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LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT by malj

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 21

									LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
 How do you pronounce: ghoti?
Pronounce gh
  …as in enough
     Pronounce o
          …as in women
               Pronounce ti
                    …as in emotion
     Language:
Language Acquisition
B.F. Skinner
1904-1990
               vs

                    Noam Chomsky
                        1928-
   Skinner vs. Chomsky (1957)
Skinner’s position (behavorist/nurture)
 -imitation
 -reinforcement
Chomsky’s position (nativist)
 -language acquisition device &
  universal grammar
 -critical period
 -overgeneralization
      Noam Chomsky (1928- )
• Argues that children have a predisposition to
  learn language
• A person’s brain is hard wired to learn
  vocabulary and the rules of grammar
• “universal grammar”—a basic understanding
  of the common principles of language
  organization
• At birth, infants can distinguish among the
  speech sounds of all the world’s languages.
• By 10 months, they distinguish only the
  speech sounds that are present in the
  language to which they have been exposed.
        Noam Chomsky Interview
• Insert “Chomsky’s View of Language
  Development” Video #21 from Worth’s
  Digital Media Archive for Psychology.
 Click Here
  to view
 video in a
  separate
  window
    B.F. Skinner and Language
• Skinner believed language was the
  result of learning through:
   – Association : linking certain sounds
     with certain people
   – Imitation
   – Rewards or punishments
             Language
• Play “Language and Culture” (4:42)
  Segment #28 from The Mind:
  Psychology Teaching Modules (2nd
  edition).
  Language:
Language Stages
     Language Predisposition
• Play “Language Predisposition”
  (3:44) Segment #24 from The Mind:
  Psychology Teaching Modules (2nd
  edition).
    Encouraging language
   development: Motherese
• People in every culture use a style of
  speech called motherese, or infant-
  directed speech, with babies.
• Motherese is characterized by distinct
  pronunciation, a simplified vocabulary,
  short sentences, a high pitch, and
  exaggerated intonation and expression.
   Language Acquisition Stages
• In virtually every culture, infants follow
  the same sequence of language
  development, and at roughly similar
  ages.
• Three-step process:
   – Babbling
   – One-Word Stage
   – Two-Word Stage
      Cooing and Babbling stage
• At about 3 months of age, the infant begins to
  “coo.”
• At about 5 months of age, the infant begins to
  babble.
• Infants all over the world use the same sounds
  (phonemes) when they babble.
• At around nine months of age, babies begin to
  babble more in the sounds specific to their
  language.
• Will begin to babble only the phonemes of the
  child’s native tongue at about 1 year of age
• Babbling seems to be a biologically
       Babbling and Language
           Development
• Play “Talkin’ Babies” (12:00)
  Segment #18 from Scientific
  American Frontiers: Video Collection
  for Introductory Psychology (2nd
  edition).
• Is Language Progression the same in
  deaf children?
               One-Word Stage
• Long before babies become accomplished
  talkers, they understand much of what is said to
  them.
• Comprehension vocabulary (the words they
  understand) is much larger than their
  production vocabulary (the words they can say).
• Around their first birthday, infants produce their
  first real words — usually referring to concrete
  objects or people that are important to them
• Child uses one word to convey a complete thought
  or idea
• During the one-word stage, babies use a single
              Two-Word Stage
• Around their second birthday, infants begin
  putting words together to construct simple
  “sentences.”
• Two word sentences showing an appreciation of the
  rules of grammar
• Children move beyond the two-word stage at
  around 2-1/2 years of age.
• Language production and comprehension
  increase dramatically thereafter—children may
  have a production vocabulary of over 10,000
  words by school age.
         Grammar Development
• Insert “Gleason’s Wug Test” Video
  #22 from Worth’s Digital Media
  Archive for Psychology.

Click here
to view in
a separate
 window
        Overgeneralization
• Child will generalize grammar rules
  so they apply the rules too broadly.
• Example: “I dugged in the sandbox”
  rather than “I dug in the sandbox”
Overgeneralization
      Language Development
• Play “Born to Talk” (6:45) Segment
  #21 from Scientific American
  Frontiers: Video Collection for
  Introductory Psychology (2nd edition).
• Watch how grammar rules get
  overgeneralized.

								
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