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Persuasion or Argument


									    Persuasion or Argument?
• Persuasion aims to influence the readers’
  actions, or their support for an action, by
  engaging their beliefs and feelings.

• Argument aims to win readers’ agreement
  with an assertion or claim by engaging
  their powers of reasoning.
          Toulmin Model
• Claim: An assertion
• Support: The data used as evidence,
  reasons or support for the claim.
• Warrant: The assumption shared by the
  speaker and the audience
• Backing: Further assurances or data
  without which the warrant lacks authority.
• Qualifier: Restricts the terms of the claim
  and limits its range.
• Rebuttal: Gives voice to objections.
            What Happens
           Writer and Reader
• State your opinion: Present the truth as
  you see it.
• Do not attempt to proclaim your view as
  the absolute right.
• Try to state what your readers probably
  think- as best as you can infer.
• Consider views that differ from yours to
  refine your own view and make it more
Argument: Champion or defend
your opinion.
• Thesis statement: The opinion-claim of
  your argument. Thesis can vary in
  position (beginning, middle, end of essay)
• Evidence: accurate, fairly represent
  available facts/opinions, relate directly to
  your claim, ample to convince your
• Appeal: Intelligence, feelings, rational,
  emotional, ethical.
          Toulmin Method
        Method of Reasoning
• Data- Evidence
• Claim- Thesis
• Warrant: assumption & generalization
  explaining why the claim flows from the
  data. The reader needs to understand
  your assumptions and the thinking that
  follows them.
          Inductive & Deductive

• Inductive: Bits of evidence collected to base
  generalization. (Puzzle pieces to make whole
• Deductive: General statement to particular
  cases. (whole picture to puzzle pieces)
  – Syllogism: 3-step form or reasoning
     • Major premise: All men are mortal
     • Minor premise: Socrates is a man
     • Conclusion: Therefore, Socrates is mortal
        Inductive and Deductive
          Reasoning continued
• Many people distinguish between two basic
  kinds of argument: inductive and deductive.
• Induction is usually described as moving from
  the specific to the general, arguments based on
  experience or observation are best expressed
• Deduction begins with the general and ends
  with the specific, while arguments based on
  laws, rules, or other widely accepted principles
  are best expressed deductively.
• Fallacy: Trickery (ruse) or a false or
 mistaken idea.
  – Have the appearance of truth but are
    erroneous (incorrect, mistaken, straying from
    what is moral, decent, and proper)
  – Used when writer has trouble making a
    convincing “honest” argument with the facts
    that they have in hand.

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