Reducing Crime Lecture Outline
Group Discussion Issues to Consider
1. How is Criminal Justice System like a Funnel? What portion of crime victimizations are reported, lead to arrest,
to imprisonment? How much would it cost to double imprisonment rates? Why focus on top of funnel instead of
bottom? (Barkan Ch. 17)
2. Define the 3 different types of Prevention (Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary)? What does each focus on in
general? What are at least 3 examples of prevention measures for each type? Which do you prefer, think would
work best? (Barkan, Ch 17)
For remainder of readings, categorize where they fit in terms of Barkan’s model of Crime Prevention /
3. What type(s) of Crime Prevention does Moskos’ (Ch. 7 & Epilogue) proposals fit (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary)
& why? Where does drug violence come from in his view? What can we learn from history of alcohol & drug
prohibition as flaws in that approach, esp. re: race and class? Does prohibition lessen use? What does Moskos
think should be done instead, esp. role of police (re: arrests) if not lawmakers & policy (regulation, taxation,
4. What sorts of Anti-crime measures does Soering (web rdg.) see as most effective re: poverty, programs for
children & fragile families? What type(s) of Crime Prevention do his proposals fit (Primary, Secondary,
Tertiary) & why?
5. What sorts of ant-crime and anti-gang strategies are seen as most promising in Salisbury (& Los Angeles,
Homeboy Industries)? What is being recommended re: multiple agency partnerships, youth programs, and
employment? What does Salisbury need more of for youth, especially? (Lake, Boykin et al., and D’Alessandro
web rdgs.) What type(s) of Crime Prevention do his proposals fit (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary) & why
6. What are the best international practices to reduce crime – re: building design (target hardening), mobilizing
multiple agencies for youth programs and health services and what role for criminal justice agencies? How do
Salisbury programs resemble those (Waller and Welsh web rdg.)? What type(s) of Crime Prevention do his
proposals fit (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary) & why?
Lecture & Most Group Discussion points:
Criminal Justice System as Funnel (Barkan)
# crimes & victimizations VS. # people sent to prison (know the pattern, not the exact %’s or #’s)
Cost of doubling imprisonment / punishment, & why prevention is more efficient…
3 types of Prevention (Barkan):
1. Primary –Structural approach – Social, Cultural, Community factors (more structural overall)
Listed some specific measures…(I mentioned a few & you should look in text as well)
--e.g., Soering rdg. call for reducing poverty fits here; Salisbury articles on need for more youth programs
and mentoring (D’Alessandro) fit here as instance of Increased Social Integration & Stronger
Note: I especially pointed out that some aspects of Barkan’s categorizing as Primary Prevention the Increased
Social Integration & Stronger Institutions in urban neighborhoods (with focus on youth programs &
mentoring) overlapped a good bit with his Secondary Prevention measures focused on early childhood
development for at risk families and people (Secondary Prev. seems to focus on younger children more).
Also, his call for Improved Schools as Secondary Prev. seems to overlap with Primary Prev. call for
Improved Institutions, as schools are Institutions.
2. Secondary– Developmental approach – Focus on at-risk individuals, esp. children, esp. early childhood
development –Listed specific measures suggested…(I mentioned a few & you should look in text as well).
Group discussion point focused on this category, esp. issue of child care and child intervention for fragile
families to reduce child abuse and neglect.
--Also, noted as e.g. ion lecture, Salisbury articles calling for more youth programs could fit here, though not
so early childhood development focused so maybe fit more into Primary prevention as building institutions
& social integration.
[Note: Not mentioned in class, but much of “International Best Practices to Reduce Crime,” web rdg. (Waller &
Welsh) fit in this category of prevention, especially 2nd and 3rd type of measures (Mobilizing Agencies)]
[Note: Also, much of what Soering rdg. says re: aid for families at risk fits here.]
3. Tertiary –(more narrow, focus on Criminal Justice approach, & how to reduce recidivism) & listed a few specific
measures, note emphasis is NOT on increasing punishments…(I mentioned a few & you should look in text as
-- Group Discussion points on eliminating Death Penalty (on list as Tertiary measure) b/c does not deter
murder and is more costly than life imprisonment, could used saved $ on rehab. for other prisoners.
-- Group discussion and lecture point on Moskos Ch,. 7 & Epliogue fits with Barkans’ Tertiary measure of
repeal at least some drug laws. Moskos goes into great length on history of alcohol prohibition and
how it increased crime, and makes similar case re; drug prohibition, certain part of drug business as
violent not drug taking, etc. What he thinks police can do (re: arrests) to reduce drug war failed
policies, even if drug prohibition laws not changed.
-- e.g., Homeboys Industries getting jobs for ex-Gang members to reduce recidivism (Boykin et al.)
-- e.g., Safe Street program measures ,a minly CJ system coordination targeting repeat violent offenders
Other things to be aware of but not mentioned, or barely mentioned in class:
--Basically be able to relate Moskos and Wed Rdgs to Barkan’s 3 types of Prevention
Other Cumulative sorts of things to know in pretty general way for final, review from earlier test units & earlier
5-7 multiple choice Q’s ON:
Victim –Offender relationship issue
Crime rate trends & key explanations for that
Drug use rates & imprisonment (esp. by race & ethnicity)
White-collar compared to Street Crime
Role of media in public perceptions of crime vs. Reality of crime
Basic crime & victimization data Patterns re: Social Class, Gender, Age, Race & Ehtrnicity
Part of 1 essay Q. on:
Also know how some very basic ideas from the main social theories / explanations of crime –esp. from Chs 6 &7
& 8 in Barkan (e.g., Strain theory, Social Bonding theory, Social Disorganization, Subcultural theory, Leaning
theory / Differential Association, Labeling theory ) could be related to some of these Preventative Measures to
Don’t get too worked up about these cumulative question topics: Just review a bit of very basic info. Much of it you
should already be familiar with, as we have hit on them repeatedly during the term on many topics.