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A long time ago, around ____________, an ancient tribe of Central American Indians called the

_______________ settled in the rainforests of the _______________________ of Central


  About two thousand years later, around 400 BCE, a new people suddenly _______________

These people were called the ___________________. No one knows where they came from, but

they arrived with _____________________________. They were an _____________________

civilization. They soon took over the Yucatan Peninsula of Central America.

  The Maya were very _________________ people. Their system of mathematics was among

the most sophisticated in the _______________________world.

  Like the ancient ______________________, the Mayas were ___________________


_________________the ancient Romans, the ancient Mayas did _________ have

________________-. Their tools were made of ______________________________.Yet they

built beautiful structures, huge cities, and excellent roads - roads that _____________________

the many hundreds of cities that made up the Maya world.

  Around ____________________, the Maya cities were ________________________. A few

people continued to live in the cities, but mostly, the cities were empty. The people had, for the

most part, _____________________________, gone somewhere else. Those who remained

were _______________________________________ to repair the magnificent roads and

buildings. The great Maya cities fell into ________________________.
To this day, nobody knows where the _________________________________________ before

they arrived in the ____________________________, and nobody knows why they

________________ or where they _________________ when most of the Maya people

abandoned their cities and disappeared from the Yucatan Peninsula. That's why the Maya are

sometimes referred to as "__________________________________________".

During the 1500 years or so that the Maya Indians made their home in

__________________________, they build hundreds of _________________________, each

filled with ___________________________ and elaborate ____________________. There was

at least one ball court in every city. Excellent roads ran for miles through the jungles and

swamps, linking these centers of religion and learning.

 Today, archaeologists remain very ___________________________about these ancient

people. Archaeologists face many dangers to hunt for the ruins of the ancient Maya cities hidden

deep in the jungles of Central America.

  There are not many, but there are some Maya people ________________________________,

descendants of the ancient Mayas who remained behind in the nearly deserted cities. Still today,

their crafts are amongst the ______________________________________________________.


At first, the Incas were simply a small tribe that lived in the city of _____________________.

They worshiped _____________________________. They believed in

____________________________. Around 1430 C.E, a neighboring tribe
_____________________ the Incas. The Incas ___________________! That was the beginning

of the ___________________________________________.

  Since the Incas ___________ developed a system of _________________, archaeologists

must study _____________________ and the artifacts they left behind for clues about the

ancient Inca civilization.

The Incas loved stories. Special "____________________" created stories that were told over

and over. They loved _________________. Their emperors always did _______________

things. Their battles were always _______________________. The Incas believed in

___________________. Some of their stories were about the wondrous feats of their gods. One

Incan myth refers to an _______________________ with long white hair, who was really a

______________. This god lived in a coal sack (the ____________________). He created the


The land the Incas ruled became known as "_______________________________". It was

named that because the ______________________ was divided into _________________ for

ruling purposes. _________________________was still the capital.

The Incas believed that their _________________ was the direct ________________of the

_________________________________________. Their ruler was a god. The Incas believed in

many gods. They believed in the god of nature, the ___________________, of weather, of

________________________, and of planets. Every __________________________ was a god.

All Incas had little _______________________ in their homes that were the homes of little

______________________________. Anything might house a god. Just to be safe, they prayed

to _________________________________________________________________________.
  Every month, the Incas held a huge and public _______________________________

honoring one of their ___________________________. At the festival, there was dancing and

feasting and sacrifice. Mostly, the Incas sacrificed _______________________. Sometimes, if

something ________________________________ was going on, they sacrificed


The ______________________________ conquered the Incan civilization. Francisco Pizarro

led the Spanish invaders. After a series of fierce battles, the Incas were

________________________ in 1531. The ancestors of the Incas still live in the modern day

country of ______________________________ today.


 Around 1300 CE, a wandering tribe of ____________________ wandered into the

_________________________________________________. These people were called the

______________________. When the Aztecs arrived in the Valley of Mexico, other

_______________ were already in residence. They had already taken the best __________. The

Aztecs had to make due with the _________________ shores of Lake ____________________.

But this did not bother the Aztecs. Not only were they _________________ people, but they had

every faith that their ___________________ had sent them to the swampy shores of Lake

Texcoco, so obviously they ______________________ to their environment.

  They built ______________________, so they could __________________________ birds

that lived near the water. They created floating _____________________ for growing food.

They created more land for agriculture by _______________________ in the marshes.
After they settled in, they began to __________________ the neighboring tribes. They

conquered first one tribe, and then another, and then another.

  Each conquered tribe had to ____________________________to the Aztecs in the form of

food, clothing, jewels, and of course, captives to feed the hungry gods. That made the Aztecs

very ____________________ and very _________________________.

  The Aztecs expanded and expanded until they had built an ________________________.

One day, around 1500 CE, ___________________________arrived in the Valley of

______________________. They were ________________________ at what they saw.

  One soldier said, “There were _______________________ among us who had been in many

parts of the ______________________________, in Constantinople and Rome and all over Italy,

who said that they had never before seen a __________________________________ so large

and so______________________________ with people.”

The Spanish _____________________________ the Aztecs. The arrival of the Spanish brought

guns, _____________________, huge fighting dogs, and ________________. Because the

Aztecs were such fierce ________________________, they might have had a slim chance of

___________________________ against guns and horses and huge fighting dogs. But they had

_________________________________________. They had never been exposed to childhood

diseases like _____________________________. Many became ill once the Spanish arrived;

many ______________________.

  The Spanish also received help from the other tribes in the area. These tribes saw a chance to

get even, and perhaps even to rid themselves of the ____________________________________
Aztecs. These tribes did not expect to be _________________________ themselves, which they

were. Nor did they know how __________________________________ the Spanish would rule

their people.

By the mid-1500’s, the _______________________ had collapsed, and the Spanish had taken

over the __________________________________.

   Today, there are around _____________________ (____________________) descendants of

the ancient __________________________ living and working in ____________________.

Human sacrifice is ______________________ part of their festivals. But the beautiful art and

clever games the Aztecs created are still enjoyed today.

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