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TDC 311 OS File Systems

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									                            Chapter Goals
• Describe the components and functions of a file
  management system
• Compare the logical and physical organization of
  files and directories
• Explain how secondary storage locations are
  allocated to files and describe the data structures
  used to record those allocations


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        Chapter Goals (continued)
• Describe file manipulation operations, including
  open, close, read, delete, and undelete operations
• List access controls that can be applied to files and
  directories
• Describe security, backup, recovery, and fault
  tolerance methods and procedures
• Compare and contrast storage area networks and
  network-attached storage

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         File Management Systems
                  (FMS)
• Collection of system software that manages all
  aspects of user and program access to secondary
  storage
• Usually part of the operating system
• Translates operations into commands to physical
  storage devices
• Implemented in four layers (command layer, file
  control, storage I/O control, and secondary storage
  devices)
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                                      Bridges between logical and
                                      physical views of secondary
                                      storage


                                      Allocates secondary storage
                                      locations to individual files
                                      and directories
                                      Includes software modules
                                      for device drivers for each
                                      storage device or device
                                      controller, interrupt
                                      handlers, buffers and cache
                                      managers
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                     Logical and Physical
                       Storage Views
• Logical view
      – Collection of files organized within directories and
        storage volumes
• Physical view
      – Collection of physical storage locations organized
        as a linear address space




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 The file is subdivided into multiple records and each
 record is composed of multiple fields.

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                Logical File Structure
• Is independent of the physical device on which it
  is stored
• Also includes physical data access considerations,
  such as sequential access, indexed access, or some
  other
• There are also data encoding issues including the
  data structures and coding methods used to
  represent individual fields
• And don’t forget encryption and compression
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                 File Content and Type
• FMS supports limited number of file types:
    – Executable programs (.exe and .dll)
    – Operating system commands (.bat)
    – Textual or unformatted binary data (.txt)
• Modern FMSs can define new file types and install
  utility programs to manipulate them (file association)




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                                      File Types
• Normally declared when a file is created and:
      – Stored within a directory, or
      – Declared through a filename convention
• Determine:
      – Physical organization of data items and data
        structures within secondary storage
      – Operations that may be performed upon the file
      – Filename restrictions

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   Directory Content and Structure
• Contains information about files and other
  directories, typically name, file type, location,
  size, ownership, access controls, and time stamps
• Old MS-DOS used 8.3 naming convention
• Newer NTFS allows 255 Unicode characters
• Access controls include List, Read, Modify,
  Change, Edit, Delete, etc.
• Time stamps include file creation date, last
  modified date, when file last read, …
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  Hierarchical Directory Structure
• Directories can contain other directories, creating
  a tree structure, but cannot be contained within
  more than one parent
• Ways that names of access paths can be specified:
      – Complete path (fully qualified reference)
      – Relative path
• Each storage device has a root directory


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          Active
        (working)
         directory




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       Graph Directory Structure
• More flexible than hierarchical directory structure
      – Files and subdirectories can be contained within
        multiple directories
      – Directory links can form a cycle




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                     Storage Allocation
• Secondary storage devices
      – The data structures and procedures used to manage
        secondary storage devices is similar to memory
        management, except:
      – Large number of storage locations; low frequency
        of allocation changes
• Secondary storage devices are divided into
  allocation units

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                         Allocation Units
• Smallest number of secondary storage bytes that
  can be allocated to a file; cannot be smaller than
  unit of data transfer between storage device and
  controller (block); often smallest storage size is
  usually a multiple of block transfer size
• Assigned/reclaimed by FMS as files and
  directories are created or expanded/shrink or are
  deleted
• Size difficult to change once set
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                   Allocation Unit Size
• Tradeoffs
      – Efficient use of secondary storage space for files
      – Size of storage allocation data structures
      – Efficiency of storage allocation procedures
• Benefit of smaller units:
      – More efficient use of storage space
• Benefit of larger units:
      – Allow smaller storage allocation data structures
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          Storage Allocation Tables
• Data structures that record which allocation units
  are free and which belong to files
• Format and content vary across FMSs
• Can contain linked lists in simpler FMSs or
  indices or other complex data structures in more
  complex FMSs
• Examples include bitmaps, tables, linked lists, B+
  trees

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                                Free allocation units are
                                assigned to a hidden system
                                file called SysFree.



