AMERICA CLAIMS AN EMPIRE - LHS SUPPORT

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					AMERICA CLAIMS AN
     EMPIRE

      Chapter 10
IMPERIALISM &
  AMERICA




    Section 1
           IMPERIALISM
   IMPERIALISM- The policy in which stronger
    nations extend economic, political or military
    control over weaker territories.




   By the 1880’s, many American leaders thought
    the U.S. should establish colonies overseas.
3 FACTORS FUELED AMERICAN
       IMPERIALISM:
1)   Desire for military strength
2)   Thirst for new markets
3)   Belief in the superiority of American culture
            NAVAL POWER
   Admiral Alfred T. Mahan of the U.S. Navy
   Supported growing American naval power so
    the U.S. could compete w/other nations
         U.S.S. Maine & Oregon
   U.S. built modern battleships like the Maine &
    the Oregon.
   The new ships made the U.S. the world’s
    largest naval power.
   U.S. was producing more than Americans
    could consume…..
   U.S. needed foreign trade.
   American businesses needed markets for their
    products & raw materials for their factories.
Superiority of American Culture:
   The 3rd root of American imperialism was a
    belief that the people of the U.S. were better
    than the people of other countries
   Believed they had a duty to spread their
    culture & Christian religion among other
    people.
U.S. Acquires Alaska
     & Hawaii:
                  ALASKA
   William Seward purchases Alaska, for the
    U.S., from Russia in 1867.
   The price? $7.2 million!!
               HAWAII
                 The Background…..
   The Hawaiian islands had been important to
    the U.S. since 1790’s.
   Merchants stopped there on their way to China
    & India.
   In 1920’s, American missionaries founded
    Christian schools & churches on the islands
    Hawaiian sugar plantations…
   B/c of American owned sugar plantations, by
    1900, foreign laborers outnumbered Hawaiians
    3 to 1
   This weakened the influence of native
    Hawaiians.
  Powerful Hawaiian sugar
growers called for the U.S. to
 annex Hawaii to avoid the
           tariffs.



   In 1887, U.S. military forced Hawaii
    to let it build a naval base at Pearl
      Harbor….Hawaii’s best port.
 HAWAIIANS LOSE
CONTROL OF THEIR
    ISLANDS:



      HOW?
American business groups organized
a revolt against Queen Liliuokalani:
   U.S. ambassador John L. Stevens helped them
    revolt.
   Planters took control of the island
   They established a temporary government .
      QUEEN LILIUOKALANI
   In 1893, Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii gave
    up her throne.
   Hawaii was about to be taken over by the U.S.
   They established a temporary
           government .
Made American businessman Sanford
      B. Dole the president.
    1898, HAWAII BECOMES A U.S.
            TERRITORY
   Stevens urged U.S. government to annex
    Hawaiian Islands.
   President Grover Cleveland refused unless
    majority of Hawaiians favored that.
   1897, William McKinley became president.




   McKinley favored annexation.
   1898, Hawaii became a U.S. territory.
 THE SPANISH-
AMERICAN WAR




     Section 2
     CUBANS REBEL AGAINST
             SPAIN




   B/w 1868 & 1878, Cubans fought their 1st war
    for independence from Spain.
   Rebels didn’t win, but forced Spain to abolish
    slavery in 1886
    U.S. CAPITALISTS INVEST…
   Invested heavily in sugar cane plantations in
    Cuba.
   Cuban economy collapsed in 1894 when a
    tariff on sugar was imposed in the U.S.
               JOSE MARTI
   1895, Cubans began 2nd war for independence.
   Rebellion led by Jose Marti, a Cuban poet &
    journalist who had been living in exile in N.Y.
   The rebels wanted the U.S. to join their cause.
    WAR FEVER ESCALATES!
   1896, Spain sent an army to Cuba to restore
    order.
   Army led by General Valeriano Weyler.
   Weyler rounded up 300,000 people as
    prisoners in Concentration camps.
   Stories of concentration camps widely
    reported in U.S. newspapers.
   Rival N.Y. newspapers exaggerated the
    brutality to attract readers.(“yellow
    journalism”)
William McKinley became
  U.S. President in 1897.



  Since many Americans wanted the U.S. to
   help the rebels against Spain, McKinley
       tried to find a peaceful solution.
McKinley’s efforts pay
       off….



  1) Spain sent General Weyler home
   2) Changed the concentration camp
                policy.
  3) Gave Cuba limited self-government
But then, 2 events made
Americans very angry at
       Spain….
1) The publication of a letter that insulted the
  American president….The de Lome letter was
  written by a Spanish diplomat. It criticized
  McKinley for being weak.
           U.S.S. MAINE..
2) The battleship U.S.S. Maine exploded on
  February 15, 1898.




