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Unit 1 Growing Up I. Suggested Teaching Plan (5 periods) Objectives Students will be able to: 1. grasp the main idea (the essence of writing is to write what one enjoys writing) and structure of the text (narration in chronological sequence); 2. appreciate the narrative skills demonstrated in the text (selection of details, repetition, coherence); 3. master the key language points and grammatical structures in the text; 4. conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of the unit. Time allotment 1st period 2nd period 3rd period 4th period 5th period Pre-reading; While-reading While-reading While-reading Check on While-reading (language points) (language points; (grammatical students’s home (text structure; grammatical structures; details; reading (Text B); sultural notes; structures) synonyms; Post-reading language points) coherence) Language Post-reading (main Learning Tasks) idea; exercises) Pre-reading tasks 1. Have you listened to John Lennon's Beautiful Boy? (2 minutes) The teacher (T) may ask several students (Ss) this question: — What does Lennon think of growing up? (Possible answers: Life becomes better as one grows up; it takes time to grow up; life is not always what one has planned, but is full of surprises; life is not easy; life is adventurous.) 2. The art of eating spaghetti. (15 minutes) 1) Before class, T cuts a sheet of paper into many long, thin strips, which he/she brings to class together with a fork (Or: if possible, T brings a platter of boiled noodles to class together with a fork). 2) T explains that spaghetti is Italian-style noodles, and that unlike some Chinese noodles, it will never taste pulpy and is usually served with sauce, not in soup. Several Ss are invited to come up with "proper ways of eating spaghetti" and demonstrate to the class, using the fork. 3) T dictates the following passage to Ss (Pre-teach some words like “poke”, “scoop”, “prong”, “twirl” if necessary): a. Hold the fork in your hand as if to poke the spaghetti. b. Scoop up a small amount of spaghetti on your fork and raise it about 30 cm above your plate. c. Make sure the spaghetti on your fork is completely disconnected from the remainder on your plate. d. Put the prongs of the fork at an edge of the plate that is free of food. e. Quickly point the prongs of the fork straight down toward the plate and place the points on the plate. f. Twirl the fork to gather the spaghetti around the prongs. g. With a quick scooping movement, gather up the roll around the prongs and place it in your mouth. h. Gently gather up any stray spaghetti ends that don't make it all the way into your mouth. 4) T asks one S to come up and demonstrate the right way of eating spaghetti. 3. Tasks Ss the following questions: (8 minutes) — Would you enjoy writing "The Art of Eating Spaghetti"? Why or why not? — Why did Russell Baker enjoy writing "The Art of Eating Spaghetti"? (hint: Para. 4) — Look at the title of Text A, then find out in which paragraph a similar phrase appears. Read that paragraph carefully and explain in your own words what the author means by saying "write for myself". (hint: Para. 5) While-reading tasks 1. Grasping the structure of the text: (15 minutes) ) Ss circle all the time words, phrases and clauses in Text A (They include: since my childhood in BellevilIe, until my third year in high school, until then, when our class was assigned to Mr. Fleagle for third-year English, late in the year, until the night before the essay was due, when I finished, next morning, two days passed, when I saw him lift my paper from his desk..., when Mr. FIeagle finished). When they finish, T asks several Ss to read aloud what they have circled. 2) T draws Ss' attention to Text Organization Exercise 2, reads its instructions, and asks them these two questions: — Refer to the time words/phrases/clauses you have just circled and tell from which point on Baker starts talking about his new experience. (hint: the paragraph containing "later in the year") — Starting from which paragraph does Baker stop writing about his new experience? (hint: the paragraph containing "when I finished" and "next morning") 3) In this way Ss will be able to divide the text into 3 parts and sum up the main ideas. 4) Several Ss report the main ideas they have summed up to the class. 2. Cultural background -- T explains the U.S. grade school system and how school teachers are dressed. (see Cultural Notes) (3 minutes) 3. T explains language points and gives Ss practice. (see Language Study) (60 minutes) 4. Grammatical structures. (25 minutes) 1) T asks Ss to form pairs and ask each other questions based on Para. 2 using the, structure "sb./sth. is said/believed/reported to do/be". T may offer the following model: — What kind of person is Mr. Fleagle? — He was said/reported/believed to be very formal, rigid and hopelessly out-of-date. Afterwards, a pair or two may repeat their questions and answers to the class. 2) Ss do Structure Exercise 2 in the textbook. 5. T draws Ss' attention to Writing Strategy in Theme-related Language Learning Tasks, especially the part about details. (also see Text Analysis) T then asks the following questions: — In Part 1, what details are selected to show "I'd been bored with everything associated with English courses"?. — In Part 1, what details are given to show that Mr. Fleagle was dull and rigid? — In Part 2, which sentences show that at first Baker was unwilling to .write the essay? — In Part 3, the author didn't tell us directly that his essay was very good. By which sentences did he manage to give us the impression that his essay was very good? (12 minutes) 6. Synonymous words or phrases in this text (see Text Analysis): 1) T chooses one word from each group of synonyms listed in Text Analysis, and asks Ss to scan for respective synonyms. If Ss' findings are inconclusive, T may reveal those they have neglected. 2) T may .further provoke Ss' thinking by this question: Why does Russell Baker employ all these synonymous words and phrases? (15 minutes) 7. When T and Ss come to the sentence" In the eleventh grade, at the eleventh hour as it were, I had discovered a calling." in Para. 9, T may ask Ss to recall a similar sentence they have read. (Para. 1, "The idea of becoming a writer had come to me off and on since my childhood in Belleville, but it wasn't until my third year in high school that the possibility took hold.") By this T will show Ss the importance of coherence in writing. (5 minutes) Post-reading tasks 1. Think alone: According to Mr. Fleagle, what is the very essence of the essay? (5 minutes) Then T invites several Ss to give their opinions. T may sum up by this sentence -- The essence of good essays is to write what one enjoys writing about. 2. T checks if Ss have done the rest of the after-text exercises in their spare time, and discusses some common errors that crop up. (10 minutes) 3. T checks on Ss' home reading (Text B). (3 minutes) 4. Ss do Part IV: Theme-related Language Learning Tasks in class. (1 period) 5. T asks Ss to prepare the next unit: 1) do the pre-reading task; 2) preview Text A. (2 minutes) II. Text Analysis Russell Baker is very good at selecting details (see Part IV Writing Strategy) to prove his point. For example, in Para. 2 he creates an unfavorable image of Mr. Fleagle by describing his "formal, rigid and hopelessly out-of-date" eyeglasses, hairstyle, clothes, jaw, nose, and manner of speaking. What's more, Russell Baker employs repetition not only to make it easy for readers to follow what he is saying, but also to impress them more deeply. For example, in Para. 2, there are 9 prim's or primly's in as few as 3 sentences ! Thus readers will have in their mind a vivid picture of what Mr. Fleagle looked like. Another example of such repetition can be found in Para. 5. Count how many I wanted's there are in this paragraph (There're 5 !). They help to emphasize Russell Baker's strong desire to write for himself. On the other hand, where this stylistic device is not justified, Baker is also expert in avoiding repetition by employing synonymous words and phrases. Here are some examples: a. dull, lifeless, cheerless, tedious b. turn out, write, compose, put down c. anticipate, prepare for d. formal, rigid, prim, correct, proper, respectable e. vivid memories of sth. come flooding back to sb., sth. reawakes in one's mind, sb. recalls sth. f. recapture, relive g. pleasure, delight, happiness h. contempt, ridicule i. topic, title III. Cultural Notes 1. Grade schools in the U.S.: It is necessary to have some knowledge of grade schools in the U.S. because Ss have to realize that " the third year in high school" (Para. 1) equals "the eleventh grade" (Para. 9). U.S. students generally go through elementary schools (kindergarten to 5th or 6th grade), middle schools (grades 6-8) or junior high schools (grades 7-9), and high schools (grades 9-12 or 10-12). 2. What American teachers wear in school: Nowadays, people in the U.S. love to dress casually. Even among those companies with a rigid dress code some now allow employees not to wear suits on Fridays. U.S. teachers wear fairly formal clothes to school, but not necessarily suits and ties. Bow ties are considered even more old-fashioned than ties. 3. Spaghetti and the proper way of eating it: Spaghetti is the Italian-style thin noodle, cooked by boiling and served with sauce. Usually you would put a fork into a plate of spaghetti, turn the fork several times so that spaghetti will wind around the fork, then place the fork into your mouth. It's impolite to suck. IV. Language Study 1. The idea of becoming a writer had come to me off and on since my childhood in Belleville, but it wasn't until my third year in high school that the possibility took hold.: Ever since I was a child in Belleville, I had thought of becoming a writer from time to time, but I didn't make up my mind until I was in the eleventh grade. off and on (or on and off): from time to time, now and again, irregularly Examples: It has been raining on and off for a week. That's why the clothes feel damp. As her patient slept soundly during the night, Nurse Betty was able to doze off and on in a bedside chair. possibility: state of being possible; (degree of) likelihood (usu. followed by that-clause or of) Examples: Is there any possibility of life on Mars? They haven't arrived. There is a possibility that they have taken the wrong road. take hold: become established Examples: The idea of one child only has taken hold in many Chinese families. Old habits die hard. That's why you should stop smoking before the habit takes hold. 2. Until then I'd been bored by everything associated with English courses.: Up to then I had lost interest in things related to English courses. bore: make (sb.) feel tired and lose interest Examples: The speaker went on and on, and the audience grew bored by his speech: Tom Sawyer grew bored with painting the garden fence, so he thought of a way to make others paint for him. associate (with): join or connect together; connect or bring in the mind Examples: We associate Egypt.with pyramids. I can't associate this gentle young woman with the radical political essays she has written. Jim wished to forget everything associated with his former life. 3. I hated the assignments to turn out long, lifeless paragraphs that were agony for teachers to read and for me to write.: I found it painful to write long, boring essays as required by teachers; neither did teachers enjoy what I wrote. turn out: produce Examples: New computers are soon outdated since newer models are turned out constantly. American film studios turn out hundreds of films every year. 4. When our class was assigned to Mr. Fleagle for third-year English I anticipated another cheerless year in that most tedious of subjects.: When it was decided that Mr. Fleagle would teach us English during my third year in high school, I expected the English course to be as boring as before. anticipate: expect (usu. followed by gerund or that-clause) Examples: The police had anticipated trouble from the soccer fans and were at the ground in large numbers. They anticipate that deaths from AIDS will have doubled by 2002. We anticipate running into problems in carrying out the medical welfare reform. 5. Tedious: boring and lasting for a long time Examples: The movie was so tedious that many viewers left before it was over. Laura found George to be tedious and decided not to see him any more. 6. Reputation: (an) opinion (about sb. or sth.) held by others Examles: Premier Zhu Rongji has a high reputation as a statesman in the world. Jim Kerry has quite a reputation for being comic. 7. Inspire: fill (sb.) with confidence, eagerness, etc. Examples: Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speeches inspired people to fight for equal treatment of African Americans. The last leaf on the tree that never fell off inspired the dying patient with the will to live on. 8. Rigid: (often disapproving) fixed in behavior; based on correct or accepted rules Examples: If he had been a little less rigid about things, his daughter would not have left home at such a young age. The rigid headmaster would button up his clothes even on the hottest days. 9. Out of date: old-fashioned Examples: New words are constantly added to our vocabulary while some old words go out of date. Although her clothes were out ofdate, the old woman appeared clean and dignified. 10. Severe: 1) completely plain Examples: The widow wore a severe black dress to her husband's funeral. Earnest Hemingway is known for his severe writing style. 2) stern, strict Examples: Only those who have undergone severe training can be accepted into the air force. Fu Lei was so severe with his son that even his wife would cry. 3) causing very great pain, difficulty, worry, etc. Examples: The severe chest pain experienced by the Vice-President proved to be a heart attack. A factory must turn out newer and better products to win in the climate of severe business competition. 11. I prepared for an unfruitful year with Mr. Fleagle and for a long time was not disappointed.: I expected that things wouldn't improve with Mr. Fleagle as our English teacher, and for a long time I was right in my expectations. (Note that here is a touch of irony.) 12. Late in the year we tackled the informal essay.: Late in the year we leamed how to write informal essays and practiced writing them. tackle: deal with Examples: Toshiba (东芝) recently designed a robot that can tackle almost any kinds of housework. The classroom was quiet as students were busy tackling the final exam. 13. Finally: at last (usu. used in the following situations: indicating that sth. is the last one in a series of things or events; introducing a final point, asking a final question, or mentioning a final item; when sth. happens that you have been waiting for a long time, you can say that it finally happens) Examples: Mr. Smith lived in Turkey, France, and Norway before finally settling in Mexico. Finally, I should like to thank you all for coming and to wish you a pleasant journey home. Finally he came to realize his mistake and apologized to his parents. After years of war the two countries finally signed a peace agreement. 14. Face up to: be brave enough to accept or deal with (a problem or difficulty) Examples: Yeltsin faced up to the fact that he was no longer fit for the Russian presidency and resigned on New Year's Eve. Now that your daughter is born, you'll have to face up to the responsibilities of being a father. 15. Scan: look through quickly Examples: The banker scanned the financial section of a dozen newspapers over breakfast. Scan the table of contents, and tell me how many chapters are on child development. 16. This title produced an extraordinary sequence of mental images.: At the sight of the title I saw an unusual series of pictures in my mind's eye. sequence: connected line of events, ideas, etc. Examples: A sequence of bad harvests forced some African countries to ask for foreign aid. The Fall of the Roman Empire was written in historical sequence. image: a picture formed in the mind Examples: Many pop stars try to improve their public image by participating in charity events. Through months of letter writing John formed an image of his pen pal. 17. Vivid: able to produce sharp clear pictures in the mind; lifelike Examples: In the little girl's vivid imagination the curtain wrapped around her body became a princess's gown. The birds were painted in such a vivid way that a cat jumped up to catch them. 18. Recall: bring back to the mind; remember (usu. followed by noun/gerund, or that-clause) Examples: I recognize the face but can't recall her name. I don't recall ever meeting her. She recalled that she had to see the doctor again that afternoon. 19. Argument: disagreement, quarrel Examples: The bride and her mother got into an argument about whether to wear white or red on her wedding day. Mary found that compromise was always the best policy when she had an argument with her husband. 