nan by dandanhuanghuang

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 24

									                                                       CSCL’07




Information as a Social Achievement:

Collaborative Information Behavior in CSCL

                       Nan Zhou
                      Alan Zemel
                      Gerry Stahl

               The Virtual Math Teams Project
         The Information School at Drexel University
                                   CSCL’07

         Outline

 •   Introduction of the problem
 •   Overview of the study
 •   The VMT project
 •   Research method
 •   Data Analysis




Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams     2
                                                           CSCL’07

         Introduction
 • Learning as a contentious concept
 • Koschmann et al (2005) argue for the study of “how
   participants … actually go about doing learning” and
   examination of “member’s methods” (Garfinkel 1967)
 • Suthers (2006) proposes intersubjective meaning
   making as the central phenomenon of the interest to the
   CSCL community. Stahl (2006) Group Cognition.
 • Learners in CSCL environments constantly engage in
   various information practices. We argue that information
   practices constitute important part of learners’ activities
   thus need closer examination for understanding learning.
 • CSCL has not looked closely at information practices
   whereas studies of information behavior haven’t focused
   on collaboration and learning
Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams                             3
                                                                      CSCL’07

         Overview

 • This exploratory study
      – is situated in the Virtual Math Teams research project
      – looks at information practices of small groups of students when
        they work on a math problem collaboratively in a virtual
        environment
 • We have studied information practices of small groups:
      – Negotiation and co-construction of information needs
      – Information seeking
      – Making sense of information and applying to solving the problem
 • We argue that information only becomes information for
   participants when it is interactionally constructed to be
   meaningful and intelligible in their local situation.

Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams                                          4
                                                 CSCL’07

         The Virtual Math Teams (VMT) Project
 • Aims to build an online math discourse
   community
 • We are designing and deploying a service as an
   extension to the Math Forum’s current Problem
   of the Week service – bring students together to
   explore math collaboratively in online chat
   environments
 • Analyzes the interactions taking place in small
   groups to understand practices and various
   issues (such as design, community building)
 • Design-Based Research: cycles of design
Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams                      5
                                                          CSCL’07

         Research Methods

 • Over 90 sessions with groups of students in naturalistic
   settings – e.g. VMT Spring Festival
 • Participants range from 6th to 12th grade across the
   country and internationally; interactions are mediated
   through the online chat environment
 • A typical session is about one hour long with 2-5
   participants and a facilitator from VMT
 • Ethnomethodologically-informed approach based on
   aspects of conversation analysis – micro level analysis
   from an interactional perspective
 • Data sessions


Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams                              6
                                                   CSCL’07




                                   Data Analysis




Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams                     7
                                             CSCL’07




 • Negotiation of Information Needs

 • Seeking information

 • Negotiation and construction of meaning




Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams               8
                                                                                       CSCL’07
            The Water in My Pool – from the Problem of the Week
            at the Math Forum


                                          The picture here gives you a rough idea
                                          of what my pool looks like. (Notice that
                                          the railing sections are straight, but the
                                          pool itself is a cylinder) How many
                                          gallons of water does the pool hold?




Extra: An Olympic-sized swimming pool is quite a bit larger than our pool. They are
usually 50 meters by 25 meters, when looking from the top, and the picture below
shows the depths of one Olympic-sized pool. How many times could I fill my pool
with the water from this pool?




Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams                                                         9
                                                                                                  CSCL’07

         Negotiation of Information Needs

 146   AME     The height of the olympic pool is 25 right?                                      7:32:31

 147   KIM     rereading                                                                        7:32:50

 148   HOL     height is 2m                                                                     7:33:33

 149   AME     wha?                                                                             7:33:39

 150   KIM     I think we're looking at a side view - so the heights are given in the picture   7:33:44

 151   AME     I disagree                                                                       7:34:38


 152   KIM     it says, "They are usually 50 meters by 25 meters, when looking from the top"    7:36:30

 153   HOL     ?                                                                                7:36:50

 154   KIM     then, "the picture below shows the depths"                                       7:37:59

 155   AME     yeah but whats the height?                                                       7:38:19

 156   HOL     height from what perspectiv                                                      7:38:58

Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams                                                                    10
                                                  CSCL’07

         Negotiation of Information Needs

 • How does an information problem emerge?
 • The need (to find out what the height of the pool
   is) is negotiated and constructed through the
   interactions.




Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams                   11
                                                                          CSCL’07
         Negotiation of information needs in the
         process of problem solving
        120   REA      Are u there PIN                          8:48:08
        121   PIN      ya im here                               8:48:29
        122   REA      checking                                 8:48:37
        123   REA      u stuck cause i am:-(                    8:49:07
        124   PIN      well angle CED is congruent to angle B   8:49:56
        125   PIN      if that helps                            8:50:06
        126   REA      It helps                                 8:50:48
        127   REA      but i already estlabished that           8:51:15
        128   PIN      im stuck                                 8:51:36
        129   MCP      What's known?                            8:51:42
        130   MCP      BE:EC = 3:5, right?                      8:52:05
        131   REA      how did you get that                     8:52:42
        132   PIN      how did u get that                       8:52:43
        133   PIN      lol                                      8:52:46
        134   MCP      Tri ABC similar to DEC                   8:53:10
        135   PIN      ya we got that                           8:53:19
        136   MCP      AB:DE = 8:5, right?                      8:53:30
        137   REA      We know that                             8:53:33
        138   PIN      ya                                       8:53:35
        139   MCP      So BC:EC=8:5                             8:53:51
        140   REA      ya                                       8:54:11
        141   MCP      That 8 breaks down 3 for BE, 5 for EC    8:54:23
        142   REA      We might have to use law of sines        8:54:38


Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams                                           12
                                                   CSCL’07
         Negotiation of information needs in the
         process of problem solving
 • What is useful information?
 • How does an information problem emerge
   during group interactions?
 • Why is MCP’s proposal “So BC:EC=8:5” at line
   139 not picked up by the group?
 • What could the group have done to get
   “unstuck”?




Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams                    13
                                             CSCL’07




 • Negotiation of Information Needs

 • Seeking information

 • Negotiation and construction of meaning




Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams              14
                                                                                                      CSCL’07
         Seeking Information
         – Question Posing & Use of Resources

 106         SUP         is there a formula for a 60/60/60?                                    8:29:04
 107         AVR         I have no idea                                                        8:29:12
 108         AVR         I think once we find the formula it should be pretty easy             8:29:20
 109         AVR         I don't think there's a formula, though                               8:29:24
 110         PIN         search google                                                         8:29:27
 111         AVR         I think we find it some other way                                     8:29:29
 112         AVR         that's what I'm doing                                                 8:29:31
 113         SUP         what does itmeans by edglengths?                                      8:29:41
 114         SUP         jone of the 3 sides?                                                  8:30:23
 115         AVR         edgelength means length of a side                                     8:30:42
 116         SUP         ok                                                                    8:30:46
                                                                   * An excerpt from a VMT session,
                                                                   powwow2 group2
Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams                                                                       15
                                                     CSCL’07
         Equilateral Triangle Areas
         - posted March 1, 2004
     If two equilateral triangles have edgelengths of 9
     cubits and 12 cubits, what's the edgelength of
     the equilateral triangle whose area is equal to
     the sum of the areas of the other two?




Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams                      16
                                                     CSCL’07
         Seeking Information
         – Question Posing & Use of Resources

 • Information questions are directed to the group
 • Tactics of posing a question
 • Use of external resource: search google




Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams                      17
         How an information question is answered CSCL’07
         can be consequential
     172 137            Wait. Why are we using summations?                        06.56.15

     173 Jason          for the formulas.. it looks nicer that way :)             06.56.36

     174 Jason          just downloaded trial of MathType, will install now...    06.56.48

     175 ssjnish        hope this doesnt sound too stupid, but wuts a summation   06.56.58

     176 Jason          installed :-)                                             06.57.14

     177 137            The sum of all terms from a to b                          06.57.34

     178 Jason          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigma_notation               06.57.36

     179 davidcyl       good idea                                                 06.57.50

     180 Jason          don't worry nish, you'll learn all about it next year     06.58.11




Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams                                                             18
                                             CSCL’07




 • Negotiation of Information Needs

 • Seeking information

 • Negotiation and construction of meaning




Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams              19
                                                          CSCL’07

         Negotiation and Construction of Meaning

 • How meaning is constructed and information is
   made sense of and applied to the problem
   situation
      – Data excerpt 1: “I dunno bout the permutation”
      – Data excerpt 2: what do you mean by “pyramind”?




Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams                           20
                                   CSCL’07




Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams    21
                                                                                                   CSCL’07




  374   Quicksilver      Oh!! Wait...Your thinking of the kind of pyramid that is flat on one   07.18.13
                         whole edge
  375   Quicksilver      I mean like a real pyramid that each layer is completely centered      07.18.32

  376   Aznx             Draw it.                                                               07.18.44
  377   Quicksilver      i'll try                                                               07.18.57
  378   bwang8           use the rectangle tool, it's easier                                    07.19.24
  379   Aznx             Yeah.                                                                  07.19.32

  380   Quicksilver      k                                                                      07.19.33
  381   bwang8           o ic                                                                   07.19.44
  382   Quicksilver      top view                                                               07.19.49
  383   Quicksilver      something like that                                                    07.20.16
  384   bwang8           i c what you mean                                                      07.20.19
  385   Quicksilver      do u aznx?                                                             07.20.27
  386   Aznx             Since we're both in Spanish class, are you saying something what       07.20.30
                         the Aztecs made?

Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams                                                                     22
                                                                      CSCL’07

         Summary of findings
 • Participants negotiate and construct their information needs
   collaboratively. Often an information problem emerges and initiates
   such process.
 • Group is a primary information resource for them.
 • There are observable tactics that participants frame their information
   questions.
 • How an information question is answered can be consequential on
   participation.
 • Use of online resources is a common practice. There is discrepancy
   between students’ perception of online resources and the reality.
 • There is difficulty applying what they found to the problem. They
   need to do the work of constructing meaning of the information in
   their local situation.
 • Information is essentially a social achievement that is constructed
   collaboratively and emerges through the interactions of the group.



Nan Zhou, The Virtual Math Teams                                       23
                                              CSCL’07




      Questions?
      Comments?

             Nan Zhou
             Alan Zemel
             Gerry Stahl

      The Virtual Math Teams Project
The Information School at Drexel University
    nan.zhou@ischool.drexel.edu

								
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