A long time ago, around ____________, an ancient tribe of Central American Indians called the
_______________ settled in the rainforests of the _______________________ of Central
About two thousand years later, around 400 BCE, a new people suddenly _______________
These people were called the ___________________. No one knows where they came from, but
they arrived with _____________________________. They were an _____________________
civilization. They soon took over the Yucatan Peninsula of Central America.
The Maya were very _________________ people. Their system of mathematics was among
the most sophisticated in the _______________________world.
Like the ancient ______________________, the Mayas were ___________________
_________________the ancient Romans, the ancient Mayas did _________ have
________________-. Their tools were made of ______________________________.Yet they
built beautiful structures, huge cities, and excellent roads - roads that _____________________
the many hundreds of cities that made up the Maya world.
Around ____________________, the Maya cities were ________________________. A few
people continued to live in the cities, but mostly, the cities were empty. The people had, for the
most part, _____________________________, gone somewhere else. Those who remained
were _______________________________________ to repair the magnificent roads and
buildings. The great Maya cities fell into ________________________.
To this day, nobody knows where the _________________________________________ before
they arrived in the ____________________________, and nobody knows why they
________________ or where they _________________ when most of the Maya people
abandoned their cities and disappeared from the Yucatan Peninsula. That's why the Maya are
sometimes referred to as "__________________________________________".
During the 1500 years or so that the Maya Indians made their home in
__________________________, they build hundreds of _________________________, each
filled with ___________________________ and elaborate ____________________. There was
at least one ball court in every city. Excellent roads ran for miles through the jungles and
swamps, linking these centers of religion and learning.
Today, archaeologists remain very ___________________________about these ancient
people. Archaeologists face many dangers to hunt for the ruins of the ancient Maya cities hidden
deep in the jungles of Central America.
There are not many, but there are some Maya people ________________________________,
descendants of the ancient Mayas who remained behind in the nearly deserted cities. Still today,
their crafts are amongst the ______________________________________________________.
At first, the Incas were simply a small tribe that lived in the city of _____________________.
They worshiped _____________________________. They believed in
____________________________. Around 1430 C.E, a neighboring tribe
_____________________ the Incas. The Incas ___________________! That was the beginning
of the ___________________________________________.
Since the Incas ___________ developed a system of _________________, archaeologists
must study _____________________ and the artifacts they left behind for clues about the
ancient Inca civilization.
The Incas loved stories. Special "____________________" created stories that were told over
and over. They loved _________________. Their emperors always did _______________
things. Their battles were always _______________________. The Incas believed in
___________________. Some of their stories were about the wondrous feats of their gods. One
Incan myth refers to an _______________________ with long white hair, who was really a
______________. This god lived in a coal sack (the ____________________). He created the
The land the Incas ruled became known as "_______________________________". It was
named that because the ______________________ was divided into _________________ for
ruling purposes. _________________________was still the capital.
The Incas believed that their _________________ was the direct ________________of the
_________________________________________. Their ruler was a god. The Incas believed in
many gods. They believed in the god of nature, the ___________________, of weather, of
________________________, and of planets. Every __________________________ was a god.
All Incas had little _______________________ in their homes that were the homes of little
______________________________. Anything might house a god. Just to be safe, they prayed
Every month, the Incas held a huge and public _______________________________
honoring one of their ___________________________. At the festival, there was dancing and
feasting and sacrifice. Mostly, the Incas sacrificed _______________________. Sometimes, if
something ________________________________ was going on, they sacrificed
The ______________________________ conquered the Incan civilization. Francisco Pizarro
led the Spanish invaders. After a series of fierce battles, the Incas were
________________________ in 1531. The ancestors of the Incas still live in the modern day
country of ______________________________ today.
Around 1300 CE, a wandering tribe of ____________________ wandered into the
_________________________________________________. These people were called the
______________________. When the Aztecs arrived in the Valley of Mexico, other
_______________ were already in residence. They had already taken the best __________. The
Aztecs had to make due with the _________________ shores of Lake ____________________.
But this did not bother the Aztecs. Not only were they _________________ people, but they had
every faith that their ___________________ had sent them to the swampy shores of Lake
Texcoco, so obviously they ______________________ to their environment.
They built ______________________, so they could __________________________ birds
that lived near the water. They created floating _____________________ for growing food.
They created more land for agriculture by _______________________ in the marshes.
After they settled in, they began to __________________ the neighboring tribes. They
conquered first one tribe, and then another, and then another.
Each conquered tribe had to ____________________________to the Aztecs in the form of
food, clothing, jewels, and of course, captives to feed the hungry gods. That made the Aztecs
very ____________________ and very _________________________.
The Aztecs expanded and expanded until they had built an ________________________.
One day, around 1500 CE, ___________________________arrived in the Valley of
______________________. They were ________________________ at what they saw.
One soldier said, “There were _______________________ among us who had been in many
parts of the ______________________________, in Constantinople and Rome and all over Italy,
who said that they had never before seen a __________________________________ so large
and so______________________________ with people.”
The Spanish _____________________________ the Aztecs. The arrival of the Spanish brought
guns, _____________________, huge fighting dogs, and ________________. Because the
Aztecs were such fierce ________________________, they might have had a slim chance of
___________________________ against guns and horses and huge fighting dogs. But they had
_________________________________________. They had never been exposed to childhood
diseases like _____________________________. Many became ill once the Spanish arrived;
The Spanish also received help from the other tribes in the area. These tribes saw a chance to
get even, and perhaps even to rid themselves of the ____________________________________
Aztecs. These tribes did not expect to be _________________________ themselves, which they
were. Nor did they know how __________________________________ the Spanish would rule
By the mid-1500’s, the _______________________ had collapsed, and the Spanish had taken
over the __________________________________.
Today, there are around _____________________ (____________________) descendants of
the ancient __________________________ living and working in ____________________.
Human sacrifice is ______________________ part of their festivals. But the beautiful art and
clever games the Aztecs created are still enjoyed today.