20. Put down: write down Examples: What's the use of a password to your computer if you put it down on a piece of paper stuck to the computer screen? The housekeeper put down the daily expenses in a little notebook. 21. Violate: act against Examples: Speeding in downtown areas violates traffic regulations. A country isn't respected if it violates an international agreement. 22. Compose: write or create ( music, poetry, etc.) Examples: The president's speech is really brilliant. Do you think it was composed by himself or by someone else? John Lennon composed the song Beautiful Boy for his son. 23. Turn in: hand in (work that one has done, etc.) Examples: For your final grade, each of you must turn in a 7-page paper. It is said that if a policeman is ordered to turn in his gun, it is meant as a punishment. 24. I was preparing myself for a command to report to Mr. Fleagle immediately after school for discipline... : I expected that Mr. Fleagle would order me to see him soon after school for the purpose of punishing me ... command: 1) n. order Examples: The commander gave the command that all prisoners of war should be well treated. The rebellious army would not obey any command from the President. 2) v. give an order to Examples: The captain commanded his men to leave the ship immediately. The king commanded that the victory day become a national holiday. (As with the verbs "suggest, demand", subjunctive mood is used in a that-clause after command. ) 25. What’s more: in addition, more importantly Examples: How can you love this man? He watches TV all day long, and what's more, he seems not to have brushed his teeth for months! Ms. Stewart manages a successful business and gives a weekly TV cooking show. What's more, she has already published three books on gardening. 26. Hold back: prevent the expression of (feelings, tears, etc.) Examples: People could hardly hold back their anger when they found that millions of dollars of public funds had been used to build luxurious houses for city officials. Johnny cried bitterly in the classroom, not even attempting to hold back the tears. 27. Avoid: keep or get away from (usu. followed by noun/gerund) Examples: The little boy who had broken a neighbor's window ran away to avoid punishment being punished. He stayed away from the cafe so that he could avoid running into his former girl friend. 28. In the eleventh grade, at the eleventh hour as it were, I had discovered a calling. In my eleventh grade, and one might say at the last possible moment, I had found something I wished to take up as a career. the eleventh hour: the last moment before sth. important happens Example: The president's visit was called off at the eleventh hour. 29. Career: a job or profession for which one is trained and which one intends to follow for the whole of one's life Examples: My farmer parents have never expected me to make novel writing my career. In her long career as a journalist, Barbara Walters has interviewed famous people from all over the world. 30. Congratulation: expression of joy-for sb.'s success, luck, etc. (usu. in plural form, followed by on) Examples: They offered their congratulations on the artist's winning the Life Achievement Award. I heard that you have become CEO (Chief Executive Officer 执行总裁) of a hightech company. Congratulations! Unit 2 Friendship I. Suggested Teaching Plan (5 periods) Objectives Students will be able to: 1. grasp the main idea (never delay expressing your true feelings to a friend) and structure of the text (developing a story around a letter); 2. appreciate that spoken English is much more informal than written English; 3. master key language points and grammatical structures in the text; 4. conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of the unit. Time allotment 1st period 2nd period 3rd period 4th period 5th period Pre-reading； While-reading While-reading Post-reading Check on W11ile-reading (Part I) (Parts II and III) students’ home (skimming，text reading(Text B)； organization) Theme-related Language Learning Tasks Pre-reading tasks 1. T asks Ss the following questions on the song That's What Friends are For: — What is a fair weather friend? (one who is happy to stay with you when things are going well but leaves as soon as trouble arrives) — According to the song, what are friends for? (for both good times and bad times) (5 minutes) 2. Survey — Do you often write letters to friends? 1) T writes down the following words on the blackboard: frequently, sometimes, rarely, never. Then T asks Ss to indicate how often they write to friends by raising hands when T reads out these four listed choices. T tallies the total for each category, writes the numbers down under the respective choices on the blackboard. T and Ss will then have a general idea of the letter- writing habit of the class. 2) T invites several Ss to give reasons for writing or not writing letters. 3) T sums up and leads into the text by saying: Sometimes we put off writing letters because we think letters can wait until other matters are dealt with, or because we think a phone call will do instead. But sometimes, as you are to find in this text, we may leave it too late to write, and letters are the best in expressing our innermost feelings. (15 minutes) While-reading tasks 1. Skimming 1) Ss work in pairs to skim the text and find out how many questions the narrator asked the cabbie and what were the latter's responses. (They are: a. Is your cab available? —Yes. b. Is the letter from a child or a grandchild? — No. Ed was my oldest friend. c. He's someone you've known quite a while? — All my life. d. Did you go to school together? — All the way through high school. e. Is he dead? —He died a couple of weeks ago. f. Did you two work at the same place? — No, but we hung out together when single, later we grew more distant. g. The letter must have made you feel good, —(The driver said something that didn't it? the narrator couldn't under stand.) i. I thought your friend was Ed. Why did he — The letter was not from Ed to sign it Tom? me, I am Tom. It's a letter I wrote to him before I knew he'd died. So I never mailed it. 2) One pair of Ss perform the questions and answers for the class. Before doing so, T explains that they needn't read word-for-word from the text, but should use their own words to get the meaning across. 3) T asks other Ss these questions: — At first, did you mistake Ed for the writer of this letter, like the storyteller did? — When did you realize your mistake? —Which round of question-and-answer leads to the mistake? (hint: the second round) 4) T points out that a surprising ending is sometimes adopted in stories. (compare: O’Henry’s The Last Leaf, Maupassant's Necklace) (20 minutes) 2. Ss do Text Organization exercise. T may offer a clue that the last paragraph alone constitutes the last part. (5 minutes) 3. T explains language points in Part I and gives Ss practice. (see Language Study) (30 minutes) 4. 1) T reads out the following sentences and Ss try to find out sentences of similar meaning in the text: — Go on reading your letter. (Go ahead and finish your letter.) — I'm not used to writing letters. (I'm not much of a hand at writing.) — We were friends since our childhood. So our friendship has a long history. (We were kids together, so we go way back.) — For one reason or another you lose touch even though you never forget. (You kind of lose touch even though you never forget.) — It is painful to lose any friend. (It's no fun to lose any friend.) 2) T asks Ss which sentences are more colloquial, those in the text or those given by T. 3) T explains that since this story is developed mainly through the conversation between the cabbie and his passenger, its language tends to be simpler and more colloquial, sentences tend to be shorter or even incomplete. (see Text Analysis) (15 minutes) 5. T explains language points in Part II and gives Ss practice. (see Language Study) (30 minutes) 6. T elicits from Ss several ways to keep a conversation going, e.g., asking a question, agreeing with what one's conversation partner has said, making guesses about past events or predictions about future events. Ss scan Parts I and II to find out relevant examples employed by the narrator. (see Text Analysis) (10 minutes) 7. T poses the following questions on Part III to Ss: — What was the lesson the storyteller learned from the cabbie? (Never delay expressing one's true feelings to one's friend.) — Which word in the last sentence should be stressed when we read it aloud? ("and") (5 minutes) Post-reading tasks 1. Ss work in groups to find out, in the conversation given in the text, words or sentences that take on different meanings for the speaker and the listener. And later, T may invite groups to report their findings to the class after the following model: S1 reads: I'm sorry, but I was reading a letter. S2: The cabbie actually meant he was reading a letter he had written to an old friend. S3: But the storyteller thought he was reading a letter he had received from an old friend. (other misleading sentences: — Go ahead and finish your letter. — I've read it several times already. I guess I almost know it by heart. — Thanks, but I don't want to read your mail. That's pretty personal. — ...and the first sentence reminded me of myself. I've been meaning to write for some time, but I've always postponed it. — It then went on to say that he often thought about the good times they had had together when they both lived in the same neighborhood. — This is a good part here, where it says Your friendship over the years has meant an awful lot to me... — That must have made you feel good, didn't it? — I know I'd like to receive a letter like that from my oldest friend.) (20 minutes). 2. T guides Ss through some after-text exercises. (2 minutes) 3. T checks on Ss' home reading (Text B). (3 minutes.) 4. Ss do Part IV: Theme-related Language Learning Tasks. (1 period) 5. T asks Ss to prepare the next unit: 1) do the pre-reading task; 2) preview Text A. (2 minutes) II. Text Analysis Most of this text is actually a re-creation of the conversation between a taxi driver and the narrator. Therefore it provides ample examples of how English is spoken in daily life by native speakers. In spoken English sentences tend to be short and simple. Some sentences are incomplete, for example: "(Is the letter) From a child or maybe a grandchild?" "(You) Went to school together?" "Time." "(I have) Enjoyed talking with you." Besides, some words or phrases do not usually find their way into written English, for example, sort of kind of you know, I think, I guess, I take it, well go ahead, hang out, it's no fun to do sth., not much of a hand at doing sth., a couple of every, now and then, an awful lot. From the text one can conclude that the narrator is very good at keeping the conversation going. For one thing, he expresses his agreement to show the cabbie what a sympathetic listener he is, e.g., — "Letters from home always mean a lot. At least they do with me because I'm on the road so much." — "I don't think any of us keep up our correspondence too well. I know I don't." — "Well, we should all keep in touch with old friends more than we do. But things come up and we just don't seem to find the time." — "You know, when it says here that there aren't many of us left, that's absolutely right." — "I know I'd like to receive a letter like that from my oldest friend." For another, he asks questions directly to get more information out of the cabbie: — "You said 'was'. Does that mean ?" — "Did you two work at the same place?" — "I thought your friend's name was Ed. Why did he sign it Tom?" Sometimes, he asks an indirect question by making guesses: — "From a child or maybe a grand child?" — "Went to school together?" — "I take it he's someone you've known quite a while?" — "You must have spent a lot of time together." — "That must have made you feel good, didn't it?" III. Cultural Notes Halloween Halloween is celebrated annually. It is on the night of 31 October, when people once believed that ghosts could be seen. Now, in Britain and America, it is a time when children have parties, dress up as witches, make lanterns out of pumpkins from which the inside has been removed, and play "trick or treat". Trick or treat is a traditional activity at Halloween. Children dress in costumes and visit houses. At each house they say "Trick or treat". This means that they will play a "trick", or joke, on the people in the house unless they are given a "treat", e.g. sweets or money. Most people prefer to give treats rather than having tricks played on them. IV. Language Study 1. Be lost in/lose oneself in: be absorbed in, be fully occupied with Examples: He was lost in playing computer games so he was unaware of my entering the room. She was lost in her novel. I had lost myself in thought. 2. Available: able to be used, had, or reached Examples: Since 1990, the amount of money available to buy books has fallen by 17%. If you don't want to buy a kite, you can make your own using directions available in the book. We have already used up all the available space. 3. He sounded as if he had a cold or something. : This sentence implies the sad state of mind the taxi driver was in. or something: used when you are not very sure about what you have just said Examples: The air fare was a hundred and ninety-nine pounds or something. Here's some money. Get yourself a sandwich or something. Similar phrase: or something like that 4. Go ahead: continue, begin (sometimes followed by with +n.) Examples: The board of directors will vote today on whether to go ahead with the plan. Henry will be late but we will go ahead with the meeting anyway. 5. Know/learn by heart: memorize, remember exactly Examples: You have to know all the music by heart if you want to be a concert pianist.. The pupils are required to learn a classic poem by heart every day. 6. At least they do with me because I'm on the road so much. : At least letters from home mean a lot to me because I travel a lot in a car for long distances. 7. Estimate: form a judgement about (a quantity or value) Examples: I estimate that the total cost for the treatment of the disease will go from $5,000 to $8,000. Bill's personal riches were estimated at $368 million. 8. This isn't family. : This isn't a letter from my family. 9. Might/may (just) as well: If you say that you might/may (just) as well do something, you mean that you will do it although you do not have a strong desire to do it and may even feel slightly reluctant about it. Examples: Anyway, you're here; you might as well stay. The post office is really busy ... we'll have to queue for ages to get served. We might as well go home. 10. I'm not much of a hand at writing. : I'm not good at writing. not much of a : not a good Examples: Some people may think that doing housework for others is not much of a career. He is not much of a father, but he is an outstanding professor. 11. Keep up: continue without stopping Examples: They risk losing their homes because they can no longer keep up the repayments. I was so hungry all the time that I could not keep the diet up for longer than a month. 12. Correspondence: 1) the act of writing, receiving or sending letters ( 不可加 s,但可加 a, often followed by with + n.) Example: His interest in writing came from a long correspondence with a close college friend. 2) the letters that sb. receives or sends (used as an uncountable noun) Examples: Mary really never mentions her step-mother in her correspondence. Any further correspondence should be sent to my new address. 13. But I take it he's someone ... : But I expect that he is someone ... The sentence pattern "I take it (that)" is used to say that you expect someone will do something, know something etc.. Example: I take it (that) you've heard that all the students in my class have done a very good job in CET Band 4. 14. Practically: almost, but not completely or exactly Examples: He'd known the old man for practically ten years. I know people who find it practically impossible to give up smoking. 15, Went to school together? : The complete sentence is like this: You went. to school together? (In colloquial English a declarative sentence with a rising tone may serve as a question. ) 16.neighborhood: one of the parts of a town where people live Examples: It seemed like an ideal neighborhood to raise my children in. Houses in a good neighborhood are likely to be sold at a high price. 17. Kind of/sort of: (infml; "kind of" is esp. AmE, "sort of" esp. BrE) a little bit, in some way or degree (used before v. or after a link verb) Examples: She wasn't beautiful. But she was kind of cute. The boy's description kind of gives us an idea of what's happening. 18. Lose touch (with sb.): meet and contact sb. less and less often, gradually stop writing, tele- phoning, or visiting them Examples: I lost touch with my former classmates after graduation. In my job one tends to lose touch with friends. 