about societal risks but not about risks to one's self under the conditions examined in the present
research, personal judgments may be affected under other conditions. Conditions under which media
reports may have differential or similar effects on personal and societal-level judgments are
considered in relation to the base rates of an event occurring, the strength of the media case that a
problem exists, and the individual's identification with the problem.

Using an experimental design built around a single media event, the authors explored the impact of
the media upon the general public, policy makers, interest group leaders, and public policy. The
results suggested that the media influenced views about issue importance among the general public
and government policy makers. The study suggests, however, that it was not this change in public
opinion which led to subsequent policy changes. Instead, policy change resulted from collaboration
between journalists and government staff members.

What are the. welfare effects of enhanced dissemination of public information through the media and
disclosures by market participants with high public visibility? We examine the impact of public
information in a setting where agents take actions appropriate to the underlying fundamentals, but
they also have a coordination motive arising from a strategic complementarity in their actions. When
the agents have no socially valuable private information, greater provision of public information always
increases welfare. However, when agents also have access to independent. sources of information,
the welfare effect of increased public disclosures is ambiguous.
If informed voters receive favorable policies, then the invention of a new mass medium may affect
government policies since it affects who is informed and who is not. These ideas are developed in a
voting model. The model forms the basis for an empirical investigation of a major New Deal relief
program implemented in the middle of the expansion period of radio. The main empirical finding is that
U. S. counties with many radio listeners received more relief funds. More funds were allocated to poor
counties with high unemployment, but controlling for these and other variables, the effects of radio are
large and highly significant.
A systematic review of the effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired
driving (AID) and alcohol-related crashes was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive
Services (Community Guide). In eight studies that met quality criteria for inclusion in the review, the
median decrease in alcohol-related crashes resulting from the campaigns was 13% (interquartile
range: 6% to 14%). Economic analyses of campaign effects indicated that the societal benefits were
greater than the costs. The mass media campaigns reviewed were generally carefully planned, well
executed, attained adequate audience exposure, and were implemented in conjunction with other
ongoing prevention activities, such as high visibility enforcement. According to Community Guide rules
of evidence, there is strong evidence that, tinder these conditions, mass media campaigns are
effective in reducing AID and alcohol-related crashes. (C) 2004 American Journal of Preventive