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					Participation
What are all of the ways
you can participate in
politics?
 Participation, PS 125
 (Fall 08)
Registered to vote                           82%
Voted in an election                         44%
Worn a campaign button                       24%
Put a campaign sticker on your car            8%
Go to any political meeting, rally, speech   38%
Give money to a candidate                     6%
Give money to a party or other political
   group                                     4%
Tried to persuade someone to vote for a
   party or candidate                        68%
Why is participation
important?
Why don’t some people
participate?
Probability of voting =
Benefit - Cost
Rational calculations?
(Would you give up the right to
vote forever for…?)


  An IPOD Touch             2%


  Free college tuition      40%


  A million dollars         44%
                Voter Turnout,
                 2004 & 2008
90                            89   89.6

80
          72    71
70                                                 64    63.6
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
     Percent Registered   % Registered who    Percent Voted (of
                               voted         eligible population)
What makes a person
more likely to vote?

   Higher Education
   Why?
   More interest in politics (higher
    benefit)
   More background information to
    understand politics, and skills to get
    through the registration and voting
    process (lower costs)
 Effect of education on
 turnout (2008 data)
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
     .Less than 9th   .9th to 12th grade,   .High school   .Some college or   .Bachelor's   .Advanced degree
         grade            no diploma          graduate        associate's       degree
                                                                degree

                      Registered                                              Voted
What makes a person
more likely to vote?

   Higher Education
   Higher Income
   Why?
   Free time (lower costs)
   Stake in community (taxes etc.—
    higher benefit)
Effect of income on
turnout, 2008
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
 0
  .Less    .$15,000   .$30,000   .$50,000   .$100,000
  than        to         to         to          to
 $10,000    $19,999    $39,999    $74,999    $149,999

                Registered       Voted
Effect of race on turnout?
          (2008)
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
     White   Black        Hispanic   Asian

             Registered    Voted
What makes a person
more likely to vote?

   Higher Education
   Higher Income / more resources
   Lack of language/cultural barriers
Effect of citizenship on
turnout
 80
 70
 60
 50
 40
 30
 20
 10
  0
      Native citizen         Naturalized citizen

                Registered   Voted
What makes a person
more likely to vote?

   Higher Education
   Higher Income / more resources
   Lack of language/cultural barriers
   Easy registration
Effect of Registration laws
on turnout (2004 data)
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
 0
     Oregon (vote by mail)   Minnesota (same day   National average
                                 registration)


                                    % Voted
So why don’t young people
         vote?
       2004 and 2008 turnout rates
  80
  70
  60
  50
  40
  30
  20
  10
   0
         18-24     25-34     35-44     45-54    55 years
       years old years old years old years old and older

           2004 turnout                    2008 turnout
Newspaper readership,
2004
 80
 70
 60

 50
 40
 30

 20
 10

  0
   1957 1967 1975 1978 1983 1986 1988 1990 1993 1996 2000 2004

        Percent reading a newspaper every day of the week
Newspaper readership, by
age
 80
 70
 60
 50
 40
 30
 20
 10
  0
      18-22 23-27 28-32 33-37 38-42 43-47 48-52 53-57 58-62 63-67   68+


        Percent reading a newspaper every day of the week, 2000
        Percent reading a newspaper every day of the week, 1967
What makes a person
more likely to vote?

   Higher Education
   Higher Income / more resources
   Lack of language/cultural barriers
   Easy registration
   Interest
   Social Connectedness
What makes a person
more likely to vote?

   Social connectedness

   Why?
   Learn civic skills in a group (lower costs)
   Feel responsibility to a particular community
    (higher benefit)
   Group norms (higher social benefit)
Effect of marriage on
turnout, 2008
  80
  70
  60
  50
  40
  30
  20
  10
   0
       Married   Widowed   Separated   Divorced   Never
                                                  married

                    Registered     Voted
Effect of residency on
turnout
 90
 80
 70
 60
 50
 40
 30
 20
 10
  0
      ..Less   ..1 to 6 ..7 to 11 ..1 to 2   ..3 to 4 ..5 years
      than 1   months months        years      years or longer
      month

                    Registered       Voted
Effect of home ownership
on turnout
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
     Registered   Voted


     Renter       Homeowner
What does a healthy
democracy really need?

   Do you think the system will be biased against
    people who don’t participate?

   So who might the system be biased against?

   Does that make for a healthy democracy?

   Or maybe democracy can be enhanced through
    other kinds of participation…
What is social capital?

   The norms and trust that develop from
    interpersonal social relationships

   A byproduct of other activities, not
    something created on its own
Putnam’s evidence for
declining social capital
   Membership in PTA, League of Women
    Voters, Elks Clubs and the like have declined
    25-50% in the last 25 years.
   Bowling leagues and sports leagues have
    less participation
   People spend up to 25% less time
    socializing with friends than they did in
    1965.
   Church attendance is down 15-30%.
   Attending Club Meetings down 58%
   Family dinners down 33%
   Having friends over down 45%
Why the decline of
social capital?
                  Group Memberships Among People
                        with Some College Ed.
                   3

                  2.5
Number of Group
  Memberships




                   2

                  1.5

                   1

                  0.5

                   0
                        0 to 1      2        3 to 4      5+
                         Hours of Television Viewing per Day
What are ways we can
build social capital?
What do we really need if
we want more people to
participate?

Do we want more people
to participate??

				
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posted:7/31/2012
language:English
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