19. A couple of: (infrnl) a few, more than one but not many Examples: Do you have a moment? There are a couple of things I'd like to talk to you about. They promised the students that they would find a substitute teacher in a couple of days. 20. But I realized that Old Ed was still on his mind when he spoke again, almost more to himself than to me.: But I realized that the taxi driver was still thinking of Old Ed when he spoke again. It seemed that he spoke more to himself than to me. on one's mind: in one's thoughts; of concern to one (If something is on your mind, you are worried or concerned about it and think about it a lot.) Examples: Dealings on the stock market have been on his mind all the time. This travel plan has been on my mind all week. 21. Keep in touch (with sb.): If you keep in touch with someone, you write, phone, or visit each other regularly. Examples: The old man kept in touch with his children while living in a nursing home. While doing the research work in the Antarctic, the professor kept in touch with his students via email. 22. Come up: 1) happen, occur, esp. unexpectedly Examples: "Sorry, I am late -- something came up at home." Other projects came up and the emphasis of my work changed. 2) be mentioned or discussed Examples: The issue of safety came up twice during the meeting. The term "Project Hope" has come up a lot recently in the newspapers, 23. Urge: try very hard to persuade (often used in the pattern urge sb. to do sth. or followed by a that-clause. In the that-clause, "should" or the base form of a verb is used.) Examples: They urged the local government to approve plans for their reform programme. I urged my cousin to take a year off to study drawing. Sir Fred urged that Britain (should) join the European Monetary System." 24. Postpone: delay (usu. followed by n. /gerund) Examples: The Russian experts postponed dumping Mir ( 和平号 Russia's space station) in the Pacific Ocean until March 23, 2001. The couple had postponed having children to establish their careers. 25. It had references to things that ... : The letter made mention of things that ... reference: 1) the act of talking about sb. / sth., or mentioning them (usu. followed by to) Examples: It was strange that he made no reference to any work experience in his resume. His recent book makes references to the political events of those days. 2) sth. that shows you where else to look for information, for example the page number of another place in a book Example: Make a note of the reference number shown on the form. 3) the act of looking at sth. for information Example: Use the dictionary for easy reference. Keep their price list for further reference. 26. "Like it says there,"... "about all we had to spend in those days was time.": "As the letter says there,"... "though we didn't have much money we had a lot of free time." 27. absolutely: totally and completely Examples: Funding is absolutely necessary if research is to continue. There is absolutely no difference between the two oil-paintings. 28. reunion: a party attended by members of the same family, school, or other group who have not seen each other for a long time Examples: The soccer club holds an annual/yearly reunion. Before she went abroad for further study, the whole family had a big family reunion. 29 there are fewer and fewer still around.: ... fewer and fewer of us are left alive. 30. go by: (of time) pass Examples: Her daughter was becoming more and more beautiful as the years went by. As each month goes by, the economic situation gets better. 31. hang out: 1) (infml; used mainly in AmE) stay in or near a place, for no particular reason, not doing very much Examples: I often hung out in coffee bars while I was unemployed. We can just hang out and have a good time. That's the comer where all the kids hang out.. 2) hang clothes on a piece of string outside in order to dry them Examples: I was worried that I had no time to hang out my washing. What a pain! -- It's raining and I've just hung the washing out. 32. every now and then: sometimes, at times Examples: Every now and then I have a desire to quit my tedious job. I still see Jane for lunch every now and then, but not as often as I used to. 33. But for the last 20 or 30 years it's been mostly just Christmas cards. : But generally speaking we have sent only Christmas cards to keep in touch with each other for the. last 20 or 30 years. mostly: almost all; generally Examples: They have invested their money mostly in expensive real estate. The guests at the wedding party are mostly friends of the bride. 34. Your friendship over the years has meant an awful lot to me, more than I can say because I'm not good at saying things like that. : Your friendship over the years has been very important to me, more important than I can say because I'm not good at expressing my feelings. awful: (infml; used to add force) very great; very bad or unpleasant Examples: I have got an awful lot of work to do. I can't bear the awful smell of cigarette smoke. 35. choke up: become too upset to speak Examples: When he learned the news of his friend's sudden death, he was so choked up he couldn't say a thing. Losing my job left me completely choked up; I was so upset that I didn't know what to say. 36. destination: the place to which sb. is going or being sent Examples: Singapore is still our most popular holiday destination. Only half of the emergency supplies have reached their destination because of the bad weather. 37. Skip: pass from (one point, etc.) to another, disregarding or failing to act on what comes between Examples: The teacher skipped chapter five and said it wouldn't be on the test. "As time is limited, we will have to skip some of the exercises in Unit 10, "said the teacher. 38. right away: (infrnl) at once Examples: Tom has got a high fever; he should go and see a doctor right away. I wrote him a letter and posted it right away. Unit 3 Understanding Science I． Suggested Teaching Plan Objectives Students will be able to： 1．understand the main idea(to ensure the survival of human civilization，measures must be taken to help the public understand science) and structure of the text (introducing a topic，developing the topic with supporting details，supplying a conclusion)； 2．appreciate the style differences between narrative writing and expository writing； 3．grasp the key language points and grammatical structures in the text； 4． conduct a series of reading， listening， and speaking， writing activities centered upon the theme of the unit Time allotment nd 4th period 1st period nd 2 period 5thth period 3rd period Pre—reading； While—reading While- Post-reading Check on。 While—reading (style，Part I) reading (debate；exercises) students’home (text structure) (Part II，Part III) reading(Text B)； Theme—related Language learning tasks LearningTasks Pre-reading tasks 1．T asks one or two Ss the following question to check if they have listened to the tape recording on Stephen Hawking： What makes Hawking’s achievement so remarkable?(Possible answer： The contrast between the strength of his mind and the weakness of his body．)(5 minutes) 2．Ss write down on a sheet of paper some of the scientific and technological discoveries that have changed or will change the way people live．When they finish，T may invite some of them to read out to the class ． writes down some discoveries on the blackboard． T (9 minutes) 3 Pointing at the discoveries noted down on the blackboard，T asks Ss： 一In what ways do these discoveries change our lives for the better? — i n w h a t w a ys d o t h e s e d i s c o v e r i e s c h a n g e o u r l i v e s f o r t h e w o r s e? (T may give an example：Television provides people with quick and easy access to information education．entertainment，etc．，but it also exposes children to violence，deprives families of time and the will to communicate with each other，etc..)(10 minutes) 4．T concludes by saying：The same scientific and technological discovery can bring us good things and bad things． According to Stephen Hawking， it’s author of this text， up to us to make changes head towards changing our lives for the better．If you turn to the Language Sense Enhancement section after this text，you will find a quotation that expresses the same idea： “People must understand that science is inherently neither a potential for good nor for evil． is It a potential to be harnessed by man to do his bidding．”(Glenn T．Seaborg)(3 minutes) While-reading tasks 1．Understanding text structure 1)T explains that this text would be the first piece of expository writing Ss encounter in Book One ． Exposition is the process of making a statement and then supporting it with evidence． T Then． draws Ss’ attention to Text Organization Exercise 1， where this text is divided into three parts and the last paragraph is identified as the conclusion． 2)T explains that in expository writing，the structure of a paragraph is usually similar to that of the text，i.e，the topic sentences are presented in the first or second sentences of a paragraph， followed by supporting details．T then asks Ss to glance quickly over the first and second sentences of the first four paragraphs，and answer the following questions： 一 Where is it best to divide Part I from Part II?(hint：Part II starts from Para.4．) 一 Where in Part I does Hawking present his view?(hint：in Para．3， “…the public needs to have a basic understanding of science，so that it can make informed decisions and not leave them in the hands of experts． ”) —Where does Hawking raise a question about how to give the public a basic understanding of science?(hint：first sentence of Para．4)(20 minutes) 2．The style differences between narration and exposition 1)T draws the following table on the blackboard，explains some concepts in it that may be difficult to Ss，then asks them to fill it in by comparing the first 10 lines of both All the Cabbie Had Was a Letter and Public Attitudes Toward Science： Text A paragraph Sentence simple or any passive any dialogue? any 3rd- length length compound voice? person sentences? narrator Unit2 shorter shorter simple no yes no Unit3 longer longer compound yes no yes 2)T sums up the major style differences between narrative and expository writings，then stresses the importance of applying different styles for different contexts．(see Text Analysis)(1 5 minutes) 3．T explains the language points in Part I and gives Ss practice．(see Language Study)(25 minutes) 4. T asks Ss the following two questions： 一 In your own words，explain what Hawking means by saying that“the public is in two minds about science” ．(hint：The public is interested in the improvements of life brought by science, but it also fears that scientists may also cause it harm．) 一 What does“this interest”in line 33 refer to?(hint：the public’s interest in science)(8 minutes) 5.T explains the language points in Part II and gives Ss practice ． (see Language Study)(25minutes) Ss do Text Organization Exercise 2．T then draws their attention to the structure of this part， which goes again，like that of the whole text，from introducing a topic(What can be done to give the public the scientific background it needs to make informed decisions on science?)to giving supporting details(as shown by Text Organization Exercise 2，there are 3)．(1 0 minutes) T wraps up by guiding Ss through Part III．(5 minutes) Post-reading tasks 1．Debate：Should cloning(克隆)of human beings be banned? 1)Ss are divided into two groups，each assigned a position either for or against human cloning； 2)Each group brainstorm to find out arguments in their favor，and propose counter—arguments against what the opposite side might bring up； 3)Ss debate．(20 minutes) 2．T guides Ss through several after-text exercises．(20 minutes) 3．T checks on Ss’home reading(Text B)．(3 minutes) 4．Ss do Part IV：Theme—related Language Learning Tasks(1 period) 5．T asks Ss to prepare the next unit： 1)do the pre-reading task： 2)preview Text A．(2 minutes) II．Text Analysis This text is the first piece of expository writing in our textbook series，therefore it IS important to note the style differences between narration and exposition．Expository writings usually employ longer paragraphs in which there are longer and more involved sentences．Simply glance over the first page of Text A，Unit 2 and the first page of Text A，Unit 3，and you will see the latter is more closely packed than the former．For the purpose of objectivity，third—person narration is often adopted in exposition．Meanwhile，sentences in the passive voice appear regularly． A typical piece of expository writing begins with a statement of opinion， then goes on to give supporting details． this text， opinion is advanced in Para． i． ， public need education In an 3， e． the in science so as to make informed decisions on their own fate．In the following paragraphs the author details the ways to educate the public．In the last paragraph a conclusion is supplied—— human civilization will survive if the public understand science well． if we Interestingly， we look closer at Part II of this text， will find it to be a mini—exposition， its topic being how to educate the public in science．Afterwards three concrete solutions are proposed． They are：science education in schools，replacing equations with words and diagrams， and making use of popular media such as newspapers，magazines and above all TV． III．Cultural Notes 1．Stephen Hawking(1942 一)： British scientist who has greatly influenced people’s ideas on the a origins of the universe．He has devoted much of his life to probing the space—time described by general relativity and the singularities where it breaks down．And he’s done most of his work while confined to a wheelchair, brought on by the progressive neurological disease．Hawking is the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge，a post once held by Isaac Newton． In the late 1 960s，Hawking proved that if general relativity is true and the universe is expanding．a singularity must have occurred at the birth of the universe．In 1 974 he first recognized a truly remarkable property of black holes，objects from which nothing was supposed to be able to escape．He has written the international bestseller A Brief History of Time．The book spent more than four years on the London Sunday Times bestseller list。 ——the longest run for any book in history． 2．Frankenstein：a novel(1818)by an English writer Mary Shelley(1797—1851)．It is the story of a Swiss scientist， Dr． Frankenstein， who makes a living creature from pieces of dead bodies． The creature is like a man，but stronger, and although it is gentle at first，it later attacks and kills several people close to Frankenstein．There have been many films based on the story and variations of it：Everybody was dressed up as a ghost, a vampire or Frankenstein’s monster. 3．The Sky at Night：a popular British television program about the stars and planets, broadcast every month by the BBC since 1 957．It is well known for the way in which its presenter, Patrick Moore，gives scientific information in an entertaining way． 4．Albert Einstein(1879—1955)：a physicist，born in Germany，who was possibly the greatest In scientist of the 20th century． I 905 he published his theory of relativity． This led to the equation giving the relationship between mass and energy，E=mc2： ，which is the basis of atomic energy． Einstein suggested how it could be used for making weapons，but after World War 11 he spoke publicly against nuclear weapons．By I 9 1 7，he had become famous all over the world．He was given the Nobel Prize for physics in 1 92 1．When Hitler came to power, Einstein，who was Jewish， went to live in the US。becoming a US citizen in 1940．In 1933 he wrote a book called Why War? He and with Sigmund Freud． became a professor at Princeton University in I 934， he spent the rest of his life looking，without success，for a theory that combined those of gravitation and electromagnetism．In 1 952 he was offered the presidency of the state of Israel，but did not accept it． IV．Language Study 1．attitude：manner or way one thinks about，behaves toward，or feels toward sb．or sth．(usu. followed by to／towards) ． Examples：The boy has a bad attitude towards his schoolwork． His son’s attitude to work made him angry． 2． 1) ， 1ikely： probable(When functioning as an a． the word is often used in the following patterns: it is likely that…．Be likely to do sth．) Examples：It is likely that my roommate will win the first—class scholarship． An earthquake is likely to strike the area in a year or two· Economists say that the quick economic growth is likely to continue throughout the 2010s． ， 2) probably(When used as an ad． the word is often preceded by most”“ “more than” ， ， or “very” ．You don’t use it as an ad．on its own．) Examples：It is reported that another sandstorm will very likely come in the next 24 hours. We will most likely stay home during the Spring Festival． do 3． without： manage to survive， or you continue， succeed although you do not have sth． need， want，or usu．have Examples：You’ll have to do without your dinner if you don’t get back in time. I can’t afford a car, so 1 guess I’ll have to do without． 