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Persuasion or Argument? • Persuasion aims to influence the readers’ actions, or their support for an action, by engaging their beliefs and feelings. • Argument aims to win readers’ agreement with an assertion or claim by engaging their powers of reasoning. Toulmin Model • Claim: An assertion • Support: The data used as evidence, reasons or support for the claim. • Warrant: The assumption shared by the speaker and the audience • Backing: Further assurances or data without which the warrant lacks authority. • Qualifier: Restricts the terms of the claim and limits its range. • Rebuttal: Gives voice to objections. What Happens between Writer and Reader • State your opinion: Present the truth as you see it. • Do not attempt to proclaim your view as the absolute right. • Try to state what your readers probably think- as best as you can infer. • Consider views that differ from yours to refine your own view and make it more accurate. Argument: Champion or defend your opinion. • Thesis statement: The opinion-claim of your argument. Thesis can vary in position (beginning, middle, end of essay) • Evidence: accurate, fairly represent available facts/opinions, relate directly to your claim, ample to convince your readers. • Appeal: Intelligence, feelings, rational, emotional, ethical. Toulmin Method Method of Reasoning • Data- Evidence • Claim- Thesis • Warrant: assumption & generalization explaining why the claim flows from the data. The reader needs to understand your assumptions and the thinking that follows them. Inductive & Deductive Reasoning • Inductive: Bits of evidence collected to base generalization. (Puzzle pieces to make whole picture) • Deductive: General statement to particular cases. (whole picture to puzzle pieces) – Syllogism: 3-step form or reasoning • Major premise: All men are mortal • Minor premise: Socrates is a man • Conclusion: Therefore, Socrates is mortal Inductive and Deductive Reasoning continued • Many people distinguish between two basic kinds of argument: inductive and deductive. • Induction is usually described as moving from the specific to the general, arguments based on experience or observation are best expressed inductively • Deduction begins with the general and ends with the specific, while arguments based on laws, rules, or other widely accepted principles are best expressed deductively. Fallacy • Fallacy: Trickery (ruse) or a false or mistaken idea. – Have the appearance of truth but are erroneous (incorrect, mistaken, straying from what is moral, decent, and proper) – Used when writer has trouble making a convincing “honest” argument with the facts that they have in hand.
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