The ship had been stationed in Cuba to protect
 American lives.
Cause of the explosion was not known….. But…
Newspapers blamed Spain.
WAR WITH SPAIN
  ERUPTS!!!!




April 20, 1898, U.S. went to war
            w/Spain.
           THE PHILIPPINES
   1st battle took place in the Philippines.
   Philippines had been a Spanish colony for 300
    years.
   In 1896, Philippines rebelled against Spanish.
          George Dewey
   On May 1, 1898, American naval commander
    George Dewey sailed into Manila Bay in the
    Philippines.
   His ships destroyed the Spanish fleet there.
   For the next 2 months, U.S. soldiers fought on
    the side of the Filipino rebels.
   Spanish surrendered (in the Philippines) to
    the U.S. in August.
Meanwhile, back in Cuba……
   American navy blocked off the harbor of
    Santiago de Cuba.




   Spanish ships could not leave.
   American troops then landed on the island in
    June 1898.
          ROUGH RIDERS:
   Unit of volunteers
   Theodore Roosevelt one of their leaders.
   Rough Riders helped win the important battle
    of San Juan Hill
   American newspapers made Roosevelt a hero.
THEODORE ROOSEVELT
The Rough Riders
U.S. Army 1st Volunteer Cavalry
commanded by
Lt. Colonel Theodore Roosevelt
Spanish Surrender
       July 25, 1898!




When the Spanish ships tried to leave the
   harbor, their fleet was destroyed.
    Spain then surrendered to U.S.
 (The entire war only lasted 113 days!)
TREATY OF PARIS



 Spain quickly agreed to a peace
            treaty….
     What were the terms?
1) Cuba is granted
   independence!
 2) Spain gave Puerto Rico & the
Pacific Island of Guam to the U.S.
3) U.S. paid Spain $20 mill. For
the annexation of the Philippine
            Islands.
           Debate in U.S. about
              Imperialism:
   Treaty of Paris touched off debates in U.S. .
   President McKinley was in favor of it.
   Some Americans said annexing territories
    violated the spirit of the Declaration of
    Independence.

   The U.S. Senate approved the treaty on
    February 6, 1899.
        http://www.historywiz.com/primarysources/treatyofparis1898.htm
ACQUIRING NEW
    LANDS
     Section 3
    RULING PUERTO RICO:
   American forces landed in Puerto Rico in July
    1898.
   Many Puerto Ricans began to resent the
    military government.
   In 1900, Congress passed the Foraker Act
    which ended military rule & set up a civil
    government
IN 1917, PUERTO RICANS
BECOME U.S. CITIZENS!
          Control over CUBA…
   Although Cuba was officially independent
    after the war, the U.S. army remained there for
    4 years
   It punished Cubans who were against this
    American occupation.
    PLATT AMENDMENT:
         http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=55

   When Cuba’s new government wrote a
    constitution in 1900, the U.S. insisted they add
    the “PLATT AMENDMENT”
   This limited Cuba’s rights in dealing w/other
    countries….gave the U.S. special privileges,
    including the right to intervene to preserve
    order.
        PROTECTORATE….
   Cuba became a U.S. “protectorate”.
   A “Protectorate” is a country whose affairs
    are partially controlled by a stronger power.
   The U.S. insisted on these rights b/c of its
    economic interests in Cuba.
FILIPINOS REBEL




    Opponents to American Rule of the Philippines

They were angry that the U.S. had
annexed their islands after years of
    fighting for independence.
         EMILIO AGUINALDO




   Filipino rebel leader who believed that the
    U.S. had promised independence.
   He felt the U.S. had betrayed the Filipinos
    after helping them win independence.
 1899, Aguinaldo started a rebellion that lasted
3 years. (Philippine-American War)
Pictured below are Filipino P.O.W.’s




   U.S. won & set up a government similar to the
    one it had set up in Cuba.
                     CHINA:
   By 1899, many countries had economic
    interests in China
   U.S. wanted to be able to trade with China too.
   Secretary of State John Hay sent the “OPEN
    DOOR NOTES” to these countries calling for
    China’s port to be open to ALL countries.
                  BOXER REBELLION:



   In 1900, a secret society in China started a
    rebellion to protest “western influence”.
   Troops from countries (including U.S.) fought
    the rebel, or “Boxers”.
   After the Boxer Rebellion was defeated, U.S.
    issued more Open Door notes to make sure
    other countries didn’t make colonies out of
     How did Americans feel about U.S.
              imperialism?
   With the reelection of President William
    McKinley in 1900, it seems that most
    Americans agreed w/imperialism.
   An Anti-Imperialist League formed including
    former president Grover Cleveland, Andrew
    Carnegie, Jane Addams, & Mark Twain.
AMERICA AS A
WORLD POWER


          Section 4
    President McKinley Assassinated!
   Pres. McKinley assassinated in 1901.
   Teddy Roosevelt becomes president &
    continues policies of “imperialism”
TEDDY ROOSEVELT &
   THE WORLD….