4．highly：I)very Examples：Mr．Smith was a highly successful salesman． It seems highly likely that she will take the job． 2) to a high level or standard ． Examples：Most of the people present at the meeting are highly educated women. The chairman of the department was the most highly paid member of faculty． 5．anyway：(used to change the subject of a conversation or to support an idea or argument )anyhow Examples: 一“l’ve got a terrible cold． ” 一“Have you? Oh．dear．Anyway, so you’re not going to go away this weekend?” We ought to spend less on the defence missiles，which I think are pretty useless anyway· 6．Put/ turn the clock back：return to a situation that used to exist，usually because the present situation is unpleasant The Examples： employment bill in which women are not allowed to take jobs will put the clock back fifty years． Forget all about it and look to the future；you can’t turn the clock back． 7．cut off：stop providing(sth．) Examples：Water and electricity supplies in the city have been cut off because of the American air attacks． Their phone has been cut off because they haven’t paid the bill． 8．bring about：make(sth．) happen Examples Some educators are hoping to bring about major changes in the educational system． Jealousy in a relationship is often brought about by a lack of trust . 9．moreover：in addition to what has been said；further；besides Examples: Local people would like a new road．Moreover, there are good economic reasons for building one． She saw that there was a mall immediately behind her．Moreover he was observing her strangely． 10．inquire：seek information by questioning；ask(also spelled“enquire” ；sometimes followed by about or wh—clause) “Is Examples： something wrong?”he inquired． I rang up to inquire about train times， He asked for his key and inquired whether there had been any messages for him． 11…．and human initiative and inventiveness are such that even this wouldn’t succeed． ： As human initiative and inventiveness do exist． even this way to suppress anything new worldwide would fail． such…that：(formal or literary)used to give a reason or explanation for sth． Examples：The nature of the job was such that he felt obliged to tell no one about it. His manner was such that he would offend everyone he met． initiative：1)the ability to make decisions and take action without waiting for sb. to tell you what to do Examples：I wish my son would show a bit more initiative． The workers age able to solve the problems on their own initiative． 2) used in the phrase“take the initiative” ：be the first person to take action to improve a situation or relationship，esp．when other people are waiting for sb. Else to do sth． Examples：Why don’t you take the initiative and arrange a meeting? Don’t stand around waiting for someone else to take the initiative． 12．slow down：become slower，or make sb．or sth．slower Examples：It seems likely that the economy will slow down over the next twelve months． There is no cure for the disease，although drugs can slow down its rate of development． The driver slowed the bus down when he saw a boy standing in the road． 13．rate：1) the speed at which sth. happens over a period of time Examples：The rate at which hair grows can be very slow． The world’s forests are disappearing at an even faster rate than experts had thought． 2)a certain amount of one thing considered in relation to a unit of another thing Examples：Britain held the record of having the highest divorce rate in Europe． Businesses are closing all over that country at a rate of fifty a week． 14．ensure：make sure(followed by a n．or that-clause) Examples：This new treaty will ensure peace． Come early to ensure that you get a seat． 15．informed：having or showing knowledge Examples：Science is now enabling US to make more informed choices about how we use common drugs． According to informed sources，he has been enrolled by Harvard University． inform：tell(used in the patterns：inform sb．Of/about sth． ，inform sb．+that-clause，inform sb． It is a fairly formal word．In conversation you usually use tell．) Examples：They informed US of their arrival at Pudong Airport． Have you informed the police that there’s been an accident? “I just added a little soy sauce，”he informed US． 16．At the moment．the public is in two minds about science． ：Now the public can’t decide whether they need science or not． at the moment：now，at the present moment Examples：I’m rather busy at the moment；could I call you back? At the moment，no one is talking to me． in two minds(about sth．)：unable to decide whether or not you want sth．or want to do sth． Example：I think she’s in two minds about whether to accept his present or not． 17．steady：1)constant Examples：The government’S policies have brought a period of steady economic growth with falling unemployment． There has been a steady improvement in her condition． 2)firm Examples：一“That ladder doesn’t look very safe．’ ’ 一“Oh well．it is steady as a rock． ’ Keep the camera steady while you take a picture． 18．It is also an important element behind support for the Green parties． ：The public’s distrust of science is also an important factor leading to support for the political parties whose main concern is to protect the environment． 19．audience：1)a group of people who watch and listen to sb．speaking or performing in public(used as a collective countable noun) Examples：The audience began clapping and cheering as soon as the film star appeared on the stage． The singer called for a member of the audience to join him on stage． 2) the people who read a writer’s books(used as a collective countable noun, usu．singular) Examples：His second book will attract a narrower audience，mainly teachers and college students． His book reached an even wider audience when it was filmed for television． 20． (pl． can basis： bases) 1)the facts or ideas from which sth． be developed； foundation(usu．Used as a singular noun，followed by for or of ) Examples：The video will provide a basis for class discussion． The research will form the basis of a book． 2) the circumstance that provides a reason for some action or opinion(usu. followed by of or that-clause) Examples：You must stay at home，on the basis of the medical reports we have received． on to Students are able， the basis of experience， choose which subjects to specialize in． On the basis that recognizing the problem is halfway to a solution，we should pay much attention to his comments． 21．1ie in：exist or be found in sth． Examples：His skill lies in his ability to communicate quite complicated ideas． The play’s interest lies in the questions it raises about marriage． 22．But in schools science is often presented in a dry and uninteresting manner． ：But in schools science is often taught in a dull and uninteresting way． 23．in terms of：as regards (sth.)：expressed as (sth．) Examples：In terms of salary, the job is terrible． In terms of customer satisfaction，the policy carn’t be criticized． The figures are expressed in terms of a percentage． 24．brief：1)using few words；concise Examples：The teacher of English told the students to write a brief description of a typical problem they had recently met with． Patrick gave a brief summary of the last night’s events． 2)lasting or taking a short time Examples：This time their visit to Beijing is brief． My brother once made a brief appearance on television． 25．accurate：exact Examples：On the whole the program provided an accurate picture of the effect of AIDS． You were pretty accurate in your calculations． ：If 26．Maybe 1 would have sold twice US many copies without it． my popular book had not included Einstein’s equation，maybe 1 would have sold twice as many copies． 27．tend：be likely to happen or have a particular characteristic or effect Examples：Some people tend to get up later at weekends． The old couple tend to buy cheap processed foods like canned chicken． The school bus tends to be early on Monday mornings． 28．In the form of：1) having the shape of Examples：The lane was in the form of a big “S”． The trees were laid out in the form of the figure eight． 2) existing in a particular form Examples：They received a benefit in the form of a tax reduction． 29．precise：exact Examples：We will never know the precise details of his death． The precise location of the air crash was established yesterday． 30．grasp：understanding Examples：Applied mathematics was beyond the grasp of most of her students． She has a good grasp of the English language． 31．sufficient：as much as is needed，enough(often followed by for or to+infinitive) Examples：一“Can you lend me some money for the journey?” 一“Yes, will $100 be sufficient?” There was not sufficient evidence to prove that he was guilty． His income is sufficient to keep him comfortable． There is sufficient food for everyone． 32．convey：make(ideas，feelings，etc．)known to another Examples：Their bright eyes and smiling faces conveyed the impression that they were very excited． Words cannot convey how delighted I am that you’11 come and spend the weekend with US． 33．put across：cause to be understood Examples：Good teachers are the ones who are able to put things across well． The government needs to put across the message that the economy is starting to recover． 34．proportion：1)a part of a group or an amount(usu. singular) Example：A large proportion of the city’s population is aged over 50 2)the relationship between the amounts，numbers，or sizes of different things that go together to form a whole(USU．singular) Examples：The proportion of men to women in the medical profession has changed in recent years. A large proportion of the dolphins in that area will eventually die because of the water pollution. 35．Only television can reach a truly mass audience． ：Unlike popular books and magazine articles，television science programs have a really large audience 36．Fit into：be part of a situation system, or plan Examples：The new college courses fit into a national education plan College English videos are designed to fit into the syllabus 37．educate：teach or train Examples：How can our children be educated if schools are not properly funded? The organization launched a campaign to educate teenagers about the dangers of smoking 38．entertain：1)give pleasure to Examples：Children’s television programs not only entertain but also teach. He entertained his friends with stories from his childhood 2)have as a guest Examples：According to the school regulations，women students are not allowed to entertain men in their rooms. My husband is in the kitchen；we are entertaining the Smiths this evening. 39．…hence the sick joke that…：therefore the sick joke spreads that sick joke：sick Jokes deal with death and suffering in a cruel and unpleasant way. hence ： 1)as a result ， therefore(a formal use ， followed by a clause ／ noun group ／ a./ad．/prepositional phrase) Examples：He’s an extremely private person；hence his reluctance to give interviews It was a steep and difficult route and hence not too popular with walkers The trade imbalance is likely to rise again in the 2000s. Hence a new set of policy actions will be required soon The Democratic Party was divided and hence very weak 2)from this time Examples：I don’t know where 1 will be six months hence The annual conference of APEC will be held in Shanghai seven months hence 40．contact：get in touch with Examples：Feel free to contact me if you need my help. I will contact the Tourist Information Bureau for further details． Unit 4 American Dream I． Suggested Teaching Plan 0bjectives Students will be able to： 1．understand the main idea(Tony Trivisonno realized his American Dream through his own efforts) and structure of the text(one part telling the story of Tony’s life and the other giving the author’S comments on it)： 2. learn to describe a person by his／her characteristic features, together with supposing details which demonstrate the features； 3．grasp the key language points and grammatical structures in the text； 4· conduct a series of reading， listening，speaking and writing activities centered upon the theme of the unit． Time allotment 1st period 2nd period 3rd period 4th period 5th period Pre— While— While— While— Check on reading； reading reading reading(description students’home While— s of reading( reading physical Text B)： (text appearance) Theme—related organization Language Learning Tasks organization) Pre-reading tasks 1．T asks several Ss the following questions to check if they have listened to the taped interview with Dr．Hertz： 一 What did American Dream mean to Dr． It Hertz’s grandparents? (hint： first meant getting out of poverty；later it meant the chance for their children to succeed．) 一 Why does Dr. Hertz say that the American Dream is in one’s head and in one’ pocket?(hint： s It is in one’s head because one wants to live as well as or better than others；it is in one’s pocket because one has to keep on spending money so as to have things other people have．)(5 minutes) 2．Ss do Cloze B in after-text exercises to have a better understanding of the American Dream； when they finish，T and Ss will discuss what they have filled in those blanks．(1 5 minutes) 3．Based on the above two activities，T asks Ss’opinions on the essence of the American Dream．(1 0 minutes) 4．T sums up and leads into the text by saying：We’ve often heard about the American Dream， and by now we know it means the belief that everyone can succeed as long as he／she works hard enough．Of course，we must realize that here success is narrowly defined as financial success．In this unit you will read how such a dream came true．(5 minutes) While-reading tasks 1．A story narrated according to time sequence 1)Ss scan the text to circle all the time words，phrases or sentences in this text．(They are：one evening，The next two days, Summer passed into fall, The months passed, one day, A year or two passed, after about two years，Sometime later, Then，during the war, After he passed away．) By this they will see that the text is written according to time sequence． 2)T explains to Ss that Tony fulfilled his American Dream step by step，and that the time phrases serve as transitions between steps． 3)T draws Ss’attention to Text Organization Exercise 2．Here they will see that，between the first time phrase 一“one evening’’一 and the time sentence 一“Summer passed into fall” ．Tony took the first step by working as a help at Mr．Crawford’s house． 4)T lets Ss know that they are to complete Text Organization Exercise 2 as he／she goes through each step，which is similarly defined by the appearances of time phrases．(1 5 minutes) 2．T explains the language points from Line 1 to Line 26 and gives Ss practice．(see Language Study)(1 5 minutes) 3．Pairing：What does a gardener do? 1)T copies down the following two columns on the blackboard； A B to mow the garden to weed the yard to sweep the lawn to clean up any little tasks to take care of heavy objects to 1ift the Walks to fix things 2)Ss try to pair the verbs in Column A with objects in Column B．For some verbs．more than one collocation is possible．(Possible pairings：to mow the lawn，to weed the garden，to sweep the walks，to clean up the yard，to take care of any little tasks，to lift heavy objects，to fix things) 3)T stresses the importance of looking out for collocations in the course of reading．(10 minutes) T (see 4． explains the language points from Line 27 to Line 33 and gives them practice． Language Study)(7 minutes) Ss 5． sum up what Tony achieved during this time interval． (hint： Tony got a job clearing snow at Mr. Crawford’s factory．)(3 minutes) T (see 6． explains the language points from Line 34 to Line 43 and gives them practice． Language Study)(7 minutes) 7．Ss sum up what Tony achieved during this time interval．(hint：Tony learned to be a skilled worker．)(3 minutes) T (see 8． explains the language points from Line 44 to Line 58 and gives them practice． Language Study)(7 minutes) 9．Ss sum up what Tony achieved during this time interval．(hint：Tony bought a house with Mr．Crawford’s help．)(3 minutes) 1 0．T explains the language points from Line 59 to Line 76 and gives them practice．(see Language Study)(7 minutes) 1 1．Ss sum up what Tony achieved during this time interval．(hint：Tony bought a farm and sent for his family in Italy．)(3 minutes) 12．T explains the language points from Line 77 to Line 82 and gives them practice. (see Language Study)(7 minutes) Ss 13． sum up what Tony achieved during this time interval． (hint： Tony died， leaving his family a prosperous farm and his children educated．)(3 minutes) 14．T explains the language points of the remaining paragraphs and gives them practice．(see Language Study)(1 0 minutes) 1 5．Ss sum up the main idea of this section．(hint：Author’S reflections on the story of Tony)(5 minutes) 16．1)Ss scan the text again to find out all descriptions of Tony’s physical appearance. (They are: Line 3 He was about five-foot-seven or eight，and thin． Lines 59--60 He seemed to stand a little straighter．He was heavier．He has a look of confidence． Line 7 1 …neatly dressed) 2)T points out to Ss that a good writer only includes those details that will help get across his／ her points to the reader． The above—mentioned descriptions of Tony’s physical appearance， for example．