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					Citation                       State   Species             Activity

CO                             CO      Golden eagle        general
Suter and Joness 1981                  Golden eagle        geothermal drilling
                                       Golden eagle        pipeline
                                       Golden eagle        pipeline
                                       all eagles          pipeline
                                       Golden eagle        general
                                       3 species           general
                                       grassland raptors   general
                                       Golden eagle        general

WY Ecological Services (FWS)   WY-FWS Golden eagle

UT FWS FO                      UT      Golden eagle        general

UT BLM - BMPs                  UT      Golden eagle        general

Ontario Ministry of Natural
Resources                      ON      Golden eagle        general

Camp et al 1987                        Golden eagle

DeLong 2004                            Golden eagle        mining operations

                               ID      Golden eagle        general
WEST, Inc                      WA      Golden eagle        human activity
                               WA      Golden eagle        habitat

                               OR      Golden eagle        wind energy
                               ID      Golden eagle        general
                               BLM     Raptors             BMPS
                               WY      Golden eagle        wind energy
                               CO      Golden eagle        general
OK                             OK      Golden eagle
WY                             WY      Golden eagle        general
Buffer/Management Guidelines
No surface occupancy (beyond that which historically occurred in the area) within ¼ mile radius
of active nests
no drilling within 0.6 miles
no construction within 2 miles all year
no ground activity within 2 miles March 1-September 1
1 mile
0.25-0.5 mile, general
200-500 m, GOEA, PEFA, FEHA
0.5 mile
1 mile, line of site
0.5 mile -- For some activities with very substantial auditory impacts (e.g., seismic exploration
and blasting) or visual impacts (e.g., tall drilling rig), a larger buffer than listed in Table 1 may be
0.5 mile (USFWS Utah Field Office’s Guidelines for Raptor Protection From Human and Land
Use Disturbances (Guidelines))
0.5 mile (USFWS Utah Field Office’s Guidelines for Raptor Protection From Human and Land
Use Disturbances (Guidelines))
100 meters around the nest site, large clearings are advantageous. The restrictions and
scheduling of activities within the buffer zones outlined in the Bald
Eagle Habitat Management Guidelines (Wildlife Branch, Ontario Ministry of Natural
Resources, June 1987) apply to the Golden Eagle
We suggest that a more comprehensive approach to protecting wildlife from disturbance may
include both a buffer zone and a viewshed.
mining operations should not be conducted within 0.8-1.6 km of eagle nests, but little data are
available with which to establish an appropriate buffer zone
In southwestern Idaho, managers should strive to maintain shrub stands within 3 km of a
nesting site (Kochert et al. 1999). This goal can be achieved through fire suppression and
revegetation efforts
300-meter buffer
3-km of undamaged shrub habitat around nest site
no buffer recommended - GE habitat is irreplaceable, limited and essential. No loss of habitat
quantity or quality. Mitigation goal achieved by avoidance
no buffer recommended - 3 km of undamaged shrub habitat around nest site
0.5 mile buffer
0.5 mile disturbance-free zone
0.25 mile surface-occupancy buffer.
refer to USFWS in Tulsa
0.5 mile disturbance-free zone
Buffer             Activity
0.25 mile          encroachment
0.6 miles
2 miles
2 miles
1 mile
0.25-0.5 mile
200-500 m
0.5 mile
1 mile

0.5 mile

0.5 mile

0.5 mile

100 meters


1.86 mile (3 km)
300 meters
3 km

no buffer
3 km
0.5 mile           general
0.5 mile           wind energy
0.25 mile          general

                0.5 general
Seasonal restriction                                                                          Buffer
Seasonal restriction to human encroachment within ½ mile radius of active nests from December
15 through July 15                                                                            1/2 mile

all year
pipeline: no ground activity, March 1 -September

January 15 - July 31

January 1 - August 31

January 1 - August 31

from Jan 1 to Aug 31
from Feb 1 to July 31
no encroachment within 0.5 mile between Dec 15 and July 15

from Feb 1 to July 31

c/o David Klute; also incorporated into O/G guidelines
Raptor Research 15(1): 12-18 --- this is a summary document


Wildlife Society Bulletin 1997, 25(3):612-615

DeLong, J. P. 2004. Effects of management practices on grassland birds: Golden Eagle. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Ce

Watson and Whalen 2004
Watson and Whalen 2004

OR Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Wind Energy Siting and Permitting Guidelines, Sept 2008
Idaho's birds of prey (IDFG 2008)
BLMs BMPs for Raptors and their associated habitats (BLM 1999, revised 2002)
WGFD recommendations for wind energy development in crucial and important habitat (WGFD 2009)
CDOW recommended buffer zones and seasonal restrictions for CO raptors (Craig 2002, revised 2008)…also listed above.
c/o Mark Howery (state)
c/o Andrea Orabona (state)

thern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, ND. 22 pages;

ised 2008)…also listed above.