 Roosevelt 1st used U.S. influence to
 help settle the Russo-Japanese War
    RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR
   Began in 1904 when both Russia & Japan
    wanted to control Korea.




   Japan captured Korea & also invaded
    Manchuria… which was controlled by Russia
         Roosevelt mediates…
   1905, representatives of Russia & Japan met.
   Roosevelt used his personal charm to help
    them negotiate a compromise.
   They signed a treaty, and Roosevelt received
    the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.




                The Nobel Institute in Oslo, Norway.
       PANAMA CANAL
   Idea was to build a canal to connect the
    Atlantic & Pacific Oceans.
   Such a canal would cut travel time for ships
    b/c they wouldn’t have to go all the way
    around South America.
   Panama was a province of Columbia.
   Columbia did not agree to the canal.
   So, U.S. helped Panama rebel against
    Colombia.
   Panama became
    independent…



Then, U.S. got Panama’s permission
        to build the canal.
Construction of the Panama Canal:
   Work began in 1904 & took 10 years
   In 1913, there were 43,400 workers on the
    hard & dangerous project.
Canal officially opens Aug. 15, 1914
      Over 1,000 ships passed through that 1st year
     ROOSEVELT
     COROLLARY



Roosevelt’s statement to Congress in 1904… He
 wanted the U.S. to be the major power in the
        Caribbean & Central America
 Roosevelt Corollary was the logical
result of the Monroe Doctrine of 1823




    Roosevelt now said that the U.S had the right to intervene in
    Latin American countries to protect U.S. business interests.
                         (“Big Stick” policy)
NICARAGUA




In 1911, Pres. Taft used Roosevelt’s
       policy in Nicaragua.
   A rebellion had left the country in debt.
   Taft arranged for U.S. bankers to loan
    Nicaragua $...
   In exchange, American business took control
    of the railroads & banks…also collected
    Nicaragua’s custom duties
         DOLLAR DIPLOMACY:
   Nicaraguans didn’t like this arrangement.
   They rebelled. The U.S. sent in troops to
    Nicaragua preserve peace.
   Those who didn’t like this kind of intervention
    called it “dollar diplomacy”.
 WOODROW WILSON’S
MISSIONARY DIPLOMACY




   Why did President Wilson send
        troops to Mexico?
President Wilson took a step beyond
 Presidents Monroe & Roosevelt…
   Wilson added a “moral” tone to Latin
    American policy.
   His “missionary diplomacy” meant that the
    U.S. could not officially recognize
    governments that were oppressive,
    undemocratic, or opposed to U.S. business
    interests.
   A revolution in Mexico tested this policy…….
           MEXICAN PEASANTS &
            WORKERS REBEL:
   They rebelled in 1910 against their military
    dictator.




        The start of the Mexican Revolution:
      the Serdán family opens a revolt in Puebla, Nov.18.1910

   2 new governments followed, the 2nd headed
    by General Victoriano Huerta.
 Wilson refused to support
the Huerta government b/c it
   came to power through
          violence.



      When a new leader, Venustiano
  Carranza, took power in Mexico, Wilson
           withdrew the troops
                THEN…..
Francisco “Pancho” Villa….
Leader of rebels who revolted against Carranza
Some American’s killed
by Villa’s followers…..



   U.S. wanted to capture Villa.
  Mexican government gave U.S.
   permission to send in troops
Wilson sent General John J.
 Pershing to Mexico with
      15,000 soldiers




    A year later, Villa was still free.
    Wilson then stationed 150,000
   Natl’Guardsmen along the border.
General John J. Pershing




    PERSHING, JOHN J.
    Brigadier General, U.S. Army
    Commander
    decorations U.S. Army, Supplement V, 1941
    Home Town: Laclede, Missouri
    Date of Action: June 15, 1913
Mexicans angered by
  U.S. invasion.




  1916, U.S. troops fought w/Carranza’s
                  army.
In 1917, Wilson withdrew U.S. troops b/c
 U.S. was facing possible war in Europe.
    Mexico finally adopted a
constitution, regained control of
their own resources & put limits
      on foreign investment




     American intervention in Mexico
   showed how far the U.S. was willing
  to go to protect its economic interests.
COMING NEXT…..
WORLD WAR I

				
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