show how Tony became more and more successful．(see Writing Strategy and Text Analysis)(5 minutes) Post-reading tasks 1．1)Ss read Writing Strategy and instructions for Theme-related Language Learning Tasks: 2)Ss read Lines 83—88 in text； 3)Ss work alone or in pairs to find out those details that illustrate Tony’s “vision, determination, self-control，optimism，self-respect and above all，integrity” ．(see Text Analysis) 4)Some Ss report their findings to the class．(1 5 minutes) 2．T guides Ss through several after-text exercises．(20 minutes) 3．T checks on Ss’home reading(Text B)．(3 minutes) 4．Ss do Part IV：Theme—related Language Learning Tasks．(1 period) 5．T asks Ss to prepare the next unit： 1)do the pre-reading task； 2)preview Text A．(2 minutes) II．Text Analysis This text，like Text A in Unit 1, employs time words and phrases in narration．Time words and phrases serve as transitional devices by which an author switches from one event to another．The latter event may take place either before or after the former, which allows all author freedom in For narration． example， Text A in Unit 1 thus becomes a piece of narration interspersed with flash —backs(插叙)． another example， author of this text is able to keep his narration concise by For the S simply recounting Tony’ steps toward SUCCESS， since the time phrases make it unnecessary to squeeze in too many details about how he succeeded during each step． However, we are not saying that details are unimportant．Those details vital to the story development are carefully inserted into the text．For example，why is Tony’s faulty English ‘I sentence‘ mow your lawn” repeated four times? That’s because it shows Tony’s determination in finding a job, and his optimistic view that people would help a man who needed a job． Besides，does the author himself ever make a statement claiming Tony to be a good worker? ， No．He makes you infer from other people’s compliments(e．g．“my wife said he was very helpful” ：the personnel department “said Tony was a very good worker'’“I got a report that he ： had graduated as a skilled grinder'’ ；when Tony died，people found“the farm green with the vegetables， little house livable and homey． There were a tractor and a good ear in the yard．The children were educated and working，and Tony didn’t owe a cent． ”) Or consider the three instances where Tony’s physical appearance is described．They present an increasingly well-to-do Tony．Or, have you noticed that Tony had remained standing when he talked to Mr. Crawford until in Line 65 “We sat down and talked”? Tony’s social status improved enough to allow him to sit down with Mr．Crawford． III．Cultural Notes 1． the American Dream： belief of Americans that their country offers opportunities for a good and For the successful life． minorities and immigrants， dream also includes freedom and equal rights． 2．Immigrants：Apart from “Native Americans”一 Indians—who were living in North America when people first arrived there from Europe ． all Americans have ancestors who were In immigrants． the US the word immigrant is often used with a positive meaning． People are proud to say that their ancestors were immigrants who came with very 1ittle and built a better life for themselves． Most Americans have a clear idea of what life was 1ike for the immigrants：they left home because they were poor and thought they would have better opportunities in the US．For them the American dream was that talent and hard work could take them from 1og cabin to White House． Once in the US, 1ife was not easy． Many immigrants had to work for little money in factories where conditions were hard and dangerous and lived in crowded buildings．But slowly they improved their lives and many wrote home to encourage others to come． 3．Depression days：the period of severe economic failure in most countries of the world that lasted from 1929 until World War II．It began in the US when the New York Stock Exchange fell on 29 October 1929, known as Black Tuesday．Many businesses and banks failed and millions of people lost their jobs．President Franklin D．Roosevelt improved the situation with his New Deal policy，but the Great Depression was only ended by industrial production for the War． IV. Language Study 1.…hard to comprehend his broken English： If someone talks in broken English，they speak slowly and make a lot of mistakes because they only know a little of the language． 2 turn away：refuse to help(sb．)or to allow(sb．)to enter a place Examples：He’s my son after all，I can’t just turn him away when he is in trouble． The lecture hall was already full and many of the students were turned away． 3．work out：plan；solve；calculate Examples： “How will you keep in touch with me?” “We haven’t work that out yet． ” Finally 1 worked out that the parcel had been sent to Paris by mistake． My mother allowed me to take the trip，but asked me to work out the total cost first． 4．weekly：happening once a week or every week Examples：United Airline offers twice a week flights to Thailand． His story was published in a weekly newspaper 21st Century English． 5．clean up：make clean and tidy Examples：I’ll go shopping with you as soon as l’ve cleaned up the kitchen I hate cleaning up after a party． 6. helpful：useful in making a situation better or easier；always willing to help people Examples: Sometimes it is helpful to make a list of everything you have to do． Any information would be helpful in determining what happened to her． She is such a pleasant and helpful child． 7．do with：(used in questions with what)deal with Examples：What do you do with such rude boys? What are we going to do with the huge rock lying in the middle of the road? the 8. determination： ability to continue trying to achieve what you have decided to do even when this is difficult(uncountable noun，often followed by infinitive to) Examples：He showed great determination by continuing to play after hurting his foot． Her determination to do well made her keep on studying． 9．personnel： 1)the department in a large company or organization that deals with employees, keeps their records，and helps with any problem they might have；human resources(uncountable noun， used with a singular or plural verb) Examples: Personnel has／have received your application form． Her first job after graduation was in Personnel at Microsoft． 2)a11 the persons working in an organization，in the army, etc．(used with a plural verb) Examples: All personnel in this company are entitled to medical insurance． A modem army needs highly skilled personnel． 10. capacity：the ability to understand or do sth. (often followed by for or infinitive to) Examples: Not everyone has a capacity for languages． Those math problems were beyond my capacity． I don’t think it’s within a five-year-old boy’s capacity to spread computer viruses. 11．turn down：refuse Examples：He was offered the job but he turned it down because it involved too much traveling． Look, I am offering you a free meal—you are surely not going to turn me down， 12．Tony took a cut in pay to become an apprentice． ：Tony had his pay reduced in order to be an apprentice． 13．skilled：having skill；needing skill(often followed by in or at) Examples：The IT(information technology)industry demands skilled labor． The personnel manager is pressing for skilled workers· She was skilled in dealing with all sorts of people． 14. My wife and I were delighted with what we felt was a satisfying end of the story． ：My and wife and 1 were delighted with what Tony had achieved， thought that the whole thing had thus been settled． 15．For sale：available to be bought Examples：Reluctantly my parents put a“For Sale”sign on the house. Her former home is for sale at $495，000． 16．wreck：sth．such as a ship，Car, plane，or building which has been destroyed，usu. in an accident Examples：We thought of buying the house as a wreck，doing it up, then selling it. The wreck of the plane could be clearly seen on the hillside． 17．Call on：visit sb．for a short time Examples：I'd like to call on my former professor while I am on business in Beijing. He wanted to call on his girlfriend after work，and then go to see a movie with her. 18．loan：lend(sth．) Examples：He had kindly offered to loan me all the books required for the examination. Our school library loans books，CDs and videotapes． n．1)a sum of money that you borrow Examples：The president wants to make it easier for small businesses to get bank loan。 I am trying to get a loan from the bank to buy a house. 2) the act of lending(used in singular，followed by of Examples：I asked him for a loan of his car to have a short trip with my family. He is in need of a loan of the reference books for a few days· 19．character：the particular collection of qualities that make sb．a particular kind of person Examples：The chief flaw in her character was impatience． How can he beat his wife? I’ve never seen that cruel side of his character． 20 down payment：an initial amount given as partial payment at the time of purchase (If you make a down payment on sth., you pay only a percentage of the total cost when you buy it．You pay the remaining amount later．) 21．discard：(formal) throw away Examples： I’m going to discard those magazines if you’ve finished reading them． These potatoes are past their best—I’d better discard them． 22.confidence：the quality of being certain of your abilities or of trusting other people，plans，or the future(followed by in or infinitive to) Examples：He would be a better speaker if he had more confidence． I have every confidence in you．You can make a great success． Good training will give a beginner the confidence to enjoy skiing． 23．amaze：surprise(sb．)very much Examples：Dave amazed his friends by suddenly getting married． It amazed me that you would believe those lies． It amazed me to discover how long the dinosaur age lasted． 24．diet：food and drink usu．taken by a person or group Examples：Most people don’t have enough fiber in their diet． Poor diet and too much smoking will seriously damage the health of your hair． Nowadays many people prefer a healthy diet rich in fruit and vegetables． 25．Send for：ask for the arrival of Examples：Don’t worry about your son，I have sent for the doctor He sent for his parents to attend the graduation ceremony at Harvard． 26. hunt：I)search thoroughly(followed by for) Examples：They were hunting the area for a new house． Many college students start hunting for a job in the fourth year． We have been hunting all over town for the right carpet． 2)chase and kill wild animals for food or as a sport Examples：They had gone up the hill to hunt deer． At one time man had to hunt to survive． 27．abandon：give up completely or forever Examples：My Car broke down and I had to abandon it on the main road． The young couple abandoned their daughter hoping that they would give birth to a boy． As the plane was badly damaged，the pilot had to abandon it． 28．property：1)land，buildings or both together Examples：With more and more people purchasing houses，property prices have been on the rise． ‘ A lot of property in the city center was destroyed in the war． 2)the thing or things that sb．owns Examples：Policemen searched the criminal’s home and found weapons and stolen property in the basement． That’s my personal property! Leave it alone 1 29．sometime：at a time in the past or future that is unknown or has not yet been fixed Examples：He saw her at the airport sometime last week． Can I come and see you sometime? (Don’t confuse sometime with sometimes which means“on certain occasions， rather than all the time” ． 30． sponsor： support(a person， organization or activity)by giving money, encouragement or other help Examples：The old couple sponsored the young man who wanted to study in the United States for a year． The soccer team is sponsored by Coco-Cola，so the players wear the letters Coco-Cola on their shirts． The 4th Foreign Languages and Culture Festival was sponsored by Oxford University Press． 31．amuse：cause to laugh or smile；cause to spend time in a pleasant manner Examples：The computer games amused the children for hours． The kids amused themselves playing hide—and—seek． He thought of various activities that might amuse the children till bedtime． 32．approach：come near(er) to Examples：As they approached the wood，a rabbit ran out of the trees． If you look out of the window on the right of the bus，you’11 see that we’re now approaching the Oriental Pearl TV Tower． 33．pass away：die(You can say that sb．passed away if you want to avoid using the word die because you think it too blunt．) Examples：The old lady passed away peacefully in her sleep． The teenager has lived on his own since his parents passed away four years ago． 34．handle：manage，control Examples：She couldn’t handle the pressures of her new job．She had to quit it． The students handle the conversation in the Chinese way even though they speak English． 35. He grew in stature in my mind：He grew taller and greater in my mind． 36．above all：most important of all ， Examples：John is fair, hardworking，and above a11, honest． I won’t go with you，because it's too far, too late，and above all，too dangerous． 37．Tony did not begin on the bottom rung of the ladder．He began in the basement． ：Tony had nothing when he arrived in the United States and he built up from nothing． 38．But，after all，the balance sheets were exactly the same． ：But after a11，what Tony and the greatest industrialists achieved was exactly the same． 39. create：produce or make(esp．sth．new) Examples：Hawking created a new theory of the universe． The Bible says that God created the world． Unit 5 A Valentine Story I. Suggested Teaching Plan Objectives Students will be able to: 1. grasp the main idea (the nature of a heart is seen in its response to the unattractive) and structure of the text; 2. appreciate the narrative skills demonstrated in the text (switch between tense, change of narrators), some rhetorical devices (simile and metaphor) and the use of information language in conversations; 3. master the key language points and grammatical structure in the text; 4. conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing actives related to the theme of the unit. Time allotment 1st period 2nd period 3rd period 4th period 5th period Pre-reading; While-reading While-reading While-reading Check on students’ While-reading (Parts II & III) (Parts III & IV; (Part IV); home (Text organization; Parts I and simile & Post-reading Reading(Text B); II) metaphor) Theme-related Language Learning Tasks Pre-reading tasks 1. T asks several Ss this question: ---- Have you listened to the song Valentine? Judging from the song, what is a valentine?(possible answer: a lover, one’s boy friend or girl friend) 2. Physical response: T writes down some verbal phrases from the text on cards, hands them to several students, then ask them to perform, either alone or in pairs, for the rest of the class to guess what the corresponding verbal phrases are: stand up from one’s seat straighten one’s clothes start toward somebody make one’s step closer to somebody stand directly behind somebody square one’s shoulders hold out a book to somebody grip a book While-reading tasks 1.Ss do Text Organization Exercise 1 in their textbook and compare their findings with fellow Ss. (5 minutes) 2.T draws Ss attention to Text Organization Exercise 2 and asks them to finish it while the class goes over each part. (5 minutes) 3. T explains language points in Part I and gives Ss practice. (5 minutes) 4. Change of narrator: The whole class reads aloud Paras. 2-6, replacing all 3rd-person pronouns. Make other changes where necessary. Or T could divide the class into 5 groups and each group will deal with one of the 5 paragraphs. (5 minutes) 5. T explains language points in Part II and gives Ss practice. (30 minutes) 6. Ss sum up the main idea of part II and write it down in Text Organization Exercise 2. (5 minutes) 7. Ss refer to Content Questions 7-11. While several Ss read aloud Part III, they will listen and try to find out answers to these questions. (12 minutes) 8. Ss from pairs to practice question-and-answer. Later T may ask some questions to repeat the exercise as a check. (8 minutes) 9. T explains language points in Part III and gives Ss practice. (30 minutes) 10. Simile and metaphor: T will explain the concepts of simile and metaphor and then read the following sentences for Ss to tell whether they are simile or metaphor: He is as brave as a lion. (simile) Her husband is a walking wallet that will pay for whatever she likes. (metaphor). Childhood is like a swiftly passing dream. (simile) He has a heart of stone. (metaphor). All the world is a stage, and all the men and women are merely players. (metaphor). The man sleeps like a baby. (simile) 11. Ss sum up the main idea of Part III and write it down in Text Organization Exercise 2. (5 minutes) 12. Ss come up with ways of paraphrasing the 2 sentences in Part IV: “ The true nature of a heart is seen in response to the unattractive.” -----The way one reacts to unattractive people reveals one’s character. AND “ Tell me whom you love, and I will tell you who you are.” -----I can judge you by the person you love. 13. 