Persuasion or Argument?
• Persuasion aims to influence the readers’
actions, or their support for an action, by
engaging their beliefs and feelings.
• Argument aims to win readers’ agreement
with an assertion or claim by engaging
their powers of reasoning.
• Claim: An assertion
• Support: The data used as evidence,
reasons or support for the claim.
• Warrant: The assumption shared by the
speaker and the audience
• Backing: Further assurances or data
without which the warrant lacks authority.
• Qualifier: Restricts the terms of the claim
and limits its range.
• Rebuttal: Gives voice to objections.
Writer and Reader
• State your opinion: Present the truth as
you see it.
• Do not attempt to proclaim your view as
the absolute right.
• Try to state what your readers probably
think- as best as you can infer.
• Consider views that differ from yours to
refine your own view and make it more
Argument: Champion or defend
• Thesis statement: The opinion-claim of
your argument. Thesis can vary in
position (beginning, middle, end of essay)
• Evidence: accurate, fairly represent
available facts/opinions, relate directly to
your claim, ample to convince your
• Appeal: Intelligence, feelings, rational,
Method of Reasoning
• Data- Evidence
• Claim- Thesis
• Warrant: assumption & generalization
explaining why the claim flows from the
data. The reader needs to understand
your assumptions and the thinking that
Inductive & Deductive
• Inductive: Bits of evidence collected to base
generalization. (Puzzle pieces to make whole
• Deductive: General statement to particular
cases. (whole picture to puzzle pieces)
– Syllogism: 3-step form or reasoning
• Major premise: All men are mortal
• Minor premise: Socrates is a man
• Conclusion: Therefore, Socrates is mortal
Inductive and Deductive
• Many people distinguish between two basic
kinds of argument: inductive and deductive.
• Induction is usually described as moving from
the specific to the general, arguments based on
experience or observation are best expressed
• Deduction begins with the general and ends
with the specific, while arguments based on
laws, rules, or other widely accepted principles
are best expressed deductively.
• Fallacy: Trickery (ruse) or a false or
– Have the appearance of truth but are
erroneous (incorrect, mistaken, straying from
what is moral, decent, and proper)
– Used when writer has trouble making a
convincing “honest” argument with the facts
that they have in hand.