the_existence_of_god by dandanhuanghuang

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									      The Existence of God
An Argument for Christian Theism


                  Dr. John Oakes
              Stockholm, Sweden
                        9/4/2010
Outline

   Atheist arguments against the existence of
    God

   The failure of Atheism

   Arguments for theism
Arguments Against the Existence of God


   God cannot be seen/observed.

   Hypocrisy of believers.

   The problem of suffering.

   Atheism is the default position.
God Cannot Be Observed:
Therefore He Does Not Exist.


   Yuri Gagarin, first man in space: “I didn’t see
    any God up here.”

   The Wrong God.

   Electron, wind, consciousness, love, hope,
    beauty.

   Existence inferred from the observed effects.
    Hypocrisy: The Evil Done by Believers Argues
    Against the Existence of God.

   Evil has certainly been done in the name of
    Jesus Christ. (Crusades, Spanish Inquisition,
    priest abuse, us!)

   But what is evil?

   Is this a valid argument? This is not even an
    argument. It is a smoke screen.

   The difference: When a Christian does such
    things, it violates an absolute moral standard he
    or she holds to.
The Problem of Suffering


   If God is omniscient, omnipotent and
    loving/compassionate.

   Then, in view of suffering, that God certainly
    does not exist.

   Argument based on false premises.
Suffering and Evil: Twin Problems


   Assumes that a loving, omniscient,
    omnipotent God ought to prevent all
    suffering.

   Free Will.

   Natural Causes.

   Pain, physical and emotional, are not evil or
    even “bad.”
No God Is The Default Position


   Says who?

   The majority of intelligent, well-
    educated, psychologically healthy
    people believe in some sort of higher
    reality.
Why Atheism Fails


   Based on Circular Reasoning.

   Atheism Cannot Answer the Hard Questions.

   The Bankruptcy of Atheism.
Circular Reasoning

   One would have to be transcendent to know
    that a transcendent being does not exist.
    Flatland.

   There is no absolute truth. How do you know
    that?


   Atheist scientist on BBC. How do you know
    there is no transcendent presence? Answer:
    I just believe it is true.
A recent BBC broadcast forum:

   Questioner: How do you know that physical
    reality is all there is: that there is no God?

   Response of a vehement materialist (after
    much prodding): I simply believe it to be true.

   Questioner: Well, now we at least have it out
    on the table!

   In other words, the strongest argument I have
    that physical reality is “all there is” is that I
    believe physical reality is “all there is.”
Questions Science Can Answer


     When?
     What?
     Where?
     How many?
     By what means?
Questions Scientific Naturalism
       Cannot Answer:
     (that Christianity does answer)

 – Why am I here?
 – Is that the right thing to do?
 – How valuable am I?
 – Does God exist? Does God act (theism)?
 – Will that God respond if I pray?
 – Do supernatural events (miracles)
   happen?
 - Why is there evil and suffering in the
   world?
If Materialism/Naturalism is right
  then:
   “I” do not exist. Consciousness is just random
    moving around of chemicals.

   No soul, no spirit, no non-physical reality.

   Belief in God is just a “meme” the unfortunate
    accidental result of brain evolution.

   Life has no value. Human beings have no value.
    What is value?

   Love is chemicals moving around (vs. God is love)
           The Bankruptcy of Atheism


   Atheist “experiments.”
    –   USSR
    –   Red China
    –   North Korea
    –   Pol Pot Cambodia
    –   Myanmar
    –   French Revolution

    Where will a society whose compass is set by
     scientific materialism go?
    Arguments For Theism

   The Moral Argument
   The Cosmological Argument
   The Teleological Argument
   The Ontological Argument
   The Argument From Desire
   The Argument From Experience
   The Argument From Changed Lives
   The Argument From the Inspiration of the Bible.
   We Cannot Prove the Existence of God:
Inference to the most reasonable explanation




                                      = God
            The Moral Argument


   Do moral absolutes exist?
   Is it wrong to rape a young child?


1. Absolute moral laws exist.
2. Such laws must be promulgated by some authority.
3. That authority is God.


If this argument is false, then justice is a meaningless word
Moral law is a real as the law of gravity.
The Moral Argument

                That moral absolute exists
                 implies a source of this moral
                 absolute, which is, by
                 definition, God.

                Do the words good, evil, right
                 and wrong have any objective
                 meaning?

                If so, then there must be a
                 metaphysical authority.

                Alternatives: Naturalism and
                 Postmodernism.
      The Cosmological Argument

1. Everything which exists has a cause.

2. The universe exists.

3. The universe was caused to exist.

4. That cause is God.

Q: Why does anything exist at all?
   The Kalam Cosmological Argument
          (William Lane Craig)

1. Everything which begins to exist has a cause.

2. The universe began to exist.

3. Therefore the universe was caused.

4. God is that cause.

That the universe began to exist has been
  virtually proved.
             Accident or Design?
          The Teleological Argument

William
Paley
The Teleological Argument


Evidence for Design in Nature


The Anthropic Principle




      Boeing 747
      Design or
      Accident?
        Physics:
The Finely Tuned Universe
   Fine Tuning of the
  Gravitational Constant


.00000000000000000000
000000000000000000000
000000000000000000001
                            Fine Tuning of the Universe
      Constant                     A Little Bigger             A Little Smaller

1. Gravitational constant          very short-lived stars      no stars

2. Ratio of electrons to protons   no stars or galaxies        no stars or galaxies

3. Strong Nuclear Force            no hydrogen, fusion         only hydrogen

4. Weak Nuclear Force              all H2  He at big bang     no He at big bang
                                                               no heavy elements

5. Electric Force                  no chemical bonding         no chemical bonding

6. Expansion rate of universe      no galaxies                 universe collapses quickly

7. Ratio of matter to antimatter   too much radiation for life not enough matter
                                                               for galaxies to form
and many more….
Fred Hoyle on Fine-
Tuning


“… a super-intellect has monkeyed with
 physics, as well as with chemistry and
               biology.”
The Ontological Argument



      Anselm of Canterbury 1077

      God is the thing “that than which
       nothing greater can exist.”


      Questionable value as apologetics
The Argument From Desire (C. S. Lewis)


   Every known human desire has a
    corresponding real thing which can fulfill that
    desire.

   The desire to know God and ultimate truth is
    as basic as any human desire.

   Therefore God, the object of that desire,
    exists.
             The Argument From
          Experience/Changed Lives

   Tens of millions of rational, well educated
    people have experienced God through prayer,
    revelation, etc.

   Changed lives: For what it is worth,
    Christianity works.
    – Marriages saved
    – Lives lived with purpose and meaning
Argument From the Inspiration of the
Bible


   If the Bible is supernaturally inspired,
    then God exists.

    – Fulfilled prophecy
    – Fulfilled prefigure and foreshadow
    – Consistency
    – Historical/Archaeological accuracy
    – Scientific accuracy
    – It works

								
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