13. Ss sum up the main idea of Part IV and write it down in Text Organization Exercise 2. (5 minutes) Post-reading tasks 1. Dialogue: Ss from pairs and imagines they are John Blanchard and Hollis Maynell. By now they are married and recall their first meeting at Grand Center Station. The conversation might start like this: John: Hey, look what just fell out of this book.. Hollis: A rose! The rose I wore at out first meeting. John: And this is the book I held. It seems like only yesterday…. Two pairs will act out their dialogue for the whole class. (15 minutes) 2. T guides Ss through some after- text exercises in class. (16 minutes) 3. T checks on Ss’ home reading (Text B). (3minutes) 4. Ss do Part IV: Theme-related language Learning Tasks. (1 period) 5. T asks Ss to prepare the next unit: 1) do the pre-reading tasks; 2) preview Text A (2 minutes) II. Text Analysis In this text there are some examples of simile and metaphor. A simile is a comparison of one thing to another, using the words “like” or “as”, in e.g., “ her hair was black as night”; “ in her green suit she was like springtime come alive” (Para.7). A metaphor is a suggested but not stated comparison of one thing to another, e.g., “ while I spoke I felt choked by the bitterness of my disappointment” (Para.14). Notice also that the characters talk in a rather informal way. For example, “ Going my way, sailor?” is an incomplete sentence. Or see how the middle-aged woman spoke in Para. 15 --- “ son’, “go and tell” , “ some kind of” and so on are all casual. III. Cultural Notes Public libraries in the U.S: Public libraries in the U.S are free to the public. One can get a library card at the local library by filling in a form and showing the librarian a valid ID and something to prove that one lives in the neighborhood. Because borrowing books, people go to libraries to borrow videotapes, use the computers there, attend book readings by authors and other cultural events. Libraries are regarded as community centers . IV. Language Study （使）变平整 1. straighten: (v.) become straight or level （使）变直， *Women used to use a hot iron to straighten their hair. *The professor would straighten his tie before entering the classroom. 2. absorb: (vt.) (1) completely hold one’s attention 完全吸引住---的注意力 *I was so absorbed in the detective story that I jumped up when someone patted me on the back. (2) take in 吸收 *I haven’t really had time to absorb everything that my teacher said in class. 3. reflect: (vt.) be a sign of, show 反映，显示 *Election results should reflect people’s opinions. *Rising prices may reflect the rise in demand for these goods. 4. thoughtful: (v.) (showing that one is) thinking deeply 深思的，体贴的 *Something is disturbing our daughter for she has never before looked so thoughtful. *The more serious drama encouraged its audiences to become better informed and more thoughtful. 5. previous: (a.) happening or coming before or earlier 早先的，先前的 *Without previous experience in teaching my chances of getting the job will be slim. *She has two children from a previous marriage. 6. locate: (vt.) (1) find the exact location of 找到---的位置 *An X-ray will help locate where your ring has gone in your dog’s stomach. (2) fix or put in a certain place 坐落于 *Apartments located away from the main road usually fetch higher prices than those near the road. *The top fashion designer located his flagship store on Fifth Avenue in New York. 7. correspond: (vi.) exchange letters regularly 通信 *Even after becoming president, he still corresponds with his old friends personally instead of asking his secretary to do. 8. overseas: (a.) to or in another country 去（在）国外的，海外的 *Many universities in China have conducted research in cooperation with universities and institutions overseas. *Spring Festival is coming and many Chinese are planning to go traveling overseas. *We are going to build up overseas markets of our cars. 9. disgust: (vt.) cause a strong and often sick feeling of dislike 使厌恶，使反感 *The awful food at the hotel disgusted me. *The way they treat their children disgusts all the neighbors. 10. schedule: (vt.) arrange for sth. to happen or to be done at a particular time. 安排，排定 *A firework display is scheduled for New Year’s Eve. *They have scheduled Tom to make a speech at the meeting. (n.) a list or statement of things to be done 进度表，日程表 *The school schedule is made up of 12 weeks of classroom instruction and 12 weeks of work experience. *Secretaries are supposed to set up schedules for their bosses. 11. sustain: (vt.) support emotionally; keep (an effect) going, maintain 支持，持续下去，保持 *Although they had been trapped in the cave for two days, they were sustained by the knowledge that help would come soon. *The teacher tried hard to sustain the children’s interest in learn English. 12. slim: (a.) (1) slender 苗条的，细小的 *Good race dogs weigh around 50 pounds and have long legs and slim builds. *The slim-waisted girl over there is a rising film star. (2) small 微小的 *The chances of the Chinese Men’s Football Team winning the World Cup are slim. *The single mother supported her two kids with her slim waitress’s income. 13. delicate: (a.) fine; well-formed; soft; tender 精美的，柔软的，娇嫩的，精致的 *The winner in the contest will be awarded a delicate violin. *Only the gentlest creams are fit for a baby’s delicate skin. 14. thrust: (v.) push suddenly or with great strength 挤入，插入 *After quarrelling with her husband, Nora thrust a few personal things into a suitcase and left home. 15. split: (v.) (cause to ) break into two or more parts 裂开，破裂 *The U.S Department of Justice tries to split Microsoft into three separate companies. *The old man uses an axe to split the logs into firewood. 16. keen: (a.) (interest, feeling) strong, deep 强烈的，热烈的 *Barbara watched her husband dancing with the slim girl in red with keen jealousy. *She is out of hospital and keen to get back to work. *Two thirds of the women students in my class are keen on soccer. 17. glow: (n.) a warm light 光亮，光辉 *Her face was gentle in the soft glow of a bedside lamp. *A red glow in the western sky foretells rain on the following day. 18. identify: (vt.) recognize 识别，辨认 *Dead bodies in the air crash were identified by dental records. *The visiting scholar spoke English with such a perfect accent that was hard to identify his origin. （使）变宽 19. broaden: (v.) make or become broader （使）变大， *The road broadens once it has passed through the village. *The widespread use of computers has broadened the scope of our knowledge. Phrases 1. make one’s way: go 走去 *Early in the morning the hunter made his way into the woods. *The old man slowly rose from his seat and made his way to the front of the bus. 2. take a chance (on sth.): attempt to do sht. in spite of the possibility of failure; take a risk 碰 运气；冒险 *I haven’t booked a ticket. I’m taking a chance on the theatre not being full. *You take a chance on the weather if you spend your holiday in the UK. 3. go one’s way: go in sb.’s direction 朝某人走去 *I’m going your way. May I give you a ride? *I wasn’t sure whether he was going my way or not, so I decided to go home by myself. 4. more than a little: very 很，非常 *If you tell your father what you have done, he’ll be more than a little angry. *The child was more than a little excited to have Michael Jordan sign his T-shirt. 5. grateful to sb. for sth.: feeling or showing thanks to sb. because of sth. 因某事而感激某人 *I am grateful to you for introducing me around so that I no longer feel lonely in the new place. *The mother was grateful to the strangers for saving her child’s life. 6. in response to: in answer to 作为对---的回应 *Stock prices went down in response to the news of a possible oil crisis. Unit 6 What Animals Really Think I. Suggested Teaching Plan Objectives Students will be able to: 1. grasp the main idea (the nature of a heart is seen in its response to the unattractive) and structure of the text; 2. appreciate the narrative skills demonstrated in the text (switch between tense, change of narrators), some rhetorical devices (simile and metaphor) and the use of information language in conversations; 3. master the key language points and grammatical structure in the text; 4. conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing actives related to the theme of the unit. Time allotment 1st period 2nd period 3rd period 4th period 5th period Pre-reading; While-reading While-reading While-reading Check on students’ While-reading (Parts I & II) (Parts II & III) (Part III); home Reading(Text B); (Text organization) Post-reading(transitional Theme-related Devices; exercise) Language Learning Tasks Pre-reading tasks 1. T asks Ss the following two questions to check if they have listened to the tape recording: ---- How does Michael Jackson feel about Ben? Why? (hint: They are friends, because they find comfort in the company of each other. ) --- Is the song related to the theme of this unit----animal intelligence? How? (hint: Yes. If Ben is a friend, he thinks and feels like a human being. ) (6 minutes) 2. T elicits or offers a definition of intelligence: the power of perceiving, learning, understanding and knowing; mental ability. (2 minutes) 3. Ranking 1). T dictates the following names of animals to Ss: pig, hen, dog, dolphin, elephant, monkey, rat, parrot, cat, ant. 2). Ss from groups to rank those animals according to their intelligence, and get ready to explain the rationale behind the ranking. Ss may cite examples, anecdotes, personal experiences, scientific findings, ect. 3). T invites speakers from several groups to report to the class. (25 minutes) 4. T leads into the text by saying: As you all agree, animals do display intelligence in some areas. Let’s read the text and find out more examples of animal intelligence. (2 minutes) While-reading tasks 1. Ss read the instructions for Text Organization Exercise 2 to grasp the three-part structure of the text. T tells them that they will complete this exercise as they go through the text. (5 minutes) 2. T draws Ss’ attention to the three subheadings in the text, and explain the functions of headings: suggest to the reader the contents of each section; enhance the formal appearance of an essay; eliminate the need for wordy transitional devices between sections. (5 minutes) 3. T explains the key language points in Part I and gives Ss practice. (15 minutes) 4. Ss sum up the main idea of Part I, then T invites some of them to tell their summary to the class. (hint: some animals demonstrate intelligence when dealing with captivity and human beings.) (5 minutes) 5. T explains the key language points in Part II and give Ss practice. (40 minutes) 6. Ss sum up the main ideas of the parts under the three subheadings respectively, then T invites some of them to give their summary to the class.(hint: Let’s Make a Deal --- Some animals are intelligent enough to know bargain with people; Tale of Whale --- Animals like whales can assess a situation and act accordingly Primate Shell Game --- Animals can sometimes be tricky.) (15 minutes) 7. Ss read Writing Strategy in Part IV, and answer the following questions: ---- How many kinds of animals are mentioned in Part II? What are they? (hint: a gorilla, 3 orangutans, a killer whale) ---- Why does the author mention these animals in his article? (hint: to support his point advanced in Part I ) (5 minutes) 8. T explains the language points in part III and gives Ss practice. (10 minutes) 9. Ss sum up the main idea of Part III, then some of them report their summary to the class. (hint: Some animals are intelligent.) (5 minutes) Post-reading tasks 1. Besides headings, what are other ways of transition? 1). Ss answer the following questions: --- What does “it” in the first line of Para.4 refer to? (hint: the key chain held by Colo) --- What does “the problem” in the first line of Para. 10 refer to? (hint: The keeper couldn’t reach the baby whale to help it.) --- What does “ this whole trick” in the first line of para. 12 refer to?(hint: Melati deceived her keeper into giving her two oranges instead of one. ) 2). T points out that the use of anaphora (前指) is a common transitional device. 3). T introduces some other transitional devices used in this text. (5 minutes) 2. T guides Ss through some after-text exercises. (25 minutes) 3. T checks on Ss’ home reading (Text B). (3 minutes) 4. Ss do Part IV: Theme-related Language Learning Task. (Note: This activity is allotted less time than usual because Ss have already discussed some aspects of animal intelligence in Pre-reading Activities.) (35 minutes) 5. T asks Ss to prepare the next unit: 1). do the pre-reading task; 2). preview Text A. (2 minutes) II. Text Analysis As Ss will learn how to support a topic with examples by studying Writing Strategy in this unit, we are going to dwell upon this point here. Instead, we will focus on the various transitional devices employed in the text. Headings and subheadings provide natural transitions between paragraphs or sections. However, it doesn’t follow that any other transitional devices are not welcome. For example, the first sentence under the heading “ Let’s Make a Deal” begins with “ Consider the time…”. This actually introduces an example to illustrate the point made by the author in the introductory part of this article. Or consider the first sentence under the heading “ Tale of Whale”---“Why would an animal want to cooperate with a human?” Both the heading and the question direct readers’ attention to another demonstration of animal intelligence. The third heading and the sentence following it---“Sometimes evidence of intelligence can be seen in attempts to deceive”.--- function similarly Another common transitional device is the use of anaphora (前指) and cataphora (后指). The former is seen in the use of pronouns to refer to something, somebody or some event previously mentioned, the latter predicting something, somebody or some event that will soon be mentioned in the discourse. This text mainly employs anaphora. Besides, conjunctions also pave the way for a smooth transition of ideas. Take the first sentence of Para. 6 for example: “ Miles also tried to teach Chantek more virtuous habits such as saving and sharing.” The conjunction “also” connects this paragraph with the previous one. “ Such as” introduces a new example to be mentioned in the sentences to follow. In the beginning sentence of a new paragraph, one may also sum up the main idea of the previous paragraph or section, then go on to introduce the topic of the current paragraph. The first sentence of Para.5 ---“If an animal can show skill in trading one thing for another, why not in handling money?”---- is a good case in point. III. Cultural Notes 1. gorilla: the largest of the great apes. The male is heavily built and may stand 1.7 m in height, with an arm-spread of 2.4 m. it has a large head with a short neck, prominent mouth, thin lips, and small ears. The female is smaller than the male. This huge animal has formidable canine teeth, yet it feeds on fruit and vegetables and has no natural enemies. Most of the day is spent on the ground; they walk on all fours leaning on the knuckles of their hands, but occasionally up-right. 2. orangutan: a species of large ape related to chimpanzees, gorillas, and man. It is the largest fruit-eater in the world and is known to eat at least 200 species of fruit. The prominent flanges of fat at the side of the face are very striking in large adult males. The jaws project forward from the face, the eyebrow ridge is only slightly pronounced, and the eyes and ears are small. The coat is coarse, long and shaggy, especially over the shoulders and arms, where it may grow to 45 cm in length. And the arms and hands are extremely long. When extended the arms may span 2.4 m and their length is exaggerated because the standing height of the animal is only 1.4 m. 3. III. Language Study 1. intelligence: (n.) ability to learn and understand 智力 *Do computers have any intelligence? *Don’t act like such an idiot --- use your intelligence. Intelligent: (a.) 聪明的；有才智的 *Even if you are intelligent, you can’t be an excellent student without working hard. 2. controversy: (n.) a lot of discussion and argument, often involving strong feelings 争论，争议 *A new controversy arose regarding the politician’s finances. *There is a heated controversy over the publishing of his book. 3. surround: (vt.) be or go all around 围绕，包围 *The village was surrounded by desert. *The shell surrounding the egg has many important functions. *The baby was sitting on the floor surrounded by toys. 4. explore: (vt.) (1) examine thoroughly, learn about 检查 *The repairman explored my car and said he would fix it tomorrow. (2) travel over (a region) for the purpose of discovery 探究， 探索 *Both adults and children find it exciting to explore space. *The man will explore the Sahara desert on foot. 5. reveal: (vt.) make (sth.) known 揭露，展示 *His research in cloning “Dolly” revealed some very important facts. *A survey of the Chinese diet has revealed that a growing number of children in cities are overweight. 