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All of a file allocation’s units are “chained” together
in sequential order by a series of pointers. This is
close to an example of a bitmap, such as in FAT.
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                          B+ Tree (NTFS)
                       100

   <100                                    >=100


  30                                       125       155   181

                                                           etc.

3 5 10                     30 38       101 109 120     128 133 140

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                                      Blocking
• Logical record grouping within physical records
• Described by a numeric ratio of logical records to
  physical records (blocking factor)




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 Blocking
factor = 4:3




 Blocking
factor = 2:3

                                Usually the logical number is a whole
                                multiple of the physical number.
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                                      Buffering
• Temporary storage of data as it moves between
  programs and secondary storage devices
      – Physical records are stored in the buffer as they are
        read from secondary storage
      – FMS extracts logical records from buffers and
        copies them to data area of the application program
• Each buffer is the size of one allocation unit
• Improves I/O performance if enough are used

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     Computing Record Location
• For a record r, we must compute where it is in the
  file.
      – Which allocation records (physical record) do we
        need?
      – What is offset within that physical record?
                                      (Record number - 1)  Record size
       Allocation unit offset 
                                            Allocation unit size



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                                      Example
• We want to load File3 (from Table 12-1).
  Allocation units (block size) are 512 bytes; Record
  size = 55 bytes
• Table 12-1 tells us that the first allocation unit is
  unit 5
• System loads 512 bytes into buffer and moves first
  55 bytes to application program


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                   Example Continued
• Now we want the second record. Where is it?
• (Pointer – 1) x RecordSize / BlockSize
• = (2-1) x 55 / 512 = 0 remainder 55
• So second record is still in this first block but
  starting at byte 55 (which is in the buffer)
• What if we want the 37th record?
• (37-1) x 55 / 512 = 3 remainder 444 (typo in book)

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                   Example Continued
• So since the answer is 3 remainder 444, you need
  to get the 4th block (because blocks are numbered
  0, 1, 2, 3, …) and then start reading from the 444th
  byte
• Using Table 12-2, the 4th block is block number
  19




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                      File Manipulation
• Exact set of service layer functions varies among
  FMSs, but typically includes create, copy, move,
  delete, read, and write
• Application programs interact directly with FMS
  through OS service layer
• Users interact indirectly with FMS through
  command layer


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    File Open and Close Operations
• File open
      – Causes FMS to find the file, verify access
        privileges, allocate buffers, and update internal
        table of open files
• File close
      – Causes FMS to flush buffer content to the storage
        device, release buffers, update file time stamps, and
        update table of open files

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Delete and Undelete Operations
• Delete
      – Does not immediately remove files; some content
        remains on secondary storage unit all allocation
        units have been reassigned and overwritten
      – File content can be visible to intruders
• Undelete
      – Can be used to reconstruct directory and storage
        allocation table contents

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                          Access Controls
• Granted by file owners and system administrators
  for reading, writing, and executing files
• Provide security at the expense of additional FMS
  overhead




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          File Migration, Backup, and
                   Recovery
• Provided by most FMSs to protect files against
  damage or loss




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                        File Migration
                       (Version Control)
• Automatic storage and backup of old file versions
• Balances storage cost of each file version with
  anticipated user demand for that version




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Original




                                      Copy that has been updated
                                      to reflect new data
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                                File Backup
• Protects against data loss (file content, directory
  content, and storage allocation tables)
• Store backup copies on a different storage device
  in a different physical location
• Manual or automatic
• Full or incremental



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                  Transaction Logging
• Automatically records all changes to file content
  and attributes in a separate storage area; also
  writes them to the file’s I/O buffer
• Provides high degree of protection against data
  loss due to program or hardware failure
• Imposes a performance penalty; used only when
  costs of data loss are high


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                             File Recovery
• Automated and manual components
• Can search backup logs for copies of lost or
  damaged files
• Can perform consistency checking and repair
  procedures for crashed system or physically
  damaged storage device



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                         Disk Scheduling
• A disk drive has multiple requests for read or
  write operations
• How does the disk scheduler schedule the
  read/write operations?
• Various techniques include: FCFS (First Come
  First Served), SSTF (Shortest Seek Time First),
  Scan, and Look


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                         Disk Scheduling
• Assume the following disk sector requests:
      98, 183, 37, 122, 14, 124, 65, 57   Head is at 53
      FCFS
      SSTF
      Scan
      C-Scan
      Look
      C-Look

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                          Fault Tolerance
• Methods of securing file content against hardware
  failure
      –   File backup
      –   Recovery
      –   Transaction logging
      –   Mirroring
      –   RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks)


