Food safety and chemical use in aquaculture in Thailand-guideline and
Inland Fisheries Research and Development Bureau,
Department of Fisheries, Thailand.
The long coastal areas stretching over 3000 km and abundant of freshwater
resources in Thailand allows the country produces a wide range of aquaculture product
such as tilapia, carp, catfish, oysters, mussels, sea bass and shrimp. In 2006, Thailand
is one of the top five of shrimp and prawns producer in Asia and Pacific region (FAO,
2008). Marine shrimp production in Thailand was 577,030 tons in 2007 and was
551,465 tons in 2008 which 91 and 92 percent come from aquaculture (Department of
In aquaculture, fish/shrimp are produced under controlled conditions of
containment where feed and chemical inputs added in the production system. Under
these conditions there are risks for chemical and microbiological contamination on its
product. The recognition that hazards can occur at any stage in the production chain
has resulted in food safety management requirements which involve Good Aquaculture
Practise (GAP) as well as Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system.
An aquaculture certification has been used as a tool to ensure that full chains of
seafood product (from farm to table) are safe for consumption. At farm level,
Department of Fisheries (DOF) registers and certifies shrimp and inland aquaculture
farm The GAP and CoC (Code of Conduct) standard are volunteer schemes for shrimp
farm certification since 1992. More than 15,000 shrimp farm are certified in 2010.
According to Feed Quality Control Act, Drug Act and Hazardous substance Act,
Feed establishment, Importer and Produce of chemical and drug used for aquaculture
have to be registered with the responsible agency of the government.
Residue monitoring plan are undertaken by DOF to monitor the hormone,
veterinary drug and other substances and environment contamination in the product.
Feed used at farm and chemical product from local market are sampling for analysis.
For the processing plant, the processors must have basic sanitation, hygiene
control and GMPs as pre-requisite program and must develop and appropriate HACCP
program and determine hazard analysis, risk assessment and critical control points in
there processing practice in order to minimized hazard for safety issues in seafood
product. DOF inspect and approved 331 fish processing establishments (GMP/ HACCP)
to be registered in 2010.
With the corporation between private sector (farm, processor) and government
(DOF and other government agency) the food safety in a aquaculture has progress in
the field. The application of GAP is available at large farm. For small scale farmers,
they may grouped together and apply for GAP certificate.