6. convince: (vt.) make (sb.) feel sure by the use of argument or evidence 使确信，使信服 *We finally convinced the police of our innocence. *His parents managed to convince him that teaching was the most suitable profession for him. 7. negotiate: (vi.) discuss in order to come to an agreement 谈判，商议 *We will negotiate for a pay increase of 25%. *The government refused to negotiate with terrorists. *It is reported that the three companies were negotiating to share the market. 8. maintain: (vt.) continue to do or have (sth.) 保持，继续 *The taxi driver and his friend ED maintained their friendship for over 30 years. *The hotel staff showed determination to maintain high-quality service. *Microsoft intends to maintain its position as market leader. 9. relieve: (vt.) free (sb.) from pain, anxiety, etc.; ease (pain, etc.) 使减轻痛苦或焦虑 *Taking a part-time job would relieve you of the financial burden. *Drugs can relieve much of the pain. 10. undertake: (vt.) carry out; take upon oneself (a task) 从事，承担 *We’ll have to employ more staff if we are to undertake more work. *You should think very carefully before your undertake the responsibilities of a general manager. 11. extend: (v.) (1) stretch or reach 延伸，伸展 *The high-speed train service is planned to extend from Beijing to Shanghai. *Rain is expected to extend to all parts of the country by this evening. (2) make larger or longer 扩大，加长 *I would like to stay in France a bit longer, but I will need to extend my visa. *We’ve extended the kitchen to give us room for a dining area. 12. expand: (v.) grow larger (in size, number or amount) 扩展，扩大 *The air in the balloon expands when heated. *The population of the town expanded rapidly in the 1960. 13. switch: (v.) change; shift 转换，转变 *He used to play tennis, but now he’s switched to golf. *She started studying medicine at college, but switched to English in her second year. 14. envy: (vt.) (n.) wish that you had a quality or possession that another person has 嫉妒，羡慕 *He became a millionaire overnight. Many people envied him for his good luck. *I don’t envy you your trip in this bad weather. 15. cooperate: (vi.) act or work together 合作，协作 *Russia and the U.S. are cooperating in joint space ventures. *Aid agencies and the local government are cooperating to deliver supplies to the flooded area. *The New York City police cooperated with the force in Boston in catching the criminal. 16. assess: (vt.) judge the quality, importance or worth of 评估，估量 *The value of the diamond was assessed at $ 20,000. *It’s difficult to assess the effects of the use of multimedia in English teaching in one term. 17. judgment: (n.) (1) opinion about sth. 意见，看法 *In your judgment, what has caused the students’ failure in the examination? *The manager made an unfair judgment of his new secretary’s character. (2) the ability to form valuable opinions and make good decisions. 判断 *I respect my father’s judgment and I’ll follow any advice he gives me. *He was employed as manager of the Personnel Department because of his excellent judgment. 18. emergency: (n.) an unexpected and dangerous event which must be dealt with at once 紧 急情况，突发事件 *In an emergency, call 110. *The emergency services are the fire brigade, the police and the ambulance service. 19. release: (vt.) set free 释放 *Some animals in the zoo had been released from its cage. *He was released from prison after serving two years of a five-year sentence. 20. evidence: (n.) sth. that gives a reason for believing sth; trace 证据，迹象 *There is a lot of evidence that stress is partly responsible for disease. *Scientists haven’t found any evidence of life on other planets. *We don’t have enough evidence to prove him guilty. 21. deceive: (v.) try to make (sb.) believe sth. that is false 欺骗 *You deceived me, and I can’t forgive you. *They deceived the old man into signing the papers. 22. original: (a.) first or earliest 最初的，原始的 *The Indians were the original inhabitants of North America. *The land was returned to its original owner. 23. underneath: (prep.) under or below 在---下面，在---底下 *Tom wore a white vest underneath his shirt. *The bomb exploded underneath his car as he was preparing to leave home. 24. survive: (v.) (1) remain alive 继续存在，幸存 *A few were killed but most survived in the earthquake. *The baby was born with a problem with its heart and only survived for a few hours. (2) continue to live or exist after 幸免于 *She survived the accident. Phrases 1. make a deal: reach an agreement or arrangement, esp. in business or politics. 达成交易 *I’ll make a deal with you------you wash the car and I’ll let you use it tonight. *The car company has made a deal with a Japanese firm. 2. only to: it means sb did sth. with a disappointing or surprising result. 只是；仅仅 *He hurried to the railway station, only to find that the train had left. 3. figure out: understand; reason out 理解；推断出 *I can’t figure out why he quit his well-paid job to undertake such tedious work. *It took 2 hours to figure out how to start the new washing machine. 4. in one’s interest(s): for or to one’s advantage 为了某人的利益 *It would be in your interests to undertake the task although it’s difficult. *The local government has to abandon the plan for a new chemical plant because it is not in the public interest. 5. go far: help very much; achieve much success 帮助很大；很有成效 *Your suggestion will go far towards solving our present housing problem. *Jane’s a very talented writer------she’ll go far. 6. at first: at the beginning 起先 *At first I thought that the shop was empty, then a man appeared from behind one of the counters. *Jack felt tired at first , but soon got used to the long working hours. 7. go wrong: stop developing well 有毛病；出故障 *Everything went wrong with my computer after I installed the new program. *I can’t watch the live opening ceremony of the World Cup because my TV set went wrong. 8. size up: carefully examine a situation or person in order to make a judgment 估量；判断 *I don’t like the way the sales assistants in that shop size you up as you walk through the door. *Some manufacturers have sized up some African countries as a possible market for their bicycles. 9. look sb. in the eye(s): look directly and steadily at sb. because you are not embarrassed or shamed. 直视 *I couldn’t look him in the eye, knowing that I had lost all that money. *Can you look me in the eye and say you didn’t break the window? 10. give in ( to sb. or sth.): admit a loss; surrender; yield 让步；屈服；投降 *The authorities showed no signs of giving in to the kidnappers’ demands. *The workers pressed the boss until he gave in and bettered the working conditions. 11. wipe out: get rid of or destroy 消灭；消除 *The bank agreed to wipe out their debts. *Whole villages were wiped out in the flood Unit7 Emergency I. Suggested Teaching Plan Objectives Students will be able to： 1. understand the main idea(Anthony Falzo saved two children in a courageous deed and structure of the text(three parts—what happened before, during and after the incident; 2. appreciate the advantages of specific words over general words; 3. grasp the key language points and grammatical structure in the text; 4. conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities centered upon the theme of the unit. Time allotment 1st period 2nd period 3rd period 4th period 5th period Pre-reading; While-reading (Text While-reading While-reading Check on While-reading Organization; Part I; (Part II and Part III) (Part III); students' home (Predictions) Part II) Post-reading reading (Text B); Theme-related Language Learning Tasks Pre-reading tasks 1. T asks several Ss the following questions to check if they have listened to the recorded poem: — How did the father understand courage at first? (hint: to have no fear of certain things) — What did courage mean to the father after the fire? (hint: to risk one's life for other people) (5 minutes) 2. 1) Before class, Ss are asked to collect stories, news reports, pictures, or even video clips (if relevant equipment is available for showing them in class) of courageous deeds. 2) In class, Ss form groups of three or four to share what they have collected. 3) Groups discuss what qualities are necessary for a person to handle emergencies successfully and why. They may support their points by citing what they have collected. 4) Speakers for several groups report their discussion results to the class. 5) T reminds Ss to keep these qualities in mind when they study the text, and see how many of them are embodied in Anthony Falzo. (25 minutes) While-reading tasks 1. Predictions 1) Ss read the title and the first paragraph, then answer the following questions: — Who might have uttered the exclamation "Kids on the Track"? (possible answers: Kate Prichard, a railway worker, a train engineer, a neighbor, a passer-by who saw the kids on the track, etc.) — Why does the author describe how Kate carried the groceries from her car to the house? (hint: She was so preoccupied with the task that she neglected her sons, which later caused the accident.) — Why does the author mention a train horn, Conrail, and the lack of a fence between the Prichards' yard and the railway? (hint: They foreshadowed the later accident.) ' — Why does the author include in the story the ages of Todd and Scott? (hint: That tells the reader they were too young to understand the importance of staying away from the railroad.) 2) T comments that the author skillfully includes in the first paragraph the above-mentioned hints of the story to be unfolded. 3) Ss read the last sentence of the story and get an idea of the importance of coherence, (see Text Analysis) (20 minutes) 2. Ss read the instructions for Text Organization Exercise 1 to learn the three-part structure of the text. They will complete this exercise as they go through the text. (5 minutes) 3. T explains the language points in Part I and gives Ss practice, (see Language Study) (20 minutes) 4. Ss sum up the main idea of part I, then some of them report their summary to the class. (5 minutes) 5. T explains the language points in Part II and gives Ss practice. It might be important to mention that 14 inches equal approximately 35 cm. During the process, pay special attention to the verbs that describe a succession of actions taken by Rich and Anthony. T may ask Ss what more general synonyms could replace those in the text. (see Language Study) (30 minutes) 6. Ss do the Usage Exercise and learn about the advantages of specific words over general ones. (15 minutes) 7. Ss sum up the main idea of Part II, then do Text Organization Exercise 2. They will compare their answers with each other. (15 minutes) 8. T explains the language points in Part III and gives them practice, (see Language Study) (5 minutes) 9. Ss sum up the main idea of Part III, then some of them report their summary to the class. (5 minutes) 10. Ss re-form groups, which are the same as those in Pre-reading Activities No. 2, to discuss the valuable qualities Anthony possessed. They must give examples to support their findings. (10 minutes) Post-reading tasks 1. 1) Ss re-read the first sentence of the text. Paragraphs 9-13, Paragraph 28, and answer the following questions: — Does the description of the weather have anything to do with the story? (hint: to form a contrast with the ugliness of the later accident) — Why is the small talk between Rich and Anthony relevant to the story? (hint: to form a contrast between the relaxed mood they were in and the tense scenes to come) — How do Scott and Kate's reactions to the accident compare with Anthony's? (hint: to highlight Anthony's cool-headedness) 2) T sums up by saying that sometimes a good story relies on comparison and contrast to play up the atmosphere, (see Text Analysis) (10 minutes) 2. T guides Ss through some other after-text exercises. (15 minutes) 3. T checks on Ss' home reading (Text B). (2 minutes) 4. Ss do Part IV: Theme-related Language Learning Tasks. (1 period) 5. T asks Ss to prepare the next unit: 1) do the pre-reading task; 2) preview Text A. (3 minutes) II. Text Analysis A good story-writer selects details carefully. He/She only includes those details that are vital to the theme. At first sight, some readers may wonder why the author bothers to give descriptions of the weather, of how Rich and Anthony made jokes about each other, of how after the accident Scott was jumping and crying, and of how Kate had delayed calling for help. But after closer inspections they will realize that those details are there to highlight the urgency of the accident and the level-headedness of Anthony. In the first part of the story the author tells us there was no fence separating the yard from the railroad. It is interesting to note that in the last paragraph, the author makes a special mention of the fact that there is now a fence separating the neighborhood from the railroad track. That provides a good example of coherence. III. Cultural Notes Emergencyservices: The emergency services are the public organizations whose job is to take quick action to deal with emergencies when they occur, especially the fire brigade, the police, and the ambulance service. The telephone number used in Britain for calling the police, fire or ambulance services in an emergency is 999 in Britain and 911 in the US. IV Language Study 1. struggle with: have difficulty handling or coping with Examples: She struggled with the math problem but eventually worked it out. We found the Smiths struggling with their car stuck in the mud. 2. nearby: ad. in the area close by Examples: Jack found a part-time job in the company nearby . All the towns nearby were crowded with tourists during the holiday. The man spoke softly to an old lady standing nearby. a. not far away Examples: This drug can be bought at your nearby pharmacy. We stopped at some nearby shops to pick up some food. 3. a thumbs-up gesture: This is a sign that you make by making a fist and raising your thumb to show that you agree with someone, that you are happy with an idea or situation, or that everything is all right. 4. draw one's attention to: make sb. aware of and be concerned about sth. Examples; The article was intended to draw the public's attention to environmental protection. My teacher drew my attention to an error in the term paper. 5. signal: send (sth. such as a warning or a message) by a light or an act Examples: The student raised his hand, signaling to the teacher that he had finished his paper. She signaled a passing taxi and asked him to take her to the railway station. 6. out of the way: at a distance from the usual route; in a state or condition so as not to hinder (used after a verb) Examples: Step out of the way and let me handle the stone. The house is well out of the way on the back road. 7. resume: begin (sth. or doing sth.) again after a pause Examples: The search for the missing pilot is expected to resume early today. We'll stop now and resume (working) at two o'clock. They stopped talking for a moment to see where the noise was coming from and then resumed their conversation. 8. mess around/about: (infml) spend time playing or doing things with no particular purpose Examples: He spends his weekends messing around in his boat on the Thames. The kids spent all day Sunday just messing around. 9. ... you'd better cool down.: ... you'd better stop spending so much time messing around. cool down: (cause to ) become calmer Examples: She is so angry now. Just leave her to cool down and then talk to her. The trial was postponed to allow the tension in the city to cool down. 10. spot: see or recognize Examples: Thank you for pointing out the error; I hadn't spotted it. He left the house seconds before smoke was spotted coming up the stairs. 11. instant: moment, a very brief period of time Examples: The alarm bells started ringing and at the same instant all the lights went off. The magician came to the stage with a bunch of flowers. And then, in an instant, the flowers turned into a bird. (the instant: as soon as Example: I tried phoning her the instant I got home. 12. pull on: take hold of (sth.) and pull (it) with strength Examples: The child pulled on his mother's coat wanting to leave. Sophia pulled on the rope, shouting "help." 13. with all one's strength: with all one's power Examples: With all his strength he removed the piano to the next room. She opened the door with all her strength and ran out of the house. 14. explode: burst with a loud noise 15. clear of: free from, not in contact with Examples; The plane climbed until it was clear of the clouds. The man kept clear of his wife after the argument. 16. scrape: push or drag (sth.) along a hard or rough surface Examples: George drove too close to the wall and scraped the car's wing. The only sound was that of knives and forks scraping against china. 17. punch: hit hard Examples: The young couple quarreled with each other. The wife punched her husband on the nose. He punched me hard in the stomach. 18. horror: great fear or shock Examples: The crowd breathed in horror as the spacecraft exploded. To her horror, she saw the boy fall from the ladder. 