Toulmin by dandanhuanghuang


									      Assignment Sequence 1: What Does Science Mean to You?

      Major Paper 1: How Do You Contextualize Your Issue in an Academic Field?

       We have studied concepts applied to analyze and evaluate an argument. Meanwhile, you
are working on constructing your own argument that matters to a particular conversation about
the effects of science on our society. In the past three short papers, you are required to identify
an issue, articulate why it matters, and search for relative evidence, written texts or other
sources. You are also required to select a particular text that you want to argue with/against, or
scrutinize, and then deconstruct the argument through the concepts.
       In this assignment, you are required to write a long paper, into which you should
integrate your research, our readings, and the particular text. In other words, you are
required to synthesize an argument through your own meditation and your reading of
others’ thoughts. I expect your argument to be complex and persuasive. It is
important to keep in your mind that your audience is scholars in the academic field.


      * Present a complex argument.
      * Situate your argument in an academic context.
      * To demonstrate analytical skills.

      Length and Format: 5 to 7 pages, with 1-inch margins, 12-point Times New
                         Roman font, and MLA format.

      Copies to submit: 3.
      Draft due: October 23, Thursday.
What Is Complexity?
              How to Argue?

Manners of Argumentation:

         1. Argue through logic.

         2. Respect different opinions.

         3. Respect the opponents.
         Now, think of your argument.

As well as the belief or value system behind your argument.
                           The Logic of Argumentation
                                 Toulmin Model
Basic terms:
Claim: The point of the argument. Debatable and controversial statement(s) or
Evidence: Valid data.        Reason: Premise.

Warrant: The assumption lead the evidence to the claim.
           In other words, belief or value system that connect the evidence to the claim.
           Toulmin says that the weakest part of any argument is its weakest warrant.

Qualifier: A qualifier is measurement on how strong the claim is.
           Or, words and phrases that express degree or intensity in the claim.
Backing: Justification of Warrant.
Rebuttal: Counter-argument, including potential objections and exceptions to the claim.
Simple and Linear Structure of Argument

                    Evidence        Data
Claim                  +

Dissolve in water but produce no ions in

Nonelectrolytes do not conduct electricity
 because they dissolve as whole molecules,
 and produce no ions.

Common nonelectrolytes include ethanol
 and table sugar (sucrose, C12H22O11)
          Logical Analysis of a Scientific Argument

Claim:    Nonelectrolytes do not conduct electricity.

Reasons: Because they dissolve as whole molecules, and
          produce no ions.

Hidden Warrant: Ions conduct electricity.

Hidden Qualifier: All.
    Welcome to CHEMISTRY !!!
•   An Observational Science
•   An Experimental Science
•   A Laboratory Science
•   An Interesting Science
•   An Important Science
•   A “Hard” Science
Now, think of the structure of your argument.

                       Evidence         Data
  Claim                   +
  Basic Toulmin Structure of Argumentation

Qualifier              Evidence      Data
 Claim                    +


Now, again, think of the structure of your argument.

    Warrant: Believe and Value system.

     Backing: Justification of warrant.
         Complete Toulmin (Complex) Structure of Argument



                   Qualifier                Evidence    Data
Counter-Argument   Counter-
   Rebuttal                                 Reason(s)

                   Qualifier                Evidence    Data
    Argument        Claim                      +


Now, think of the counter-argument against your argument.

             Argument vs. Counter-argument
                Application of Toulminian Model

1. In Debating Competition
     To pursue truth through the competition between
     argument and counter-argument.

2. In Reading
     To read, analyze, and synthesize complex texts and
     incorporate multiple kinds of evidence purposefully in
     order to generate and support writing.
3. In Writing

     To produce complex, analytic, persuasive
     arguments that matter in academic contexts.
4. In Writing Style

  In academic writing, logic provides coherence to the text.

5. In Thinking

  As an important way of self-reflection.

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