Political Culture _ Political Ideologies

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					Political Culture & Political
         Ideologies
      Types of Political Culture
         Political Ideology
                   Introduction
 Historic evolution of political traditions shape a
  country’s concept of who has authority to rule,
  who is legitimate power
 Evolution can be gradual (UK) or forced (Iran)
 Political Culture: collection of political beliefs,
  values, practices and institutions
 If society values individualism then the gov’t will
  generally reflect that value
    If a gov’t doesn’t value basic political values of the
     people, it will have difficulty remaining viable
                   Intro cont’
 Social capital: amount of reciprocity and trust
  that exists among citizens, and between citizens
  and state
 Societies w/ low amounts of social capital may
  be more inclined toward authoritarianism and
  anti-individual gov’ts
 Some argue that Islam is incompatible with
  democracy because they emphasize
  subservience
    On other hand, democracy has flourished in India,
     South Africa and Turkey
       Types of Political Culture
 Consensus political culture:
    Citizens may disagree on some political processes, but agree on
     how decisions are made or how problems are solved
    By and large, consensus political culture accepts both legitimacy
     or the regime & solutions to major problems
 Conflictual political culture:
    Citizens are sharply divided, often on legitimacy and how to
     solve problems
    Hard to come to conclusions when citizens agree or disagree on
     basics like capitalism v. communism
    Religious differences may also threaten the legitimacy or stability
     of a regime
    Political subcultures may arise; divisions will be so deep that
     gov’t will struggle to function properly
                   Political Ideologies
 Political ideologies: political culture shapes political ideologies; ideologies
  are sets of political values held by individuals regarding the basic goals of
  gov’t & politics
 Liberalism
      Emphasis on individual political and economic freedom
      Not the stereotype that liberalism has in the U.S.
      Liberalism is the broad ideology in many democratized countries
 Liberals seek to:
        Freedom for all people
        Freedom of speech
        Freedom of religion
        Freedom of association
   People also have right to disagree with gov’t decisions and leaders
   English riots
   PM Cameron’s speech on English riots
   PM Cameron on police powers during the English riots
   English response to riots
            Political Ideologies
 Communism
   Technically speaking- equality is valued over freedom
   Liberal democracies value equal opportunity but tolerate
    inequality in society and economy
 Communists:
   reject the notion that personal freedom equals prosperity
   argue that liberal democracies re created by the wealthy to
    protect the wealthy
   Advocate a takeover of all resources by the state in order to
    eliminate inequalities and exploitation
   Argue that private ownership should be abolished and needs of
    state are more important than society as a whole
          Political Ideologies
 Socialism:
   Shares value of equality with communism but
    influenced by liberal value of freedom
   Accepts and promotes private
    property/ownership and free market
   believe the state has a strong role to play in
    regulating economy and providing benefits to
    the public
      Benefits ensure some measure of equality
         Political Ideologies
 Fascism:
   Confused w/ communism because both
    devalue the idea of individual freedom
   Fascism rejects the value of equality, instead
    people exist in degrees of inferiority and
    superiority
   State has the right and responsibility to mold
    the society and economy
   The regime is authoritarian and can determine
    who is superior and who is inferior
             Political Ideologies
 Religions:
 Important to group identity
 Religion serves as a basis for interest groups
    and volunteer associations within society
   Britain has an official religion, but their society is
    largely secularized- religious and political
    leaders are not the same
   Iran bases its political system on Shia Islam
   China has suppressed religious movements
   In Nigeria sharia Law is legal in the Muslim, but
    not in the Christian south.
              Conclusions
 No matter how we categorize political
  cultures, they are constantly changing
 Political values and beliefs tend to endure
  and typically political culture has shaped
  political systems
 Political ideologies also play the key role in
  shaping political culture

				
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posted:7/31/2012
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