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                                      Mirroring
• All disk write operations are made concurrently to
  two different storage devices
• Provides high degree of protection against data
  loss with no performance penalty if implemented
  in hardware
• Disadvantages
      – Cost of redundant disk drives
      – Higher cost of disk controllers that implement
        mirroring
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                                      RAID
• Disk storage technique that improves performance
  and fault tolerance
• All levels except RAID 1 use data striping
      – Breaks a unit of data into smaller segments and
        stores them on multiple disks
• Multiple levels can be layered to combine their
  best features (e.g. RAID 10)
• Can be implemented in hardware or software

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               Storage Consolidation
• Overcomes inefficiencies of direct-attached
  storage (DAS) in multiple-server environments
• Common approaches
      – Storage area network (SAN) - an architecture to
        attach remote computer storage devices to servers
        such that the devices appear as locally connected
      – Network-attached storage (NAS) – in contrast to
        SAN, uses file-based protocols such as NFS where
        it is clear the storage is remote
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                 Storage Consolidation
Storage Area Network (SAN)              Network-Attached Storage (NAS)
• High-speed interconnection among      • Dedicated to managing one or more
  general-purpose servers and one or      file systems
  more storage servers                  • Accessed by other servers and
• Block-oriented access                   clients over a local or wide area
• Common in multi-server                  network
  environments with mainframes or       • File-oriented access (rather than
  supercomputers (large enterprises)      block-oriented access)
  and substantial overlap among         • Common when geographically
  server storage needs                    dispersed servers need access to a
• Expensive to purchase and               common file system
  administer, but avoid costs of        • Cheaper to acquire than SAN, but at
  duplicate storage and storage           the price of lower performance
  administration
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               Storage Consolidation
• Most systems use SCSI protocol to connect
  storage devices to servers
• To allow SAN extension over IP networks, many
  use iSCSI or Fibre Channel over IP
• SANs often use a Fibre Channel fabric technology




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                            Fibre Channel
• Three major Fibre Channel architectures
      – Point to point
      – Arbitrated loop (similar to Token Ring)
      – Switched fabric (similar to Ethernet but with Fibre
        Channel switches instead of LAN switches)
• Can operate over twisted pair and fiber
• Throughput speeds from 100 Mbps to 2 Gbps


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                            Fibre Channel
• Five layers
      –   FC0 – physical layer
      –   FC1 – data link (8B/10B)
      –   FC2 – network layer (core FC protocols)
      –   FC3 – common services layer (such as RAID)
      –   FC4 – protocol mapping layer (encapsulates SCSI)



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                Example File Systems
• FAT (File Allocation Table)
• FAT16
• FAT32 (up through Windows Me)
• NTFS (New Technology File System, beginning
  with Windows NT and continuing with Windows
  2000, XP, 2003, 2008, and Vista)
• UNIX file system
• HFS (Hierarchical File System) (MACs and
  possible UNIX)
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                                      NTFS
• Supports
      –   High-speed directory and file operations
      –   Ability to handle large disks, files, directories
      –   Secure file and disk content
      –   Reliability and fault tolerance
• NTFS organizes secondary storage as a set of
  volumes
• A volume is a partition on a disk
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                                      NTFS
• Volumes contain a collection of storage allocation
  units called clusters
• Cluster size can be 512, 1024, 2048, or 4096 bytes
• Cluster size is set up during installation
• Each cluster is identified by a 64-bit logical cluster
  number (LCN)
• A volume can be as large as 4096 x 264 bytes


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                                      NTFS
• A volume’s master directory is stored in a data
  structure called the master file table (MFT)
• MFT contains a sequential set of file records, one
  for each file on the volume
• All volume contents are stored as files, including
  user files, the MFT itself, and other volume
  management files such as the root directory,
  storage allocation table, bootstrap program, and
  bad cluster table
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                                      NTFS
• The first 16 MFT entries are reserved for the MFT
• All subsequent entries numbered 16 and higher
  store records about user files
• A file is an object with a collection of attributes
  such as name, restrictions, security descriptors,
  and the data itself (essentially a large attribute)
• Directory contents stored using B+ tree
• See Burd pages 495-497 for further details
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                                      Summary
•   File management systems
•   Directory content and structure
•   Storage allocation
•   File manipulation
•   Access controls
•   File migration, backup, and recovery
•   Storage consolidation

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