19. up and down: higher and lower Examples: When the Chinese women's football team defeated the American team, the crowd jumped up and down and screamed excitedly. My little daughter was jumping up and down on the sofa when I returned home from work. 20. injure: harm, hurt; damage Examples; A bomb exploded in a quiet street, injuring three people and killing one. The soccer game was very fierce. One of the players injured his knee and had to be carried off. (Collocation: be badly/seriously/critically injured Example; Two people were badly injured in a road accident.) 21. visible: that can be seen (often followed by to/from) Examples: These cells are not visible to the human eye. The TV tower is just visible from my bedroom window. 22. twist: 1) turn round; revolve Examples: The instant they left, he twisted to try and get free of the ropes. Matt twisted around to see who it was. I twisted round in my seat to speak to her. 2) bend sth. so as to spoil its natural shape Examples; His face was twisted with pain. The bus was so crowded that my body was twisted, my legs at an awkward angle. 23. via: by means of; by way of Examples; It's easy and quick to communicate with friends via email. Mr. Brake will return home via Britain and France. 24. internal: of or in the inside Examples: They have knocked down a couple of internal walls. So the sitting room looks larger. The X-rays showed that the victim of the car accident had no internal injuries. 25. incident: sth. that happens Examples: Some incidents in her childhood had a lasting impression on her. A 23-year-old man was seriously injured in a shooting incident which happened on Saturday night. 26. shelter: protect; cover (often used in the pattern shelter sb./sth. from) Examples: The female eagle sheltered her chicks with her wings. Plant herbs next to a wall to shelter them from the wind. (The word can also be used as a noun meaning something that gives protection. Examples; The city's bomb shelters were being prepared for possible air raids. The soldiers built a rough shelter of branches covered with leaves.) Unit 8 Coping with an Educational Problem I. Suggested Teaching Plan(5 periods) Objectives Students will be able to: 1. understand the main idea (teenagers' idleness and ignorance will seriously affect themselves and society in general) and structure of the text (two parts—the author's concern and his proposed remedy) ; 2. learn the way to write a cause-and-effect analysis; 3. grasp the key language points and grammatical structures in the text; 4. conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities centered on the theme of the unit. Time allotment 1st period 2nd period 3rd period 4th period 5th period Pre-reading; While-reading While-reading Post-reading Check on While-reading (Part I; Part II) (Part II) students' home (Fable; Part I) reading (Text B); Theme-related Language Learning Tasks Pre-reading tasks 1. T asks the following questions to check if the students have listened to the tape recording: — What was the riddle? (hint: Who is the person who has the same parents as I have but is neither my brother nor my sister?) — Why did the teacher ask his class this riddle? (hint: to make his class think and see how clearly they think) (5 minutes) 2. Group discussion 1) Ss are divided into three large groups. Each is assigned one of the following topics for discus- sion: — How has the United States developed into the sole superpower in the world? — How did Japan manage to rebuild itself after the devastation of WWII? — How will China grow into a prosperous and well-respected country? 2) Speakers for each group report their answers to the class. 3) T sums up by stressing that almost all groups mentioned the importance of education, which is closely related to the theme of this unit. (25 minutes) While-reading tasks 1. 1) T asks Ss the following questions: — What is a fable? (hint: short tales not based on facts and intended to give moral guidance) — Tell us the titles of some fables you know. (e.g. Aesop's Fables) — Do fables state the moral lessons directly or let the reader deduce? (hint: let the reader deduce) 2) Ss read the title of Text A and try to predict the possible consequences of laziness. 3) T leads in by saying: In the first part of this text, the author brings up a problem: idleness and ignorance among a great many U.S. teenagers. In the second part he offers a fable trying to teach a lesson. (10 minutes) 2. T explains the language points in Part I and gives Ss practice. (See Language Study) (20 minutes) 3. Ss review cataphoric referents by finding out: — The meaning of "that" in Para. 3. (hint: the author's doing mental arithmetic) — The meaning of "such an experience" in Para. 6. (hint: the salesgirl's ignorance) — The meaning of "this" in Para. 7. (hint: students' inability to perform even the simplest cal- culations) — The meaning of "all this ignorance" in Para. 8. (hint: students' inability to calculate, and their poor knowledge of world history or geography) — The meaning of "this young man" in Para. 9. (hint: a friend's bright, lazy 16-year-old son) — The meaning of "this message" in Para. 10. (hint: teenagers' ignorance leads to serious . consequences) (15 minutes) 4. Ss skim Part II to find out how many Kevin Hanleys there are in this part, and how they live. (hint: There are 7. — Kevin 1835, a poor peasant in Island; — Kevin 1928, a steel-mill worker in Pittsburgh, U.S.A. — Kevin 1945, a soldier fighting the Japanese army; — Kevin 1966, a student who studies all the time so as to get into college and law school; — Kevin 1990, a cleaner in a Japanese-owned factory; — Kevin 2020, a porter in a hotel for wealthy Europeans and Asians; — Kevin 2050, living in a slum and searching through trash piles for food.) (15 minutes) 5. T explains the language points in Part II and gives Ss practice, (see Language Study) (40 minutes) 6. Ss conclude the moral lesson from Part II. (hint: Education is key to success, while lack of it leads to serious consequences for both individuals and society as a whole.) (5 minutes) Post-reading tasks 1. T guides Ss through some after-text exercises. (30 minutes) 2. After reading Writing Strategy in Theme-related Language Learning Tasks, Ss work in pairs to finish Text Organization Exercise 2. (15 minutes) 3. T checks on Ss' home reading (Text B). (3 minutes) 4. Ss do Part IV: Theme-related Language Learning Tasks. (1 period) 5. T asks Ss to prepare the next unit: ., • ' ... 1) do the pre-reading task; 2) preview Text A. (2 minutes) II. Text Analysis There are three expository essays in this textbook: Units 3,6 and 8. By now students should be able to tell the different techniques used in expository writing. Unit 3 does not reveal the main topic until the third paragraph. In the first two paragraphs the author tries to guide readers through reasoning by which he arrives at his main argument. Unit 6 starts by posing a question — Do animals have intelligence, to which the author then gives a positive answer. Unit 8 begins with an anecdote. The main part of Unit 3 provides three solutions to the question of how to educate the public so as to form in them a positive attitude towards science. The main part of Unit 6 provides three examples to prove that some animals are intelligent. The main part of Unit 8 is a fable, which functions to convey the message that education is vital to both the individual and society. The last paragraph of both Unit 3 and Unit 6 presents a conclusion. The final part of Unit 8 does not. III. Cultural Notes 1. U.C.L.A.: (University of California at Los Angeles) the largest of the eight branches of the University of California. It was established in 1919 and now has about 35,000 students. UCLA is known especially for its film studies. 2. The Wealth of Nations: an important work of economic and social theory by Adam Smith (a Scottish philosopher and economist), published in 1776. Its full title was An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. In it he analyzed the relationship between work and the production of a nation's wealth. His conclusion was that the best economic situation results from encouraging free enterprise (an economic system in which there is open competition in business and trade, and no government control). This idea has had a great influence on economic theories since and it formed the basis of the economic policies of the Conservative government in Britain in the 1980s. IV Language Study 1. run out of: use up or finish a supply of (sth.) Examples; To our disappointment, our car ran out of gas halfway home. When they ran out of food, the soldiers set about hunting for more. 2. handful: a small number (used as singular noun, followed by of) Examples: You'd better hurry up. A handful of people are already waiting in the hall. I have to give up the plan because only a handful of students are willing to spend the New Year's Eve on campus. 3. in amazement: with a feeling of great surprise or disbelief Examples: Aunt Sophia gazed at her picture in amazement: she looked like a teenage girl in it. All the people in the lecture hall stared at him in amazement when he talked loudly with his friend. 4. upset: make (sb.) worry or feel unhappy (usu. used in the pattern: be upset by/about) Examples: They are terribly upset by the break-up of their parents' marriage. He was upset about the argument he had with his wife. 5. ignorant: knowing little or nothing (often used in the phrase: be ignorant of/about) Examples: Some people are ignorant of the facts about global warming. She was ignorant of her husband's illegal activities. Otherwise she would have done everything possible to stop him. 6. slice: 1) a part of sth. (followed by of) Examples; Fiction takes up a large slice of the publishing market. Here's a car that represents a slice of motoring history. The boss promised that everyone would get a slice of the profits. 2) a thin flat piece cut from sth. (often used with of) Examples: Try to eat at least four slices of bread a day. Cut the pork into thin slices. 7. The ability to perform even the simplest calculations is only a memory among many students I see.: Many students whom I see don't have the ability to perform even the simplest calculations any longer. ability: power or skill to do, make, or think; talent (followed by infinitive to) Examples: We elected him monitor because he had the ability to bring out the best in others. He lost the ability to walk after a car accident. 8. sum up: give a brief summary (of sth.) Examples: Alice summed up her Christmas holidays in one word: "Terrible." My teacher would sum up the main points of the lesson before he ended the class. We discussed the proposed changes for most of the meeting. The chairman only took a few moments at the end to sum up. 9. compete with/against: try to be better than (sb. else) (used in the pattern: compete with/against sb. for sth.) Examples: More than 2,300 candidates from 93 political parties are competing for 486 seats. We are having to compete with three other departments for the fund. They found themselves competing with foreign countries for a share of the market. 10. human capital: Here human capital refers to people's knowledge and skills. 11. accumulate: collect, or gather together, esp. over a period of time Examples: I have accumulated many books over the last few years. While we were away on vacation, a lot of letters accumulated in our mailbox. 12. affect: have an influence on Examples; The 20th century was full of inventions that have affected the way we live. More than seven million people have been affected by the drought. The Asian financial crisis didn't affect our national economy. 13. function: operate; act Examples: When the camera is functioning properly the green light comes on. Athens functioned as a center of trade in the thirteenth century. 14. idle: lazy; not doing anything Examples: Most of the men were idle during the depression. She is so idle, we can never get her to do anything. 15. jam: get stuck Examples; The lock jammed and I couldn't open it. The tape-recorder jammed and the teacher had to read the story to the class by herself. 16. break down: stop working; fall, collapse Examples'. The elevators in this building are always breaking down. I have accumulated so many dirty clothes since my washing machine broke down last week. Talks between the two countries broke down when the two sides failed to reach an agreement. 17. drive home: make (sth.) clear so that people understand it (used in the pattern: drive sth. home(to sb.)) Examples: We must drive home to them where the difficulties lie. Peter was lazy. His parents tried to drive home to him the importance of hard work. 18. humble: 1) not proud; modest Examples: He thanked us again with a humble smile. Frank strikes me as a very humble person. , 2) low in importance, status, or condition Examples: Michael started his career as a humble fisherman. Lacocca rose from humble beginnings to become boss of Ford. 19. suggestion: sth. suggested (often followed by of/for/that-clause) Examples: The old man followed the doctor's suggestion of a stroll to the river every day. I have lots of suggestions for the park's future. (Note that in the that-clause after "suggestion" the subjunctive mood should be used. Example; They didn't like my suggestion that she share the room with her classmate.) 20. portable: light and small enough to be easily carried or moved Examples; Professor Smith always carries a portable computer with him. I still remember that my parents bought me a portable radio at my 20th birthday. 21. search for: look for Examples: Many planes and ships were sent to search the South Sea for the missing Chinese pilot. The police were searching the yard for clues. 22. luxury: 1) sth. expensive which is not necessary but which gives you pleasure (used as a countable noun) Examples: A week by the sea is a luxury they can no longer afford. Houses with swimming pools are still a luxury in many parts of the country. 2) very great comfort, esp. among beautiful and expensive surrounding (used as an uncountable noun) Examples: She was brought up in an atmosphere of luxury and wealth. He took over his father's company and led a life of luxury. 23. better off: richer than you were before; more comfortable Examples: Today's farmers are better off than they used to be. It's obvious that those who work hard are better off than those who don't. 24. scared: frightened (often followed by of/'to /thai-clause} Examples; When she saw a snake on the floor, the lady was too scared to move. I have always been scared of dogs. Alex was scared that his classmates might tell the teacher he broke the window. 25. wake up: stop sleeping Examples: This morning I woke up with a terrible headache. Stewart woke me up with his coughing. 26. ... and government offers no services to the working class.: Here "services" refers to the systems of social security such as health care and provision for the unemployed maintained by the government. 27. complex: not simple Examples: The problem was so complex that there would be no easy solution. When 1 visited Shanghai for the first time I got lost in the rather complex network of roads. 28. adequate: enough (often followed by infinitive to or for) Examples; My parents are prepared to offer me an amount of money adequate to purchase an apartment. Her knowledge of English was adequate for the job. 29. decline: a gradual decrease in the quality, quantity, or importance of sth. (followed by in) Examples: The first signs of economic decline became visible in that region. Some people are worried that there will be a great decline in the stock market. (Phrases: in decline, on the decline: gradually decreasing in importance, quality, or power Examples: The birthrate in China is on the decline. He is still one of the world's most popular soccer players, but his fame is in decline. Class attendance is in decline recently.) 30. acquire: get Examples; I've managed to acquire a copy of the report. J.P. Getty acquired a fortune in business. 31. astonish: surprise very much; amaze Examples; Her devotion to students always astonishes us. Diana astonished her family by winning three competitions in a row. 32. swear: make a serious promise about (often followed by infinitive to or thai-clause) Examples: The witness swore on the Bible to tell the whole truth and nothing but the truth. He swore that he would never lie. 33. make a living by: earn money by (doing sth.) Examples: Many farmers in this area make a good living by growing flowers. He makes a living by writing. 34. miracle: an amazing or wonderful event, esp. sth. that happens unexpectedly Examples: It is a miracle that no one was killed in the earthquake. It was a miracle that the pilot landed the plane in that snowstorm. 35. faculty: mental and physical abilities Examples: He is 90 years old but still has most of his faculties. It is a myth that the faculty of hearing is greatly increased in blind people.
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